What’s so fishy about human anatomy? A lot! Just look at these gifts from our aquatic ancestors.
Look closely at any mammal, bird, or amphibian embryo—they all look the same. That’s because they all inherited genes from a common, fishy ancestor. During the middle stage of development—called the phylotypic period—a special combination of those genes becomes active, while some get turned off. Those active genes become the blueprints for your body.
2. Our Voice
Fish can’t talk, but they do have gills—and that’s where our voices come from. Just like fish, human embryos have gill arches (bony loops in the embryo’s neck). In fish, those arches become part of the gill apparatus. But in humans, our genes steer them in a different direction. Those gill arches become the bones of your lower jaw, middle ear, and voice box.
3. Sense of Hearing
How did gills become part of the ear? Just look at the fossil evidence. The ancient fish Eusthenopteron lived about 370 million years ago. It had a problem, though: A small part of the jawbone—the hyomandibula—poked into its gills. A few million years later, that same pesky bone formed a cavity by the ear of Eusthenopteron’s descendents. There, it started amplifying sound—travel down the fossil record even further, and you’ll see that the bone had become the stape, the part of the ear that helps us hear.
Fish gonads sit near the heart. In human embryos, the gonads form deep in the chest—just like in fish. However, since we’re warm-blooded, these gonads need to go somewhere cool. After 12 weeks, they start to descend, and for men, they break through the body wall and form testicles. But breaking through the body wall leaves behind a weak spot, which is why it’s relatively easy for humans to get hernias.
Fish don’t have fingers, but they do have the gene that makes fingers possible. In the 1980s, scientists discovered a special gene called “sonic hedgehog,” which helps animals form digits. When scientists mutated sonic hedgehog in various animals, the creatures all grew extra fins and fingers (people with polydactylism—that is, six fingers—suffer from a sonic hedgehog overload). A surge in sonic hedgehog helped ancient fish crawl onto land.
6. Our Faces
You know that groove above your upper lip, just below the nose? That’s the philtrum. It’s there because, as an embryo, your face looked kind of fishy. Your eyes started at the side of your head and your nostrils and lips grew at the top (you looked a little like an eel). After a couple of months, those features migrated: Your eyes squeezed inward while your lips and nose dropped. The transformation left behind a tiny divot above your upper lip, and gave men everywhere a place to grow terrible mustaches.
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Known for their strong family bonds and intelligence, elephants have fascinated humans across time and cultures. As the largest living land mammal, a male African bush elephant typically stands more than 10 feet tall and weighs an incredible 6.6 tons. Although poachers still kill approximately 100 African elephants every day, conservation groups are working to save elephant populations from extinction. Read on for a dozen things you might not know about elephants, from their long history as a political symbol to their legit firefighting skills.
1. Contrary to popular belief, elephants are not exactly scared of mice.
Cartoonists have long depicted the funny juxtaposition of a giant elephant terrified of a tiny mouse. Zoologists and elephant trainers have conducted experiments to test whether elephants are truly afraid of rodents, and it seems to be a myth. Mice themselves don't frighten elephants, but the pachyderms have poor vision and can get extremely startled when anything suddenly scurries by. Elephants are probably more afraid of a mouse's sudden movement than the mouse itself.
2. Wild elephants could have populated the U.S., but abraham Lincoln nixed the idea.
In 1861, President Lincoln received gifts, including elephant tusks and a handmade sword, from Siam's King Somdetch Phra Paramendr Maha Mongkut. The king of present-day Thailand also made an interesting offer: Mongkut proposed that Siam would send pairs of male and female elephants to the U.S. to breed in the forests. Americans could then tame the wild elephants and put them to work for the economic benefit of the country. William Seward, Lincoln's secretary of state, replied to Mongkut in 1862, graciously declining his offer. He told the king that since the U.S. already used steam power to efficiently transport goods within the country, elephants simply wouldn't be practical.
