How Effective is the Eye Black that Athletes Wear?

Kevin C. Cox/Getty Images
Kevin C. Cox/Getty Images

Sometimes it’s literally a glob of grease, other times it’s a synthetic sticker. We’ve all seen baseball and football players with the black rectangles under their eyes on sunny days, which is thought to help reduce the sun’s glare and allow athletes to better pick up the ball. But does it actually work?  

The underlying concept behind eye black is that it reduces the amount of glare that reaches your eyes thanks to the fact that the color black absorbs most light frequencies. In theory, excessive light from sources in our peripheral vision will be absorbed by the black color, increasing the contrast of the objects we're are looking at and focusing on directly.  

There have been a handful of studies done in the past decade, including one by the University of New Hampshire and one by Yale University. Although these two and others began with skepticism and have all yielded slightly different results—while accounting for the effect of variables such as eye color and gender—they have agreed that traditional eye grease made of beeswax, paraffin, and carbon does in fact reduce glare and improve contrast sensitivity. They also all concluded that anti-glare stickers and petroleum jelly have no impact.

“I thought we would find it to be like war paint and a psychological advantage more than anything else,” Dr. Brian M. DeBroff, the lead author of the Yale study, told The New York Times. “We were surprised to find a benefit from the grease.”

Even though the effect was found to be somewhat minimal, DeBroff has adopted somewhat of an “it can’t hurt” stance regarding its application to high-intensity sport situations.

“Certainly in football and baseball, where tracking a ball at high speed is an important aspect, any competitive advantage could be beneficial,” DeBroff said.

Despite this, researchers are still unsure how much impact the glare reduction and contrast improvement translates into an “on-the-field” advantage for athletes. Dr. Kenneth Fuld, chairman of the University of New Hampshire’s psychology department and the sponsor of the aforementioned study conducted by the university, points out that tennis players regularly perform at a high level despite the fact that they do not wear eye black.

“I would be highly doubtful that it would have much of an effect, if any,” Fuld said.

Although it is extremely reasonable to conclude that it is a coincidence, it is interesting to note that last year’s two top NFL receivers in terms of receiving yards, Calvin Johnson of the Detroit Lions and Andre Johnson of the Houston Texans, both regularly wear eye black during games.

10 LEGO Sets For Every Type of LEGO Builder 

Amazon
Amazon

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If you’re looking for a timeless gift to give this holiday season, look no further than a LEGO set. With kits that cater to a wide age range—from toddlers fine-tuning their motor skills to adults looking for a more engaged way to relax—there’s a LEGO set out there for everyone. We’ve rounded up some of our favorite sets on Amazon to help you find the LEGO box that will make your loved one smile this year. If you end up getting one for yourself too, don’t worry: we won’t tell.

1. Classic Large Creative Gift Box; $44

Amazon

You can never go wrong with a classic. This 790-piece box contains dozens of types of colored bricks so builders of any age can let their inner architect shine. With toy windows, doors, tires, and tire rims included in addition to traditional bricks, the building possibilities are truly endless. The bricks are compatible with all LEGO construction sets, so builders have the option of creating their own world or building a new addition onto an existing set.

Buy it: Amazon

2. Harry Potter Hogwarts Express; $64

Amazon

Experience the magic of Hogwarts with this buildable Hogwarts Express box. The Prisoner Of Azkaban-inspired kit not only features Hogwarts's signature mode of transportation, but also Platform 9 ¾, a railway bridge, and some of your favorite Harry Potter characters. Once the train is built, the sides and roof can be removed for play within the cars. There is a Dementor on board … but after a few spells cast by Harry and Lupin, the only ride he’ll take is a trip to the naughty list.

Buy it: Amazon

3. Star Wars Battle of Hoth; $160

Amazon

Star Wars fans can go into battle—and rewrite the course of history—by recreating a terrifying AT-AT Walker from the Battle of Hoth. Complete with 1267 pieces to make this a fun challenge for ages 10 and up, the Walker has elements like spring-loaded shooters, a cockpit, and foldout panels to reveal its deadly inner workings. But never fear: Even though the situation might look dire, Luke Skywalker and his thermal detonator are ready to save the day.

Buy it: Amazon

4. Super Mario Adventures Starter Course; $60

Amazon

Kids can play Super Mario in 3D with LEGO’s interactive set. After constructing one of the courses, young designers can turn on the electronic Mario figurine to get started. Mario’s built-in color sensors and LCD screens allow him to express more than 100 different reactions as he travels through the course. He’ll encounter obstacles, collect coins, and avoid Goomba and Bowser to the sound of the Mario soundtrack (played via an included speaker). This is a great gift for encouraging problem-solving and creativity in addition to gaming smarts.

