11 Gross Things That Could Be On Your Toothbrush

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Before you brush today, consider this: Poop is just the beginning of what could possibly be hanging out on your toothbrush.

1. E. COLI

Guess what? If your bathroom has the sink and toilet in one room, and you flush with the lid open, there is fecal matter on everything within a 5 to 6 foot radius. Flushing aerosolizes your poop, depositing bacteria like Escherichia coli, or E. coli, directly onto your toothbrush—and brushing with an E. coli-loaded instrument could make you sick. “This bacteria is associated with gastrointestinal disease,” says Dr. Maria Geisinger, DDS, an assistant professor and periodontist at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Gastroenteritis, or infectious diarrhea, is one such illness. “In bathrooms with a toilet attached, [researchers] looked at toothbrushes in normal use between one and three months,” Geisinger says. “At the three-month mark, they found E. coli colonies. That’s a good reminder to replace your toothbrush every three months.”

Once E. coli and the other bacteria on this list form colonies, they’re a lot harder to kill because “they start to make an extracellular matrix, which protects them from antimicrobial medicines that you might use in the toothpaste, mouthwash, and even antibiotics,” Geisinger says. “One of the reasons you can’t just take an antibiotic and say ‘oh good, my dental disease is cured’ is because they’re actually in a biofilm.”

The colonies on your toothbrush are similar to the algae that grows at the bottom of the pool, according to Geisinger. “Your pool is full of water—you can’t just swish it around and get that algae off,” Geisinger says. “It’s got to be scrubbed off because it’s protected by this extracellular matrix. In fact, complex biofilms have a circulatory system. So they’re almost like a living organism, composed of all this different bacteria.”

So make sure to flush with the lid down, which will greatly decrease aerosolization, and, therefore, the literal crap on your toothbrush. Also, be sure to wash your hands after you use the restroom and before you brush to avoid transferring fecal matter to your toothbrush that way, Geisinger says, and change your toothbrush every three months.

2. STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

This bacteria typically lives in your respiratory tract and on your skin, and, under the right conditions, can be responsible for some pretty nasty stuff. “It’s often associated with [antibiotic resistant] MRSA infections or necrotizing fasciitis, which is flesh-eating bacteria,” Geisinger says. Necrotizing fasciitis occurs when bacteria enters the skin through an open wound, and, according to the CDC, most often affects people who have other health problems that might hinder their bodies’ efforts to fight infection. Thankfully, this condition very rare, but you still don’t want the stuff that could cause it on your toothbrush.

3. STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS

It makes sense that this bacteria would be on your toothbrush—it’s responsible for tooth decay. “But again, we’d like it not to be there,” Geisinger says. “You don’t want to take tooth decaying material from one area of your mouth and put it in another while you’re trying to do your due-diligence about removing deposits.”

Keeping bacteria and other nasty stuff to a minimum on your toothbrush could be as simple as what you buy. According to one study, “Toothbrushes with lighter or clear bristles retain up to 50 percent less bacteria than colored toothbrush bristles,” Geisinger says, potentially because clear toothbrush bristles have less porosity than colored ones. And instead of brushes with fancy perforated or rubber handles, opt for solid plastic handles which studies have shown “had less microbio load than larger or perforated or multi-surface handles [because there are] fewer nooks and crannies for the bacteria to hide in,” Geisinger says.

4. FOOD DEBRIS

That thing you had for dinner last night? Yeah, it’s probably still on your toothbrush the next morning … and now it’s food for the bacteria on there, too! (As are your poop particles. Yuck.) Avoid having unintentional leftovers and clear out bacteria by washing your brush before it goes in your mouth in potable tap water or antibacterial mouth rinse, Geisinger says.

5. AND 6. LACTOBACILLUS and PSEUDOMONAS

“These are two bacteria that have been associated with pneumonia type infections, particularly in hospital settings” where a patient is on a ventilator, Geisinger says. Though Lactobacillus is typically considered a “friendly” bacteria—it’s sometimes used to treat diarrhea and is present in foods and our own guts—it can also be linked to cavities and tooth decay. Pseudomonas can cause eye infections if you use contacts and don't clean them adequately.

Bacteria thrives on brushes that have frayed bristles, by the way, so Geisginer (and the American Dental Association) recommend replacing your toothbrush if the bristles are looking like they’ve seen better days—even if you haven’t hit the three-month mark yet.

7. HERPES SIMPLEX TYPE ONE

And now, a virus! “Herpes simplex type one used to be called oral herpes, but now almost 50 percent of genital lesions are also herpes simplex type one,” Geisinger says. “The viruses are different than bacteria because they come in little capsules, and they’re not technically alive—they need your cells to replicate. In a patient who has an active herpes outbreak, an oral cold sore, that virus can be retained on the toothbrush up to a week.”

Geisinger says she's not aware of any research into "the viability of the viruses on the toothbrushes," but says that transfer of a virus from one person to another by sharing toothbrushes is a possibility under the right circumstances. "HSV can be transmitted in saliva, so sharing toothbrushes during an oral herpes outbreak could lead to a higher risk transfer of viral particles and therefore disease," she says.