3. Trunk-sucking is the elephant equivalent of thumb-sucking.
When baby elephants want to comfort themselves, they instinctively start sucking their trunks. Trunk-sucking is also a way that a baby elephant can learn how to use her trunk (which contains between 40,000 and 50,000 muscles). Although most elephants, like human babies, grow out of sucking behavior, some adult elephants also suck their trunks when they feel anxious.
4. Elephants have been the symbol of the Republican Party since 1874.
Although elephants had been occasionally used as a symbol for Republicans during the Civil War, cartoonist Thomas Nast, who drew an elephant in an 1874 issue of Harper's Weekly, gets the credit for linking the animal with the political party. In later cartoons, Nast continued to draw an elephant to portray the Republican Party, and other cartoonists adopted it, establishing the animal as the GOP symbol.
5. Barnum & Bailey once trained elephants to play baseball.
Baseball is America's pastime, so why not teach elephants how to play the game? In 1912, thanks to the work of Barnum & Bailey's elephant trainer, Harry L. Mooney, the intelligent animals played their first ballgame. Although playing baseball was just one of many tricks that circus elephants learned, Barnum & Bailey capitalized on the concept of elephant baseball by using the image on posters to sell tickets for shows.
6. Some elephants have been convicted of murder.
Although elephants are typically viewed as gentle giants, they are capable of attacking and killing humans. Male elephants undergo musth, a hormonal change that makes them temporarily produce tons of testosterone, resulting in aggression. But even female elephants can kill. In 1916, a town in Tennessee charged an elephant named Big Mary with first-degree murder for killing her handler. Big Mary, who worked for the Sparks Circus, attacked her handler, possibly after he struck her with a bullhook as she was trying to eat a watermelon rind. Big Mary was convicted and sentenced to execution. Some 2500 residents of the town gathered to watch Big Mary's dramatic hanging, which featured a 100-ton crane and a chain that broke under her weight.
7. Elephants grieve death.
Although we can't know exactly what elephants feel and how they process death, they seem to show signs that they experience grief when a member of their family (or another elephant) dies. When they see a dead elephant, they may vocalize, use their trunks to "hug" the dead animal, or stay with the carcass for hours. Some elephants have also tried to bury the dead body by covering it in leaves and soil.
8. Trained elephants fight fires in Indonesia.
You probably won't see an elephant riding on a fire truck anytime soon, but elephants in Indonesia are a vital part of fighting fires. In 2015, East Sumatra was plagued with multiple fires over a period of several months, so 23 trained elephants from a conservation center went to work. Carrying water pumps and hoses, the elephants helped patrol the land and made sure that new fires weren't ignited.
9. If you're in Zambia, you might see some elephants strolling through your hotel lobby.
Some guests at Mfuwe Lodge in the African country of Zambia get an unusual animal sighting before they even leave the lobby. Each year between October and December, families of elephants walk through the lodge's reception area to eat wild mango from a tree in the courtyard. The elephants' giant size and seeming indifference to their hotel lobby surroundings make for quite a striking sight.
10. In 2015, scientists recorded elephants yawning for the first time.
Although scientists speculated that elephants probably yawn, scientists from the University of California, Davis captured the first video of an elephant yawning. If you enjoy watching sleepy animals stretching and yawning, this is for you. Warning: extreme cuteness ahead.
11. Elephants starred in YouTube's first-ever video.
On April 23, 2005, Jawed Karim made internet history when he uploaded the first video to a certain nascent video-sharing website. Karim, one of YouTube's founders, posted an 18-second scene of himself standing in front of elephants at a zoo. In the video, he speaks about how cool the elephants' long trunks are. As of August 2019, the video has more than 74 million views.
12. Elephants love to snack on old Christmas trees.
Zookeepers at Tierpark Berlin, a zoo in Germany, feed unsold Christmas trees to their elephants in early January. The trees are certified pesticide-free, and the elephants seem to enjoy their special snack. Berlin isn't the only place where elephants eat Christmas trees, though. Zoos in Prague also treat their elephants to the tasty conifers.