Buy it: Amazon

5. Gingerbread House; $212

Amazon

Gingerbread houses are a great way to enjoy the holidays … but this expert-level kit takes cookie construction to a whole new level. The outside of the LEGO house rotates around to show the interior of a sweet gingerbread family’s home. Although the living room is the standout with its brick light fireplace, the house also has a kitchen, bedroom, bathroom, and outdoor furniture. A LEGO Christmas tree and presents can be laid out as the holidays draw closer, making this a seasonal treat you can enjoy with your family every year.

Buy it: Amazon

6. Elsa and Olaf’s Tea Party; $18

Amazon

LEGO isn’t just for big kids. Toddlers and preschoolers can start their LEGO journey early by constructing an adorable tea party with their favorite Frozen characters. As they set up Elsa and Olaf’s ice seats, house, and tea fixings, they’ll work on fine-motor, visual-spatial, and emotional skills. Building the set from scratch will enable them to put their own creative spin on a favorite movie, and will prepare them for building more complicated sets as they get older.

Buy it: Amazon

7. Collectible Art Set Building Kits; $120

Amazon

Why buy art when you can build it yourself? LEGO’s Beatles and Warhol Marilyn Monroe sets contain four options for LEGO art that can be built and displayed inside your home. Each kit comes with a downloadable soundtrack you can listen to while you build, turning your art experience into a relaxing one. Once you’re finished building your creation it can be exhibited within a LEGO brick frame, with the option to hang it or dismantle it to start on a new piece. If the 1960s aren’t your thing, check out these Sith and Iron Man options.

Buy it: Amazon

8. NASA Apollo Saturn V; $120

Amazon

The sky (or just the contents of your LEGO box) is the limit with LEGO’s Saturn V expert-level kit. Designed for ages 14 and up, this to-scale rocket includes three removable rocket stages, along with a command and service module, Lunar Lander, and more. Once the rocket is complete, two small astronaut figurines can plant a tiny American flag to mark a successful launch. The rocket comes with three stands so it can be displayed after completion, as well as a booklet for learning more about the Apollo moon missions.

Buy it: Amazon

9. The White House; $100

Amazon

Reconstruct the First Family’s home (and one of America’s most famous landmarks) by erecting this display model of the White House. The model, which can be split into three distinct sections, features the Executive Residence, the West Wing, and the East Wing of the complex. Plant lovers can keep an eye out for the colorful rose garden and Jacqueline Kennedy Garden, which flank the Executive Residence. If you’re unable to visit the White House anytime soon, this model is the next best thing.

Buy it: Amazon

10. Volkswagen Camper Van; $120

Amazon

Road trip lovers and camping fanatics alike will love this vintage-inspired camper. Based on the iconic 1962 VW vehicle, LEGO’s camper gets every detail right, from the trademark safari windshield on the outside to the foldable furniture inside. Small details, like a “Make LEGO Models, Not War” LEGO T-shirt and a detailed engine add an authentic touch to the piece. Whether you’re into old car mechanics or simply want to take a trip back in time, this LEGO car will take you on a journey you won’t soon forget.

Buy it: Amazon

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Why Do Cats Throw Up So Often?

Pixabay, Pexels
Pixabay, Pexels

Nearly every cat owner is used to regularly finding something their kitty coughed up hidden around their home. Vomiting in cats can happen so often that it's easy to grow desensitized to the behavior, but veterinarians say that the sight of your cat throwing up should never be ignored. Though it's usually benign, vomiting may indicate a health problem that needs to be taken care of.

To gauge whether your cat's puke is a sign of something serious, look for certain clues. According to The Spruce Pets, eating too fast is one of the most common causes of vomiting in cats, and it's usually harmless. If your cat hacks up undigested food immediately following meal times, that's likely the culprit. This behavior can be prevented by feeding your pet smaller portions, or adding an obstruction like a medium-sized ball to their bowl that they have to eat around. If the problem still persists, there may be something else causing it.

Hairballs are another potential source of your cat's retching. They may be just a gross annoyance to you, but to your cat, they can pose a serious health risk. Cats cough up the fur they can't digest, and if they don't, it could create a dangerous obstruction in their bowels. One way to help your hairball-prone cat is to brush them regularly. That way, there will be less fur for them to lick up.

These are the less concerning reasons for a cat to throw up. Vomiting can also be a symptom of health problems like feline inflammatory bowel disease, feline diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and chronic kidney disease. It's also possible that your cat ingested something harmful.

If there's no obvious explanation for your cat's vomiting, it's a good idea to reach out to your vet. While throwing up one to three times a month is considered normal, a cat that throws up multiple times in a short period may need medical attention. When analyzing your pet's behavior, look for other symptoms as well: Cats that exhibit symptoms like diarrhea or loss of appetite in addition to throwing up should always be taken to the vet.

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