8. HPV

Another virus that can make a home on your toothbrush is Human papillomavirus, or HPV. “It’s linked to both cervical cancer and esophageal and oral cancers,” Geisinger says. “The interesting thing about HPV is that the presence of HPV in your mouth seems to decrease if you do a good job with toothbrushing.” And once again, if you share toothbrushes with someone who has HPV, you could be at risk for contracting it yourself. "Both viruses are transmissible in saliva," Geisinger says, "so viral transmission through shared toothbrushes is a possibility."

9. CANDIDA

This fungus is responsible for yeast infections and diaper rash. The most common species in the mouth is called Candida albicans, which causes oral thrush—basically, a yeast infection in your mouth. “[C. albincans] is linked to higher decay rates in kids,” Geisinger says. “In kids that have candida infections, about 15 percent have candida reservoirs on their toothbrush, and it can certainly be passed among siblings or other toothbrushes stored in the same area.” To keep candida from infecting multiple toothbrushes, make sure that the instruments are stored upright and away from each other.

10. MOISTURE

According to Geisinger, one of the worst things you have on your toothbrush is moisture because it encourages bacteria to grow. “There’s a precipitous drop in bacteria [on toothbrushes] after about 24 hours, and that’s really because the toothbrush dries out," she says. "So, if you can, having two toothbrushes is probably advantageous.” If you’re using a toothbrush just once every 24 hours, it will stay nice and dry, and bacterial loads will be low.

Another thing you shouldn’t do: Cover your toothbrush. “Even though it’s tempting because of the fecal matter from the toilet, covering toothbrushes or putting them in your medicine cabinet does not allow them to dry out,” Geisinger says. “Bacterial counts on those toothbrushes are considerably higher than on toothbrushes that are stored upright, separate, and allowed to dry completely.”

11. BLOOD

Up to 70 percent of adults in the United States have gingivitis, and about 47 percent of people over the age of 30 have destructive gum disease. "That means they have ulcerations or microscopic breaks in the tissue underneath the gum lines where they can’t see, which allows blood to get on the toothbrush,” Geisinger says. “It also allows a pathway for bacteria to get into the bloodstream. In patients with inflammation, bacteria in your bloodstream spike after things that would irritate those inflammations—including mastication, eating, toothbrushing, even a visit to your dentist to have a cleaning.” That’s how dental and oral bacteria end up in plaques that are associated with heart disease.

“The amount of bacteria in the bloodstream is actually proportional to how much inflammation and dental disease is present in the mouth,” Geisinger says. “Patients who are receiving regular dental care—that includes dental cleaning and exams—have improved levels of gingival inflammation, less blood in their saliva, and less blood on their toothbrush. So go see your dentist!”

This piece originally ran in 2016.

Amazon's Under-the-Radar Coupon Page Features Deals on Home Goods, Electronics, and Groceries

Stock Catalog, Flickr // CC BY 2.0
Stock Catalog, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

Now that Prime Day is over, and with Black Friday and Cyber Monday still a few weeks away, online deals may seem harder to come by. And while it can be a hassle to scour the internet for promo codes, buy-one-get-one deals, and flash sales, Amazon actually has an extensive coupon page you might not know about that features deals to look through every day.

As pointed out by People, the coupon page breaks deals down by categories, like electronics, home & kitchen, and groceries (the coupons even work with SNAP benefits). Since most of the deals revolve around the essentials, it's easy to stock up on items like Cottonelle toilet paper, Tide Pods, Cascade dishwasher detergent, and a 50 pack of surgical masks whenever you're running low.

But the low prices don't just stop at necessities. If you’re looking for the best deal on headphones, all you have to do is go to the electronics coupon page and it will bring up a deal on these COWIN E7 PRO noise-canceling headphones, which are now $80, thanks to a $10 coupon you could have missed.

Alternatively, if you are looking for deals on specific brands, you can search for their coupons from the page. So if you've had your eye on the Homall S-Racer gaming chair, you’ll find there's currently a coupon that saves you 5 percent, thanks to a simple search.

To discover all the deals you have been missing out on, head over to the Amazon Coupons page.

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ScareHouse: How a Famously In-Your-Face Haunted House Is Using the Pandemic to Its Advantage

ScareHouse is serving up a ton of (socially-distanced) terrors in Tarentum, Pennsylvania.
ScareHouse is serving up a ton of (socially-distanced) terrors in Tarentum, Pennsylvania.
Photo courtesy Nick Keppler

During its first 20 years, every face paint-caked zombie or masked ghoul working at Pittsburgh's ScareHouse was taught one maxim: Get into people’s personal space.

"We told them, 'Don’t touch anyone, but get as close as you can,'" Scott Simmons, founder and creative director of the longtime haunted attraction, tells Mental Floss.

