If you have a harder time empathizing with human suffering than with pets in peril, you’re not alone. According to a study published earlier this year in Society & Animals, humans may project more pity when a dog is perceived to be in trouble than when a person is ailing under similar circumstances.
To assess whether people were more concerned with dogs than with their fellow Homo sapiens, researchers at Northwestern University gathered 240 undergraduate subjects between the ages of 18 and 23 and gave them a series of fictitious newspaper stories about a senseless attack. In all of the stories, the victim was hit with a baseball bat, suffered a broken leg and lacerations, and was found unconscious by first responders.
While those details remained consistent, researchers randomized the text so it would mention one of four victims: an adult, a 1-year-old infant, a 6-year-old dog, or a puppy. (Yes, this study used the premise of a baby being pummeled with a bat. All in the name of science.)
The researchers suspected that the victims' age, not species—where a younger age would indicate a greater degree of vulnerability—would determine participants' empathy for them. Using questions to measure their empathy levels on a numerical scale from seven (little empathy) to 112 (a lot of empathy), the organizers then quizzed subjects on how they felt about each of the cases. They were most upset by the attacks on the infant, followed by the puppy and older dog. The adult human, while considered tragic, scored lowest. "Age makes a difference for empathy toward human victims, but not for dog victims," the researchers wrote.
Female participants, who made up almost three-quarters of the study group, were also found to be much more sympathetic toward all of the victims than male participants.
The authors say the results were borne out, in part, of the perceived helplessness of the victims, regardless of whether they were puppies or children. In the end, one thing is reasonably certain: We're just as concerned about our fur babies as we are with young humans.
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Known for their strong family bonds and intelligence, elephants have fascinated humans across time and cultures. As the largest living land mammal, a male African bush elephant typically stands more than 10 feet tall and weighs an incredible 6.6 tons. Although poachers still kill approximately 100 African elephants every day, conservation groups are working to save elephant populations from extinction. Read on for a dozen things you might not know about elephants, from their long history as a political symbol to their legit firefighting skills.
1. Contrary to popular belief, elephants are not exactly scared of mice.
Cartoonists have long depicted the funny juxtaposition of a giant elephant terrified of a tiny mouse. Zoologists and elephant trainers have conducted experiments to test whether elephants are truly afraid of rodents, and it seems to be a myth. Mice themselves don't frighten elephants, but the pachyderms have poor vision and can get extremely startled when anything suddenly scurries by. Elephants are probably more afraid of a mouse's sudden movement than the mouse itself.
2. Wild elephants could have populated the U.S., but abraham Lincoln nixed the idea.
In 1861, President Lincoln received gifts, including elephant tusks and a handmade sword, from Siam's King Somdetch Phra Paramendr Maha Mongkut. The king of present-day Thailand also made an interesting offer: Mongkut proposed that Siam would send pairs of male and female elephants to the U.S. to breed in the forests. Americans could then tame the wild elephants and put them to work for the economic benefit of the country. William Seward, Lincoln's secretary of state, replied to Mongkut in 1862, graciously declining his offer. He told the king that since the U.S. already used steam power to efficiently transport goods within the country, elephants simply wouldn't be practical.
3. Trunk-sucking is the elephant equivalent of thumb-sucking.
When baby elephants want to comfort themselves, they instinctively start sucking their trunks. Trunk-sucking is also a way that a baby elephant can learn how to use her trunk (which contains between 40,000 and 50,000 muscles). Although most elephants, like human babies, grow out of sucking behavior, some adult elephants also suck their trunks when they feel anxious.
4. Elephants have been the symbol of the Republican Party since 1874.
Although elephants had been occasionally used as a symbol for Republicans during the Civil War, cartoonist Thomas Nast, who drew an elephant in an 1874 issue of Harper's Weekly, gets the credit for linking the animal with the political party. In later cartoons, Nast continued to draw an elephant to portray the Republican Party, and other cartoonists adopted it, establishing the animal as the GOP symbol.
5. Barnum & Bailey once trained elephants to play baseball.
Baseball is America's pastime, so why not teach elephants how to play the game? In 1912, thanks to the work of Barnum & Bailey's elephant trainer, Harry L. Mooney, the intelligent animals played their first ballgame. Although playing baseball was just one of many tricks that circus elephants learned, Barnum & Bailey capitalized on the concept of elephant baseball by using the image on posters to sell tickets for shows.
6. Some elephants have been convicted of murder.
Although elephants are typically viewed as gentle giants, they are capable of attacking and killing humans. Male elephants undergo musth, a hormonal change that makes them temporarily produce tons of testosterone, resulting in aggression. But even female elephants can kill. In 1916, a town in Tennessee charged an elephant named Big Mary with first-degree murder for killing her handler. Big Mary, who worked for the Sparks Circus, attacked her handler, possibly after he struck her with a bullhook as she was trying to eat a watermelon rind. Big Mary was convicted and sentenced to execution. Some 2500 residents of the town gathered to watch Big Mary's dramatic hanging, which featured a 100-ton crane and a chain that broke under her weight.
7. Elephants grieve death.
Although we can't know exactly what elephants feel and how they process death, they seem to show signs that they experience grief when a member of their family (or another elephant) dies. When they see a dead elephant, they may vocalize, use their trunks to "hug" the dead animal, or stay with the carcass for hours. Some elephants have also tried to bury the dead body by covering it in leaves and soil.
8. Trained elephants fight fires in Indonesia.
You probably won't see an elephant riding on a fire truck anytime soon, but elephants in Indonesia are a vital part of fighting fires. In 2015, East Sumatra was plagued with multiple fires over a period of several months, so 23 trained elephants from a conservation center went to work. Carrying water pumps and hoses, the elephants helped patrol the land and made sure that new fires weren't ignited.
9. If you're in Zambia, you might see some elephants strolling through your hotel lobby.
Some guests at Mfuwe Lodge in the African country of Zambia get an unusual animal sighting before they even leave the lobby. Each year between October and December, families of elephants walk through the lodge's reception area to eat wild mango from a tree in the courtyard. The elephants' giant size and seeming indifference to their hotel lobby surroundings make for quite a striking sight.
10. In 2015, scientists recorded elephants yawning for the first time.
Although scientists speculated that elephants probably yawn, scientists from the University of California, Davis captured the first video of an elephant yawning. If you enjoy watching sleepy animals stretching and yawning, this is for you. Warning: extreme cuteness ahead.
11. Elephants starred in YouTube's first-ever video.
On April 23, 2005, Jawed Karim made internet history when he uploaded the first video to a certain nascent video-sharing website. Karim, one of YouTube's founders, posted an 18-second scene of himself standing in front of elephants at a zoo. In the video, he speaks about how cool the elephants' long trunks are. As of August 2019, the video has more than 74 million views.
12. Elephants love to snack on old Christmas trees.
Zookeepers at Tierpark Berlin, a zoo in Germany, feed unsold Christmas trees to their elephants in early January. The trees are certified pesticide-free, and the elephants seem to enjoy their special snack. Berlin isn't the only place where elephants eat Christmas trees, though. Zoos in Prague also treat their elephants to the tasty conifers.