Why the World's Most Popular Wine Grapes Are Vulnerable to a Pandemic

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When you're in the wine shop looking for the right wine to pair with your meal or bring to the party, the variety on the shelves seems rich and diverse, their taste influenced by the grape, soil, climate, and age. Among the most famous are the French "noble wines"—cabernet sauvignon, merlot, pinot noir, chardonnay, riesling, and sauvignon blanc—so called for being associated with high quality and easy growth in a variety of places.

But it turns out that many of the most famous grapes in the world are like nobility in another way: They're as inbred as a royal family, and have been for hundreds—and in some cases thousands—of years.

"Scientists are getting really concerned that this is setting up the perfect scenario for a great pandemic," Kevin Begos, whose new book, Tasting the Past, explores the history, archaeology, genetics, and future of wine, said at a recent book release event in New York City. They fear that a single merciless pathogen could wipe out many grapes around the world in the same way that a single fungus, Phytophthora infestans, eradicated the variety of potato common across Ireland in the 1840s, causing the great famine.

The vast majority of wine produced across the world derives from a single grapevine species: Vitis venifera. The domesticated grape has thousands of varieties, and quite a lot of genetic diversity among them, according to a 2010 paper in PNAS that analyzed genome-wide genetic variation of more than 1000 samples of V. vinifera subsp. vinifera and its wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris. But that's not true for all grapes: Nearly 75 percent of cultivars had a first-degree relationship to at least one other. They were either parents or children.

The most popular commercial wines are made from a handful of these inbred grapes. Sauvignon blanc, for instance, has a first-degree relationship with cabernet sauvignon, cabernet franc, and chenin blanc, among many others. That genetically cozy family isn't unusual. You see it all over the grapevine.

Another problem is how grapes reproduce in vineyards. Instead of pollinating these hermaphroditic plants or growing them from seeds, as might happen naturally, grape growers generally make new plants from cuttings of existing ones, essentially cloning the same vines over and over.

They use this method to produce consistent flavor quality—and it's nice to decant a bottle of your favorite wine and know what to expect with the first sip. But this practice has kept some popular grapes in relative genetic stasis for a long time. Take pinot, parent of chardonnay and gamay, which has been cloned for 2000 years. Genetically, it's remained virtually unchanged—but the organisms that prey on it have not. "All those insects and pathogens and mildews that attack grape vines have been evolving," Begos said. "And they always figure out new ways to attack the grape vines."

Despite the wide use of pesticides—in the last 10 years, 260 million pounds of pesticides were put on wine grapes in California alone—"the industry is losing the arms race to the pathogens," Sean Myles, an author of the 2010 PNAS grape genome study, told Begos in Tasting the Past. "It’s really only a matter of time. If we just keep using the same genetic material, we’re doomed.”

The good news is that grape diversity could be the key to preventing rosé season from disappearing. Scientists are looking outside the noble wines and their popular cousins to old, wild, and lesser-known varieties, which "turn out to have natural disease resistance, and they've kept evolving," Begos said.

The idea is create hybrids selected for specific traits—not just pest resistance, but an ability to withstand greater heat in an era of climate change, adaptability to a wider variety of soils, and other resilient qualities.

One effort is VitisGen, a USDA-funded project involving researchers from a handful of American universities, including UC Davis, Cornell University, and the University of Minnesota. By studying the genomes of a variety of grapes, they're creating an enormous database of genetic traits. They're also experimenting with crossbreeding. Some of this genetic tweaking is decidedly old school, including pollinating grapes by hand.

Begos tells Mental Floss that they're especially interested in developing grapes that are resistant to downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), a potential plague a la the potato famine. It can cause total crop loss if not controlled.

When it comes to selecting traits, it probably won't be flavor they'll be pulling from wild grapes, which "are really kind of terrible," Begos said. (In Tasting the Past, he quotes wine experts who describe the flavor of a fox grape as combining "animal fur and candied fruits.”) It's generally hardiness they're looking for. The concord grape in your kid's PB&J, for example, is "really tough," Begos said. Select some of its hardy genes and cross them with, say, the peppery flavor genes of the syrah grape—which the researchers have also identified—and maybe you can create a genetically resilient hybrid.

