12 Facts About the Penis

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Of all the body parts, none may elicit more questions—and myths—than the penis. One of the male sexual organ's main roles is to make procreation happen, but the penis also has cultural significance. Here are 12 facts to clear up the confusion.

1. THE PENIS HAS TWO PRIMARY FUNCTIONS.

The penis has two main biological roles, according to Michael Reitano, a physician-in-residence and an expert in sexual health and wellness for Roman Health. One is the elimination of waste in the form of urine; the second is the means for transferring semen, which carries sperm from the testes out of the body to somewhere else, such as the vagina for procreation. Another of its functions is, of course, sexual pleasure.

2. IT DEVELOPS FROM A CLITORIS-LIKE ORGAN.

All mammalian embryos start life as female in presentation, before the chromosome process is activated, with an external, undifferentiated clitoris-like structure. Eventually, embryos with XX chromosomes will develop a clitoris, labia, and vagina, while those with XY chromosomes will grow a penis and testes.

3. THE PENIS IS COMPOSED OF THREE TUBES.

The penis may look like one long tube, but there are actually three columns of tissue that run along the inside of the penis. Two are corpus cavernosum columns, which extend from the base to the end of the penis and fill with blood to allow for erection. The other is the corpus spongiosum; it surrounds the urethra, the tube through which urine and semen passes. The corpus spongiosum also fills with blood during erection, but remains pliable to keep the urethra open.

4. HUMANS MAY HAVE THE LARGEST PENIS OF ALL PRIMATES ...

When girth is considered, the human penis is quite a bit larger than those of its primate cousins. "A gorilla, for example, has a penis just 2 inches long. Human males walk upright, and it is thought that larger genitalia might have acted as a sexual attractant in competitive situations," Reitano says. But according to the Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, chimpanzees and bonobos' penises are more slender but comparable to the length of an average human penis (which is 5.16 inches long and 4.59 inches around when erect, 3.61 inches and 3.66 inches around when not). Scientists theorize that our unique proportions are a result of natural selection through female mate choice.

5. ... AND THOSE PENISES MAY ONCE HAVE BEEN BARBED.

The human penis is most definitely among the smoothest in the animal kingdom. "In the distant past, it probably had sharp barbs, like some of our primate cousins, to make sex with another partner soon after coitus unlikely," Reitano says. Chimp penises still have small barbs that "hold the female in place, and when the penis is removed, it irritates the female's vagina so she avoids other chimps who might want to mate with her," he explains. (Let's not get started on the exploding corkscrew penis of the Muscovy duck, which looks like it makes for some irritating coitus.)

6. IN THE 15TH CENTURY, MEN FEARED WITCHES WHO COULD STEAL THEIR PENISES.

One of many bizarre beliefs put forth in the Malleus Maleficarum, a 15th-century German witch-hunting manual by Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger, was the opinion that witches could steal men's penises. Kramer wrote that witches "can take away the male organ." He didn't mean Lorena Bobbitt-style, clarifying, "not indeed by despoiling the human body of it, but by concealing it with some glamour."

In a 2002 paper published in the Journal of Folklore Research, Moira Smith pointed to male sexual insecurity as a driver of the witch hunts. "Many of the crimes (maleficia) attributed to witches concerned sexuality: copulation with incubus devils, procuring abortions, causing sterility and stillbirth, and impeding sexual relations between husbands and wives," she wrote.

7. ERECTIONS ARE MORE COMPLICATED THAN THEY SEEM.

Achieving an erection is one of the most complex functions to happen in a man, Reitano says: "For starters, hormones must be released on demand, arteries need to carry six times more blood to the penis with perfect efficiency, the nervous system must transmit its signals without a hitch, and the mind must be working in perfect harmony with the body."

The ability to get and sustain an erection, he says, depends upon "a body that is perfectly tuned physically, psychologically, and emotionally." The inability to achieve an erection, a.k.a. erectile dysfunction, is usually the first sign of poor health, according to Reitano.

8. UNLIKE OTHER MAMMALS, HUMANS LACK A PENIS BONE …

Many mammals, including gorillas and chimpanzees, have a penis bone or "baculum," says Arash Akhavein, a urologist at Cedars-Sinai in Los Angeles. In some animals, like whales, the baculum hangs back inside the abdomen until mating time, and then it slides into the penis to help maintain an erection. Instead of relying on this kind of structure, the human penis requires blood flow and engorgement for erection.

9. … AND YET IT'S POSSIBLE TO "FRACTURE" A PENIS.

