What’s the Difference Between “Mostly Sunny” and “Partly Cloudy”?

iStock
iStock

Reader Marcus from Louisville wrote in to ask, “What’s the difference between ‘mostly sunny’ and ‘partly cloudy’ (or for that matter, ‘mostly cloudy’ and ‘partly sunny’) in weather forecasts? Are any of those even specifically defined terms?”

The short answer: about 1 to 4 oktas.

What’s an okta? That’s a unit of measurement that meteorologists use when they’re forecasting cloud conditions, equal to 1/8 of the sky (though sometimes 1/10 is used). When the forecast is delivered, the number of oktas covered by opaque clouds (meaning that you can’t see through them, and the sun/moon/stars/sky are hidden) is described using “mostly sunny,” “partly cloudy” and other terms we’re used to hearing. Each of these is defined by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the National Weather Service in terms of oktas of cloud cover. The NWS Operations Manual breaks it down like this:

Daytime Forecast

Day or Nighttime Forecast

Cloud Conditions

Cloudy

Cloudy

8/8 opaque clouds

Mostly Cloudy 

Mostly Cloudy

6/8 - 7/8 opaque clouds

Partly Sunny

Partly Cloudy

3/8 - 5/8 opaque clouds

Mostly Sunny

Mostly Clear

1/8 - 2/8 opaque clouds

Sunny

Clear

0/8 opaque clouds

The difference in terms is a matter of how much cloud cover there is. Interestingly, partly sunny and partly cloudy mean the exact same thing—but partly cloudy is the correct term for nighttime conditions because you can’t see the sun. 

“Fair” skies is another cloud cover term that’s sometimes used. Technically, it means that less than three oktas are covered with opaque clouds, and that there’s “no precipitation, no extreme conditions of visibility, wind or temperature, and generally pleasant weather.” If you don’t know that definition, though, “fair” sounds pretty vague on its own, so the NWS discourages forecasters from using  it. 

A lot of terms used in precipitation forecasts are also precisely defined by the NWS and are less subjective than they sometimes sound. The qualifying terms that express uncertainty about rain and snow (like “chance of snow” or “scattered thunderstorms”) are laid out like this:

Chance of precipitation

Expression of uncertainty

Area Qualifier

0%

none

none

10%

Slight chance

Isolated, few

20%

Slight chance

Widely Scattered

30-50%

Chance

Scattered

60-70%

Likely

Numerous

80-100%

none

none

The area qualifiers are used when the chance of precipitation somewhere in the forecast area is very high, and correspond to the the expected coverage within the area (so “scattered thunderstorms” would mean that rain is very likely, but will affect only 30 to 50 percent of the area).

This Smart Accessory Converts Your Instant Pot Into an Air Fryer

Amazon
Amazon

If you can make a recipe in a slow cooker, Dutch oven, or rice cooker, you can likely adapt it for an Instant Pot. Now, this all-in-one cooker can be converted into an air fryer with one handy accessory.

This Instant Pot air fryer lid—currently available on Amazon for $80—adds six new cooking functions to your 6-quart Instant Pot. You can select the air fry setting to get food hot and crispy fast, using as little as 2 tablespoons of oil. Other options include roast, bake, broil, dehydrate, and reheat.

Many dishes you would prepare in the oven or on the stovetop can be made in your Instant Pot when you switch out the lids. Chicken wings, French fries, and onion rings are just a few of the possibilities mentioned in the product description. And if you're used to frying being a hot, arduous process, this lid works without consuming a ton of energy or heating up your kitchen.

The lid comes with a multi-level air fry basket, a broiling and dehydrating tray, and a protective pad and storage cover. Check it out on Amazon.

For more clever ways to use your Instant Pot, take a look at these recipes.

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Snow Kidding: A Polar Vortex Could Hit the Eastern U.S. This Month

You may not want to put your ice scraper away just yet.
You may not want to put your ice scraper away just yet.
Tamara Dragovic/iStock via Getty Images

If you’re in the eastern U.S. and planning some gardening sessions, you might want to double-check the forecast. According to the Washington Post, a polar vortex like the one that hit the U.S. in 2019 is lurking and prepared to unleash chilly air in the eastern half of the country. Some areas can even expect snow—in Pennsylvania, maybe as much as an inch.

Powder is expected in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic areas, with cool temperatures spreading from the Upper Midwest to New England, which might see a topcoat of snow beginning this weekend. Georgia might get some frost. The cold front could experience 20-degree reductions in temperatures, with Minneapolis dropping into the upper 40s and Chicago seeing 45°F.

Areas like Providence, Rhode Island; Hartford, Connecticut; and Boston—normally in the 60s this time of year—might not climb out of the 40s over the weekend. New York City, which has been enjoying temperatures in the 70s, won’t get out of the 50s.

Blame the peculiar weather on the polar vortex, which may be best described as an arctic hurricane that transports freezing air south when warm weather pushes it out of northern Canada, Alaska, or Greenland. In other words: There’s no rush on installing that air conditioner just yet.

[h/t Washington Post]