"The University of Minnesota has already had success identifying cold-hardy wine grape genes, and breeding them into new varieties that have impressed the toughest critics," Begos says, pointing to a 2015 top 10 wine list from New York Times food critic Eric Asimov. Number two on the list was made from hybrid grapes developed by UM.

You can do your part to encourage wine diversity by getting adventurous with your vino, trying a grape you've never heard of or blends from new regions. Check out organic and small wineries, which are experimenting with old cultivars and new varieties. And don't be afraid of a future with genetically tweaked grapes. We've been modifying them as long as we've been growing them. As Begos writes of these efforts, "At heart they’re unlocking flavor, disease-resistance, and growth genes that may be tens of millions of years old. To me these scientists are doing exactly what ancient Babylonians, Egyptians, and Greeks did: refining wine grapes to produce tastes we enjoy."

10 Reusable Gifts for Your Eco-Friendliest Friend

Disposable tea bags can't compete with this pla-tea-pus and his friends.
Disposable tea bags can't compete with this pla-tea-pus and his friends.
DecorChic/Amazon

This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

By this point, your eco-friendly pal probably has a reusable water bottle that accompanies them everywhere and some sturdy grocery totes that keep their plastic-bag count below par. Here are 10 other sustainable gift ideas that’ll help them in their conservation efforts.

1. Reusable Produce Bags; $13

No more staticky plastic bags.Naturally Sensible/Amazon

The complimentary plastic produce bags in grocery stores aren’t great, but neither is having all your spherical fruits and vegetables roll pell-mell down the checkout conveyor belt. Enter the perfect alternative: mesh bags that are nylon, lightweight, and even machine-washable.

Buy it: Amazon

2. Animal Tea Infusers; $16

Nothing like afternoon tea with your tiny animal friends.DecorChic/Amazon

Saying goodbye to disposable tea bags calls for a quality tea diffuser, and there’s really no reason why it shouldn’t be shaped like an adorable animal. This “ParTEA Pack” includes a hippo, platypus, otter, cat, and owl, which can all hang over the edge of a glass or mug. (In other words, you won’t have to fish them out with your fingers or dirty a spoon when your loose leaf is done steeping.)

Buy it: Amazon

3. Rocketbook Smart Notebook; $25

Typing your notes on a tablet or laptop might save trees, but it doesn’t quite capture the feeling of writing on paper with a regular pen. The Rocketbook, on the other hand, does. After you’re finished filling a page with sketches, musings, or whatever else, you scan it into the Rocketbook app with your smartphone, wipe it clean with the microfiber cloth, and start again. This one also comes with a compatible pen, but any PILOT FriXion pens will do.

Buy it: Amazon

4. Food Huggers; $13

"I'm a hugger!"Food Huggers/Amazon

It’s hard to compete with the convenience of plastic wrap or tin foil when it comes to covering the exposed end of a piece of produce or an open tin can—and keeping those leftovers in food storage containers can take up valuable space in the fridge. This set of five silicone Food Huggers stretch to fit over a wide range of circular goods, from a lidless jar to half a lemon.

Buy it: Amazon

5. Swiffer Mop Pads; $15

For floors that'll shine like the top of the Chrysler Building.Turbo Microfiber/Amazon

Swiffers may be much less unwieldy than regular mops, but the disposable pads present a problem to anyone who likes to keep their trash output to a minimum. These machine-washable pads fasten to the bottom of any Swiffer WetJet, and the thick microfiber will trap dirt and dust instead of pushing it into corners. Each pad lasts for at least 100 uses, so you’d be saving your eco-friendly friend quite a bit of money, too.

