Scientists Find a 245-Million-Year-Old Horseshoe Crab Fossil That Resembles Darth Vader

NM Museum of Natural History & Science
NM Museum of Natural History & Science

Horseshoe crabs have scuttled through Earth’s shallow ocean waters for hundreds of millions of years, but scientists recently discovered the fossil of one that looks like it’s from a galaxy far, far away. As Newsweek reports, the 245-million-year-old creature’s shell is shaped like Darth Vader’s helmet, which prompted researchers to name the prehistoric critter Vaderlimulus tricki. (Tricki pays homage to Trick Runions, the man who found the fossil.)

Paleontologists from the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science and the University of Colorado described the Vader horseshoe crab in a new report published in the German journal Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie. Discovered in Idaho, Vaderlimulus tricki lived during the late Triassic era and belonged to a now-extinct family called Austrolimulidae. During its lifetime, it inhabited the western coast of the supercontinent Pangea.

Vaderlimulus tricki's unique shell can be chalked up to evolution, scientists explain in a news release, as the creatures were “expanding their ecological range from marine into freshwater settings during the Triassic and often exhibit body modifications that provide them with a bizarre appearance by modern standards."

Horseshoe crabs have survived at least 470 million years on Earth, and are often referred to as “living fossils.” But individual species died out over the millennia (only four are currently alive today), and fossils of horseshoe crabs are few and far between. When new ones are discovered, they often belong to a species that was previously unknown to science. Vaderlimulus tricki, in particular, is the first horseshoe crab from the Triassic period to have been found in North America.

[h/t Newsweek]

Human Body Temperatures Are Dropping, and Science Might Know Why

dcdp/iStock via Getty Images
dcdp/iStock via Getty Images

In 1868, German physician Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich started to popularize what’s become the most recognizable number in all of medicine: 98.6°F or 37°C, which is thought to be the normal average human body temperature. Though his methods later came under scrutiny—Wunderlich stuck an enormous thermometer under the armpits of patients for 20 minutes, a less-than-accurate technique—this baseline has helped physicians identify fevers as well as abnormally low body temperatures, along with corresponding illnesses or diseases.

More than 150 years later, 98.6° may no longer be the standard. Humans seem to be getting cooler. Researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine, in a paper published in the journal eLife, compared three large datasets from different time periods: American Civil War records, a national health survey from the 1970s, and a Stanford database from 2007-2017. By comparing recorded body temperatures, the researchers founds that men are now averaging a temperature .58°C less than what's long been considered normal, while women are .32°C lower. On average, each has decreased roughly .03°C every decade since the 1860s.

What drove us to chill out? Scientists have a few theories. A number of advances in human comfort have been ushered in since the 1800s, including better hygiene and readily available food, which may have slowed our metabolic rate (temperature is an indication of that rate). Chronic inflammation, which also raises body temperature, has decreased with the advent of vaccines, antibiotics, and better healthcare. The researchers propose that, on average, our bodies are healthier and slightly less warm.

After all, the average life expectancy in Wunderlich’s era was just 38 years.

[h/t The Independent]

Last Wild Grove of Wollemi Pines, the Endangered ‘Dinosaur Trees,’ Saved From Australia's Wildfires

Marina Denisenko, iStock via Getty Images
Marina Denisenko, iStock via Getty Images

Almost three decades after they were rediscovered, the ancient "dinosaur trees" of Australia's Wollemi National Park were nearly wiped out for good. Wildlife officials in New South Wales feared that the last natural stand of Wollemi pines would be counted among the billions of plants and animals destroyed by Australia's recent wave of wildfires. But thanks to quick action from firefighters, the ancient grove has been saved, The Guardian reports.

The first Wollemi pines date as far back as 200 million years, and the trees reached peak numbers 65 million to 34 million years ago. Since then, populations have shrunk so drastically that the species was thought to be extinct until it was rediscovered 26 years ago. Fewer than 200 wild specimens exist today, and they're all concentrated in a protected sandstone grove in Wollemi National Park, about 125 miles northwest of Sydney, Australia.

The Wollemi pines' fragile status means that one bad forest fire could spell its end. With this in mind, the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service and NSW Rural Fire Service prioritized their protection this bushfire season. Before the Gospers Mountain fire spread to the canyons where the trees grow, a team of firefighters was sent there by helicopter to install an irrigation system. This kept the trees hydrated and made them less vulnerable to flames. Helicopters also dumped fire retardant around the grove to weaken the fire when it arrived.

The efforts weren't able be able to save every Wollemi pine from damage and destruction—a few trees survived with charring and two more died—but they were enough ensure the continuation of the species. With a population this small, protecting it is a never-ending battle. In addition to fire, visitors stepping on seedlings and introducing diseases also pose a threat. For that reason, the Australian government has chosen to hide the exact location of the grove from the public.

[h/t The Guardian]

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