What Causes Turbulence?

iStock
iStock

No matter how many times you've flown, feeling a plane rattle at 35,000 feet in the air can be an unnerving experience. But turbulence, whether it's a small bump or a stomach-flipping drop, is nothing to get shaken up about. It's a normal part of flying through the ever-shifting atmosphere.

Just like a truck traversing uneven roads or a ship navigating choppy seas, planes often encounter tumultuous, or turbulent, air currents in the skies. These currents can come from several different sources. When flying over high mountains, planes sometimes experience what’s called terrain-induced turbulence. The wind flowing over the peaks and through the valleys disrupts the air thousands of feet above it, resulting in a bumpy ride for any passing aircraft.

Even when flying over flat land, pilots can run into rough patches. Air that's been heated up by the sun at ground level expands and rises to create an updraft. As this updraft travels higher it may cool and condense into a cloud. Cloud-based or convective turbulence is the easiest kind for pilots (and passengers) to spot and prepare for, but not every updraft turns into a menacing cloud. There's also something called clear air turbulence which occurs when the rising hot air is too dry to form into a cloud. Unlike convective turbulence, these problem areas are impossible to identify with the naked eye alone.

So what happens when a plane meets up with one of these drafts in midair? The effects are usually mild: perhaps enough jostling to wake you from your in-flight nap, but not quite enough to topple your drink from its tray. Of course turbulence can become more severe, but in such cases passengers tend to think they're in more danger than they actually are.

"Even in rough turbulence, the plane is never changing altitude more than 10 or 20 feet either way," co-pilot and Cockpit Confidential author Patrick Smith told Mental Floss. "There’s this idea it's plummeting hundreds of feet. Not true."

Planes are built to be tossed and throttled by volatile weather: If you ever see a wing bending like a diving board in high winds, remember it’s supposed to do that. The biggest threat during a bout of turbulence is being knocked around the cabin, which is why most turbulence injuries are sustained by flight attendants. So the next time your pilot announces rough skies ahead, find your seat, fasten your seatbelt, and make note of where the barf bags are.

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This Innovative Cutting Board Takes the Mess Out of Meal Prep

There's no way any of these ingredients will end up on the floor.
There's no way any of these ingredients will end up on the floor.
TidyBoard, Kickstarter

Transferring food from the cutting board to the bowl—or scraps to the compost bin—can get a little messy, especially if you’re dealing with something that has a tendency to roll off the board, spill juice everywhere, or both (looking at you, cherry tomatoes).

The TidyBoard, available on Kickstarter, is a cutting board with attached containers that you can sweep your ingredients right into, taking the mess out of meal prep and saving you some counter space in the process. The board itself is 15 inches by 20 inches, and the container that fits in its empty slot is 14 inches long, 5.75 inches wide, and more than 4 inches deep. Two smaller containers fit inside the large one, making it easy to separate your ingredients.

Though the 4-pound board hangs off the edge of your counter, good old-fashioned physics will keep it from tipping off—as long as whatever you’re piling into the containers doesn’t exceed 9 pounds. It also comes with a second set of containers that work as strainers, so you can position the TidyBoard over the edge of your sink and drain excess water or juice from your ingredients as you go.

You can store food in the smaller containers, which have matching lids; and since they’re all made of BPA-free silicone, feel free to pop them in the microwave. (Remove the small stopper on top of the lid first for a built-in steaming hole.)

tidyboard storage containers
They also come in gray, if teal isn't your thing.
TidyBoard

Not only does the bamboo-made TidyBoard repel bacteria, it also won’t dull your knives or let strong odors seep into it. In short, it’s an opportunity to make cutting, cleaning, storing, and eating all easier, neater, and more efficient. Prices start at $79, and it’s expected to ship by October 2020—you can find out more details and order yours on Kickstarter.

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Do Politicians Need a Musician's Permission to Play One of Their Songs at a Campaign Event?

Dyana Wing So, Unsplash
Dyana Wing So, Unsplash

Whether it’s the songwriter, the performer, or the recording label, someone always owns the rights to a song. Whether or not one needs permission to play that song depends a lot on the circumstances. A DJ at a wedding doesn’t need to worry about any consequences for playing Peter Gabriel's “In Your Eyes” or The Righteous Brothers's “Unchained Melody.” Sports arenas can pipe in the Rolling Stones's “Start Me Up” without a release.

In the world of politics, however, campaigns and rallies that rely on music to stir up crowds often come under fire for unauthorized use. What’s the reason?

According to Rolling Stone, it’s not typically an issue over copyright, though using a song without permission is technically copyright infringement. If a song is played in a public venue like a stadium or arena that has a public performance license, no permission is needed. The license is typically granted through a songwriters’ association like the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) or Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI). Even so, ASCAP still recommends [PDF] that political campaigns seek out permission from the musicians or songwriters, as these licenses exclude music played during conventions or campaign events.

Additionally, most artists aren’t concerned with their music being played at a wedding or sporting event. It is, after all, a form of free publicity and exposure, and no one is really making any substantial amount of money from their work. But the political realm is different. Because artists might have differing political beliefs than a candidate using their music, they sometimes grow concerned that use of their material might be construed as an endorsement.

That’s when artists can begin to make noise about wanting politicians to stop playing their music. In this instance, they can object on the basis of their Right of Publicity—a legal argument that covers how their image is portrayed. They can make the assertion that use of their work infringes on their right to not be associated with a subject they find objectionable. Other arguments can be raised through the Lanham Act, which covers trademark confusion (or a False Endorsement), which addresses the implication an artist is endorsing a political message if their music is used.

In 2008, for example, Jackson Browne won a lawsuit against John McCain and the national and Ohio GOP when the McCain campaign used Browne’s song “Running on Empty” in ads attacking Barack Obama over gas conservation.

Even if the musician isn’t supportive of a candidate, it’s not always advisable to take such action. A contentious legal confrontation can often result in more publicity than if a musician simply let the campaign continue uninterrupted. Other times, recording artists feel strongly enough about distancing themselves from a message they disagree with that they’ll take whatever steps are necessary.

The bottom line? More often than not, a song played during a campaign isn’t there because an artist or label gave their permission. And unless the artist strenuously objects to the campaign message and is willing to get into a legal tussle, they probably can’t do a whole lot to stop it.

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