Buy it: Amazon

6. SodaStream for Sparkling Water; $69

A fondness for fizzy over flat water doesn’t have to mean buying it bottled. Not only does the SodaStream let you make seltzer at home, but it’s also small enough that it won’t take up too much precious counter space. SodaStream also sells flavor drops to give your home-brewed beverage even more flair—this pack from Amazon ($25) includes mango, orange, raspberry, lemon, and lime.

Buy it: Amazon

7. Washable Lint Roller; $13

Roller dirty.iLifeTech/Amazon

There’s a good chance that anyone with a pet (or just an intense dislike for lint) has lint-rolled their way through countless sticky sheets. iLifeTech’s reusable roller boasts “the power of glue,” which doesn’t wear off even after you’ve washed it. Each one also comes with a 3-inch travel-sized version, so you can stay fuzz-free on the go.

Buy it: Amazon

8. Countertop Compost Bin; $23

Like a tiny Tin Man for your table.Epica/Amazon

Even if you keep a compost pile in your own backyard, it doesn’t make sense to dash outside every time you need to dump a food scrap. A countertop compost bin can come in handy, especially if it kills odors and blends in with your decor. This 1.3-gallon pail does both. It’s made of stainless steel—which matches just about everything—and contains an activated-charcoal filter that prevents rancid peels and juices from stinking up your kitchen.

Buy it: Amazon

9. Fabric-Softening Dryer Balls; $17

Also great for learning how to juggle without breaking anything.Smart Sheep

Nobody likes starchy, scratchy clothes, but some people might like blowing through bottles of fabric softener and boxes of dryer sheets even less. Smart Sheep is here to offer a solution: wool dryer balls. Not only do they last for more than 1000 loads, they also dry your laundry faster. And since they don’t contain any chemicals, fragrances, or synthetic materials, they’re a doubly great option for people with allergies and/or sensitive skin.

Buy it: Amazon

10. Rechargeable Batteries; $40

Say goodbye to loose batteries in your junk drawer.eneloop/Amazon

While plenty of devices are rechargeable themselves, others still require batteries to buzz, whir, and change the TV channel—so it’s good to have some rechargeable batteries on hand. In addition to AA batteries, AAA batteries, and a charger, this case from Panasonic comes with tiny canisters that function as C and D batteries when you slip the smaller batteries into them.

Buy it: Amazon

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Scientists Come Closer to Understanding COVID-19 'Cytokine Storms'

Science is closer to understanding what prompts severe COVID-19 illness.
Science is closer to understanding what prompts severe COVID-19 illness.
Photo by Artem Podrez from Pexels

Researchers are one step closer to understanding the mechanisms behind "cytokine storms," an immune system reaction that can cause severe COVID-19 symptoms in patients infected with the coronavirus. In a new paper published in the journal Cell, scientists from St. Jude Children's Research Hospital describe their identification of the specific cytokines, or small proteins, that are produced by the body in an effort to fight the virus but sometimes overreact and wind up causing damage, including inflammation, lung injury, and organ failure.

After examining the many different kinds of cytokines in the body, researchers determined that no single cytokine caused this inflammatory response. Instead, it appears to be a combination of two specific cytokines, dubbed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (INF)-gamma, that work in collusion to cause inflammatory cell death.

By identifying these proteins as the culprit, researchers suggested that administering neutralizing antibodies and disrupting the protein pathways that promote cell death might present a new treatment method for COVID-19.

COVID-19 can prompt a "cytokine storm" that can cause severe symptoms.St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

"Understanding the pathways and mechanism driving this inflammation is critical to develop effective treatment strategies," co-author Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, vice chair of St. Jude's department of immunology, said in a press release. "This research provides that understanding. We also identified the specific cytokines that activate inflammatory cell death pathways and have considerable potential for treatment of COVID-19 and other highly fatal diseases, including sepsis."

Thus far, this theory has only been tested in mice, which received neutralizing antibodies and were protected from severe COVID-19 symptoms. But in isolating the exact cytokines involved, it will likely be easier to locate an effective treatment, either from an existing drug or one developed specifically for the task. In time, researchers hope clinical trials of select drugs can be another tool in the fight against the virus.

[h/t PennLive]