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Does a Refrigerator Make a Good Faraday Cage?

The other week, the New York Times reported that NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden was understandably cautious about planning his departure from Hong Kong to Russia (emphasis mine):

“It was a cloak-and-dagger affair. Mr. Snowden wore a cap and sunglasses and insisted that the assembled lawyers hide their cellphones in the refrigerator of the home where he was staying, to block any eavesdropping. Then began a two-hour conversation during which Mr. Snowden was deeply dismayed to learn that he could spend years in prison without access to a computer during litigation over whether he would be granted asylum here or surrendered to the United States.

Wait. What? Why are the cellphones getting chilled? Snowden’s idea, presumably, was that the refrigerator would act as a Faraday cage. As I explained last year when talking about the effectiveness of tin foil helmets, a Faraday cage is an enclosure made up of a conducting material that shields its interior from external electrostatic charges and electromagnetic radiation by distributing them around its exterior and dissipating them. While these enclosures are sometimes actual cages, they come in many forms, and most of us have probably dealt with one type or another. The scan rooms that MRI machines sit in and the shielding on USB cables, for example, both provide protection as Faraday cages. Inside such a cage, signals to and from these lawyers’ cellphones would be blocked, preventing them from being used to surveil the meeting.

In theory, a sturdy metal fridge should make a good Faraday cage. In practice, some fridges don’t really cut a cell phone off from the rest of the world. Make magazine writer Michael Colombo tried it out with his home refrigerator, and was able to make a call to a phone inside of it. He had better results with a metal cocktail shaker.

I put my fridge to the test, too, and got the same result. Calls and data transmissions went right through. I have a glass cocktail shaker, so that's not an option for me if I'm trying to stay hidden. I wondered if there was a decent kitchen Faraday cage available to people like me, or the poor souls who have no cocktail shaker at all.

I lurked on some survivalist message boards for a while (not an activity I can recommend) and learned that a lot of doomsday hobbyists plan on relying on their microwave to protect their electronics if the government/aliens/New World Order tries to mess with them with an electromagnetic pulse. This makes sense, since, unlike a fridge, a microwave oven is actually designed specifically to shield the electromagnetic radiation of microwaves and keep them from getting out of the appliance. If electromagnetic radiation can’t get out, then it shouldn’t be able to get in either.

Sure enough, calls and data sent to my phone while it sat in my old GE microwave never went through. I could see it sitting in there, but there was no ring, no alerts. When I pulled it out, there was no missed call notification, either. So, the next time you need to keep prying eyes and ears away from your phone, your best bet seems to be tossing it in the microwave or a (metal) cocktail shaker. Just don’t forget about it when you heat up some leftovers or make a Manhattan.

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Why Does the Queen Have Two Birthdays?
CHRIS JACKSON, AFP/Getty Images
CHRIS JACKSON, AFP/Getty Images

On April 21, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II will turn 92 years old. To mark the occasion, there are usually a series of gun salutes around London: a 41 gun salute in Hyde Park, a 21 gun salute in Windsor Great Park, and a 62 gun salute at the Tower of London. For the most part, the monarch celebrates her big day privately. But on June 9, 2018, Her Majesty will parade through London as part of an opulent birthday celebration known as Trooping the Colour.

Queen Elizabeth, like many British monarchs before her, has two birthdays: the actual anniversary of the day she was born, and a separate day that is labeled her "official" birthday (usually the second Saturday in June). Why? Because April 21 is usually too cold for a proper parade.

The tradition started in 1748, with King George II, who had the misfortune of being born in chilly November. Rather than have his subjects risk catching colds, he combined his birthday celebration with the Trooping the Colour.

The parade itself had been part of British culture for almost a century by that time. At first it was strictly a military event, at which regiments displayed their flags—or "colours"—so that soldiers could familiarize themselves. But George was known as a formidable general after having led troops at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743, so the military celebration seemed a fitting occasion onto which to graft his warm-weather birthday. Edward VII, who also had a November birthday, was the first to standardize the June Trooping the Colour and launched a tradition of a monarchical review of the troops that drew crowds of onlookers.

Even now, the date of the "official" birthday varies year to year. For the first seven years of her reign, Elizabeth II held her official birthday on a Thursday but has since switched over to Saturdays. And while the date is tied to the Trooping the Colour in the UK, Commonwealth nations around the world have their own criteria, which generally involve recognizing it as a public holiday.

Australia started recognizing an official birthday back in 1788, and all the provinces (save one) observe the Queen's Birthday on the second Monday in June, with Western Australia holding its celebrations on the last Monday of September or the first Monday of October.

In Canada, the official birthday has been set to align with the actual birth date of Queen Victoria—May 24, 1819—since 1845, and as such they celebrate so-called Victoria Day on May 24 or the Monday before.

In New Zealand, it's the first Monday in June, and in the Falkland Islands the actual day of the Queen's birth is celebrated publicly.

All in all, just another reason it's great to be Queen.

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What Is the Meaning Behind "420"?
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Whether or not you’re a marijuana enthusiast, you’re probably aware that today is an unofficial holiday for those who are. April 20—4/20—is a day when pot smokers around the world come together to, well, smoke pot. Others use the day to push for legalization, holding marches and rallies.

But why the code 420? There are a lot of theories as to why that particular number was chosen, but most of them are wrong. You may have heard that 420 is police code for possession, or maybe it’s the penal code for marijuana use. Both are false. There is a California Senate Bill 420 that refers to the use of medical marijuana, but the bill was named for the code, not the other way around.

As far as anyone can tell, the phrase started with a bunch of high school students. Back in 1971, a group of kids at San Rafael High School in San Rafael, California, got in the habit of meeting at 4:20 to smoke after school. When they’d see each other in the hallways during the day, their shorthand was “420 Louis,” meaning, “Let’s meet at the Louis Pasteur statue at 4:20 to smoke.”

Somehow, the phrase caught on—and when the Grateful Dead eventually picked it up, "420" spread through the greater community like wildfire. What began as a silly code passed between classes is now a worldwide event for smokers and legalization activists everywhere—not a bad accomplishment for a bunch of high school stoners.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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