Unfortunately, the penis can be fractured during sex, Reitano says. While penile fracture is relatively uncommon, it can happen when the thick sheath called the tunica albuginea, which gives an erect penis its rigidity, is injured by blunt force. "When it fractures, there is usually a clear popping sound, extreme pain, and the rapid loss of erection," Reitano says.

And yes, researchers have studied the sexual positions associated with the problem in heterosexual couples. A 2014 study in Advances in Urology found that the woman being atop the man was the primary position associated with penile fracture; the man being behind the woman was the second most commonly linked. A 2017 study in the International Journal of Impotence Research found that man-behind-woman was most often associated with fracturing a penis, followed by man-atop-woman.

10. MASTURBATION FEARS MAY HAVE DRIVEN MASS CIRCUMCISION.

In an uncircumcised penis, the glans (head) of the penis is covered by skin known as the foreskin, which can be pulled back from the glans. Circumcision, the removal the foreskin, is an ancient surgical practice performed for religious reasons and to prevent issues stemming from poor hygiene.

One thing circumcision doesn't prevent is masturbation. But in English-speaking countries in the 19th century, a general attitude against sexual profligacy, fueled by religious ideology, led to fears about the effects of masturbation and a spike in circumcision. Religious leaders and physicians warned people to avoid "self-abuse" for fear it could cause physical and mental disorders such as tuberculosis, memory loss, and epilepsy. As Tom Hickman writes in his book God's Doodle: The Life and Times of the Penis, "What made circumcision common among the proliferating 19th-century middle classes on both sides of the Atlantic was the hysteria about masturbation; removing the foreskin helped its prevention, doctors declared, and also cured bed-wetting and other conditions."

11. ADULT MEN GET CIRCUMCISED, TOO.

It's most common for boys to be circumcised as newborns, and in some cultures as adolescents, but there are a number of reasons why adult men may choose to have a later-in-life circumcision, Akhavein says. These include tears in the skin where the tip of the penis attaches to the foreskin; when the foreskin is too tight to be retracted easily, a condition called phimosis; and a buildup of smegma, a whitish waxy substance made up of dead skin cells and oils. Men who had an incomplete circumcision (too little skin removed) in childhood would also be good candidates.

12. ICELAND HAS A PENIS MUSEUM.

In 1974, an Icelandic history teacher named Sigurður Hjartarson received a cattle whip made out of a bull penis, which apparently gave him the idea to collect other penises, because hey, why not? The result is the Icelandic Phallological Museum, which holds a collection of more than 238 penises and penile parts from nearly all the fauna in Iceland. Yes, including Homo sapiens.

The largest penis on hand, from a sperm whale, stands at 6 feet tall and weighs nearly 150 pounds. "You’ll learn that as with everything in nature, the diversity in this department is as great as in any other; even within the same species the difference in size and shape is often quite remarkable," Hjartarson told Mental Floss in 2015.

12 Creative Ways to Spend Your FSA Money Before the Deadline

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stockfour/iStock via Getty Images

If you have a Flexible Spending Account (FSA), chances are, time is running out for you to use that cash. Depending on your employer’s rules, if you don’t spend your FSA money by the end of the grace period, you potentially lose some of it. Lost cash is never a good thing.

For those unfamiliar, an FSA is an employer-sponsored spending account. You deposit pre-tax dollars into the account, and you can spend that money on a number of health care expenses. It’s kind of like a Health Savings Account (HSA), but with a few big differences—namely, your HSA funds roll over from year to year, so there’s no deadline to spend it all. With an FSA, though, most of your funds expire at the end of the year. Bummer.

The good news is: The law allows employers to roll $500 over into the new year and also offer a grace period of up to two and a half months to use that cash (March 15). Depending on your employer, you might not even have that long, though. The deadline is fast approaching for many account holders, so if you have to use your FSA money soon, here are a handful of creative ways to spend it.

1. Buy some new shades.

Head to the optometrist, get an eye prescription, then use your FSA funds to buy some new specs or shades. Contact lenses and solution are also covered.

You can also buy reading glasses with your FSA money, and you don’t even need a prescription.

2. Try acupuncture.

Scientists are divided on the efficacy of acupuncture, but some studies show it’s useful for treating chronic pain, arthritis, and even depression. If you’ve been curious about the treatment, now's a good time to try it: Your FSA money will cover acupuncture sessions in some cases. You can even buy an acupressure mat without a prescription.