Things are different this year. Like so much else, that rule has been canceled due to coronavirus. Halloween is just the latest annual tradition to require a readjustment because of the current pandemic. Health officials are discouraging costume parties and people are buying candy chutes for trick-or-treaters. Haunts—the industry term for the mazes of frightful sights and sounds that crop up every October—have faced a choice familiar to event organizers: skip a season or adjust.

To Scare or Not to Scare

ScareHouse

After weighing the options, ScareHouse (a particularly high-production venture that has gotten nods from the likes of Oscar-winning horror master Guillermo del Toro) decided to adjust—and even took this unexpected change of plans as a unique opportunity to create a haunt built specifically with COVID-19 precautions in mind. Due to limited parking, Simmons abandoned the former Elks Lodge that ScareHouse has called home since 2007. In March, he signed a lease for a new location, a former H&M store in a half-empty shopping mall in Tarentum, Pennsylvania, located about 20 miles northeast of Pittsburgh.

Simmons and his collaborators were in the midst of planning their labyrinth of terror when they saw Plexiglas go up in grocery stores and social distancing become the norm. With a wide open space as a blank canvas, they realized they could incorporate elements of COVID-19 restrictions into ScareHouse's design.

Though the actors can no longer invade a visitor's personal space—they have to stay six feet away and wear a face mask at all times (as do customers)—there are plenty of other tools in the haunt master's toolbox.

This year's iteration of ScareHouse relies on techniques that are either very advanced or completely basic. "It’s light sensors and animatronics or it’s characters pounding on glass and people moving around wearing something glow-in-the-dark and some stuff I haven’t seen since I was 15," Simmons says.

Back to Basics

Photo courtesy Nick Keppler

ScareHouse's first segment is a demon-possessed family home. Actors play supernatural specters, the now-crazed residents, or urban explorers and nuns who became trapped after they entered the home to either document or exorcise it. Built into each room is a reason for the actor to be masked and distant.

In a children’s bedroom, an actor in a teddy bear outfit leaps up from a stack of stuffed animals, which creates a barrier from each passing group. A demented housewife character appears in a kitchen covered in (plastic) guts and spoiled food. She stays in a corner behind an open refrigerator door and a manic smile is painted onto her facemask. When passing through the darkened bathroom stage, patrons see a mirror that’s actually a replication of the bathroom stage behind Plexiglas. An actor can then startle them and pound against it.

In a bedroom, a woman writhes in a bed (in tribute to The Exorcist); a pair of fake legs gives the appearance that her body has been contorted. The bed is covered in plastic resembling bed curtains. ScareHouse has provided the actor with recorded screams and growls she can summon with a button, so she doesn’t have to release her own spit into the air.

This year, the staff has been reduced from the 200 usually employed seasonally to just 90 people. Simmons said he wanted fewer actors trading costumes and spending time in make-up chairs.

Technology and props have taken over some of the work of frightening teenagers and other scare-seekers.

Eerie Adaptions

Photo courtesy of ScareHouse

As patrons enter the attraction, they are given flashlights and come into a darkened parlor, decked out in antique furniture. The flashlights are another adaptation; they give a way to explore the room without touching anything. And they interact with photon sensors to create some eerie effects.

In the parlor, a motion detector causes a piano top to rattle but once a patron points their flashlight at it, a photon sensor causes it to stop. The same trick works on a Ouija board sitting on a table. A motion detection signal causes the planchette to vibrate. A photon detector causes it to stop at the touch of a beam of light. This creates the impression that a poltergeist is responding to patrons’ actions.

The ScareHouse has also made use of animatronics and puppets. A werewolf and a set of dinosaur jaws pop out of darkened spaces. An animatronic woman removes her face to reveal a mesh of blood at the signal of a motion detector.

Another segment of ScareHouse is a “fever dream” employing a freakish mesh of body parts twisted onto the walls and glass tank of smoke and light, in which an actor plays some kind of creature (exactly what it is is left up to the patron's imagination). “We don’t even need a costume,” operations manager Maryane Kimbler tells Mental Floss. “You can’t see them. They create these fantastic motions and shapes.”

Haunted Ambitions

Photo courtesy Nick Keppler

Perhaps the most ambitious scene is the “courtyard” of the possessed house. Patrons walk through a backyard scattered with skeletal bits and see a character called the Specter of the Forest, dressed in branches and grass. He rings a bell and tells them to come forward. “But he’s a total distraction,” Kimbler admits.

As they walk toward him, a terrifying animatronic called the “nun lunger” pops out of doorway. She’s just a doll in a nun’s habit and gown with a face that looks like it was borrowed from Marilyn Manson circa 1993, but she's moving on a track and rushes 12 feet across the room under flashing strobe lights.

Once again, concocted terror belies actual safety considerations. In years past, the nun may have been played by an actor, commissioned to come close and scream and snarl. None of that can be done with ScareHouse's careful social distancing measures in place. Instead, the actor—that Specter of the Forrest—is given a secondary role in the thrill. The idea is that, startled by the sudden sprint of this decay-faced nun, they run past him, as he stays behind a fence-like barrier.

In 2020, it’s the safest way to be terrified.