If you’d rather go to a chiropractor, your FSA funds cover those visits, too.

3. Stock up on staples.

If you’re running low on standard over-the-counter meds, good news: Most of them are FSA-eligible. This includes headache medicine, pain relievers, antacids, heartburn meds, and anything else your heart (or other parts of your body) desires.

There’s one big caveat, though: Most of these require a prescription in order to be eligible, so you may have to make an appointment with your doctor first. The FSA store tells you which over-the-counter items require a prescription.

4. Treat your feet.

Give your feet a break with a pair of massaging gel shoe inserts. They’re FSA-eligible, along with a few other foot care products, including arch braces, toe cushions, and callus trimmers.

In some cases, foot massagers or circulators may be covered, too. For example, here’s one that’s available via the FSA store, no prescription necessary.

5. Get clear skin.

Yep—acne treatments, toner, and other skin care products are all eligible for FSA spending. Again, most of these require a prescription for reimbursement, but don’t let that deter you. Your doctor is familiar with the rules and you shouldn’t have trouble getting a prescription. And, as WageWorks points out, your prescription also lasts for a year. Check the rules of your FSA plan to see if you need a separate prescription for each item, or if you can include multiple products or drug categories on a single prescription.

While we’re on the topic of faces, lip balm is another great way to spend your FSA funds—and you don’t need a prescription for that. There’s also no prescription necessary for this vibrating face massager.

6. Fill your medicine cabinet.

If your medicine cabinet is getting bare, or you don’t have one to begin with, stock it with a handful of FSA-eligible items. Here are some items that don’t require a prescription:

You can also stock up on first aid kits. You don’t need a prescription to buy those, and many of them come with pain relievers and other medicine.

7. Make sure you’re covered in the bedroom.

Condoms are FSA-eligible, and so are pregnancy tests, monitors, and fertility kits. Female contraceptives are also covered when you have a prescription.

8. Prepare for your upcoming vacation.

If you have a vacation planned this year, use your FSA money to stock up on trip essentials. For example:

9. Get a better night’s sleep.

If you have trouble sleeping, sleep aids are eligible, though you’ll need a prescription. If you want to try a sleep mask, many of them are eligible without a prescription. For example, there’s this relaxing sleep mask and this thermal eye mask.

For those nights you’re sleeping off a cold or flu, a vaporizer can make a big difference, and those are eligible, too (no prescription required). Bed warmers like this one are often covered, too.

Your FSA funds likely cover more than you realize, so if you have to use them up by the deadline, get creative. This list should help you get started, and many drugstores will tell you which items are FSA-eligible when you shop online.

10. Go to the dentist.

While basics like toothpaste and cosmetic procedures like whitening treatments aren’t FSA eligible, most of the expenses you incur at your dentist’s office are. That includes co-pays and deductibles as well as fees for cleanings, x-rays, fillings, and even the cost of braces. There are also some products you can buy over-the-counter without ever visiting the dentist. Some mouthguards that prevent you from grinding your teeth at night are eligible, as are cleaning solutions for retainers and dentures.

11. Try some new gadgets.

If you still have some extra cash to burn, it’s a great time to try some expensive high-tech devices that you’ve been curious about but might not otherwise want to splurge on. The list includes light therapy treatments for acne, vibrating nausea relief bands, electrical stimulation devices for chronic pain, cloud-connected stethoscopes, and smart thermometers.

12. Head to Amazon.

There are plenty of FSA-eligible items available on Amazon, including items for foot health, cold and allergy medication, eye care, and first-aid kits. Find out more details on how to spend your FSA money on Amazon here.

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30 Pungent Facts About Farts

This man is clearly not trying to hide the fact he just passed gas.
This man is clearly not trying to hide the fact he just passed gas.
BrilliantEye/iStock via Getty Images

Whether you openly admit it or desperately try to hide it, it’s an undeniable fact that every living and breathing human being farts. And while passing what you thought was going to be silent gas only to be wrong in certain situations can definitely be embarrassing, there’s something undeniably humorous about flatulence—no matter your age.

If you do love a good fart joke, you’re in good company. The very first recorded joke, which was written by the Sumerians and dates all the way back to 1900 BCE, was about—you guessed it—breaking wind. And some of the world's great thinkers, from William Shakespeare to J.D. Salinger, have slipped a fart joke (or 10) into their work.

In this episode of The List Show, we're sniffing out 30 fascinating facts about farts—from why humans expel gas to how often the average adult squeezes the cheese. You can watch the full episode below.

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