Why Are So Many Ancient Statues Missing Their Noses?

Aninka/iStock via Getty Images
Aninka/iStock via Getty Images

Spencer Alexander McDaniel:

This is a question that a lot of people have asked. If you have ever visited a museum, you have probably seen ancient sculptures such as the one below—a Greek marble head of the poet Sappho currently held in the Glyptothek in Munich, with a missing nose:

A smashed or missing nose is a common feature on ancient sculptures from all cultures and all time periods of ancient history. It is by no means a feature that is confined to sculptures of any particular culture or era. Even the nose on the Great Sphinx, which stands on the Giza Plateau in Egypt alongside the great pyramids, is famously missing:

Full profile of Great Sphinx including pyramids of Menkaure and Khafre in the background on a clear sunny, blue sky day in Giza, Cairo, Egypt with no people
pius99/iStock via Getty Images

If you have seen one of these sculptures, you have probably wondered: “What happened to the nose?” Some people seem to have a false impression that the noses on the majority of these sculptures were deliberately removed by someone.

It is true that a few ancient sculptures were indeed deliberately defaced by people at various times for different reasons. For instance, there is a first-century AD Greek marble head of the goddess Aphrodite that was discovered in the Athenian Agora. You can tell that this particular marble head was at some point deliberately vandalized by Christians because they chiseled a cross into the goddess’s forehead.

This marble head, however, is an exceptional case that is not representative of the majority of ancient sculptures that are missing noses. For the vast majority of ancient sculptures that are missing noses, the reason for the missing nose has nothing to do with people at all. Instead, the reason for the missing nose simply has to do with the natural wear that the sculpture has suffered over time.

The fact is, ancient sculptures are thousands of years old and they have all undergone considerable natural wear over time. The statues we see in museums today are almost always beaten, battered, and damaged by time and exposure to the elements. Parts of sculptures that stick out, such as noses, arms, heads, and other appendages are almost always the first parts to break off. Other parts that are more securely attached, such as legs and torsos, are generally more likely to remain intact.

You are probably familiar with the ancient Greek statue shown below. It was found on the Greek island of Melos and was originally sculpted by Alexandros of Antioch in around the late second century BC. It is known as the Aphrodite of Melos or, more commonly, Venus de Milo. It famously has no arms:

Venus de Milo is an ancient Greek statue and one of the most famous works of ancient Greek sculpture
winduptu/iStock via Getty Images

Once upon a time, the Aphrodite of Melos did, in fact, have arms, but they broke off at some point, as arms, noses, and legs often tend to do. The exact same thing has happened to many other sculptures’ noses. Because the noses stick out, they tend to break off easily.

Greek sculptures as we see them today are merely worn-out husks of their former glory. They were originally brightly painted, but most of the original pigments faded or flaked off long ago, leaving the bare, white marble exposed. Some exceptionally well-preserved sculptures do still retain traces of their original coloration, though. For example:

Lady with blue and gilt garment, fan and sun hat, from Tanagra 325-300 BC
Capillon, Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

Even for the sculptures that do not retain visible color to the naked eye, archaeologists can detect traces of pigment under an ultraviolet light using special techniques. There are also dozens of references to painted sculptures in ancient Greek literature, such as in Euripides's Helen, in which Helen laments (in translation, of course):

“My life and fortunes are a monstrosity,
Partly because of Hera, partly because of my beauty.
If only I could shed my beauty and assume an uglier aspect
The way you would wipe color off a statue.”

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

How Accurate Are Punxsutawney Phil's Groundhog Day Weather Predictions?

Jeff Swensen/Getty Images
Jeff Swensen/Getty Images

On Sunday, February 2, people all across the country will tune in to the biggest spectacle of the season. That’s right—this weekend, Punxsutawney Phil will crawl forth from his tiny tree trunk abode and tell us whether or not to expect six more weeks of winter.

Considering that the legendary groundhog has been predicting the weather since the first Groundhog Day in 1887, it seems safe to assume that he’s gotten pretty good at it by now. The stats, however, indicate that practice doesn’t always make perfect when it comes to mid-sized meteorological rodents. As Live Science reports, the Groundhog Club’s records show that Phil has predicted more winter 103 times, and an early spring just 19. Based on data from the Stormfax Almanac, that means Phil’s accuracy rate is an abysmal 39 percent.

If you only look at weather records dating back to 1969, which are more reliable than earlier accounts, Phil’s job performance review gets even worse: those predictions were correct only 36 percent of the time.

Almost starting to feel sorry for an apparently lousy employee who only has to work for a few minutes each year? According to meteorologist Tim Roche at Weather Underground, Punxsutawney Phil is much more successful when he doesn’t see his shadow.

“Out of the 15 times that he didn’t see his shadow and predicted an early spring, he got it right seven times,” Roche told Live Science. “That’s a 47 percent accuracy rate.”

While Phil is far from infallible, human meteorologists are, too. As National Weather Service meteorologist David Unger told Live Science, “If our forecasts are about 60 percent accurate or higher, then we consider that to be a good estimate.”

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What's the Difference Between a Real Estate Agent and a Realtor?

Rawpixel/iStock via Getty Images
Rawpixel/iStock via Getty Images

It’s time to buy or sell a house. You jump online to find a representative who can help you navigate the world of real estate. Some identify as a real estate agent, others are Realtors. (And yes, that’s capitalized. More on that in a moment.) Both list houses for sale and guide buyers through the acquisition process.

Unfortunately, those home-buying catalogs and online listings don’t explain the difference between the two job titles, or the reasons you might want to opt for one over the other. If you’re in the market for a new home, here’s an easy way to understand these two major categories of real estate experts.

A real estate agent is an individual who has been granted a state license to conduct business relating to the purchase, sale, or rental of property. That license is given after the person completes a training course, but the content and duration of that education can vary widely by state. California, for example, requires 135 hours of training, over double that of Virginia (which mandates 60 hours). After passing a written test on both federal and state real estate laws and principles, applicants become licensed to practice as an agent. As of 2018, there were roughly 2 million agents in the United States helping to close deals on 5.34 million existing homes being sold.

A Realtor is a real estate agent of a different stripe. The trademarked term belongs to the National Association of Realtors (NAR), a trade organization founded in 1908. It indicates an agent who has become a member of that organization, has received ethics training, and has agreed to be bound by the group’s code of ethics. Put simply, the code mandates that Realtors perform their duties while putting their client’s interest above their own and avoid exaggeration when describing property characteristics, among other pledges.

“Every Realtor adheres to a strict code of ethics based on professionalism, consumer protection, and the golden rule,” Mantill Williams, vice president of public relations and communication strategy for NAR, tells Mental Floss. “NAR’s Code of Ethics, adopted in 1913, was one of the first codifications of ethical duties adopted by any business group. By becoming a member, you agree to uphold and are held accountable to this code of ethics, which includes obligations to clients, the public, and fellow Realtors.

“For example: When representing a buyer, seller, landlord, tenant, or other client as an agent, Realtors pledge themselves to protect and promote the interests of their client. This obligation to the client is primary, but it does not relieve Realtors of their obligation to treat all parties honestly.”

As of July 2019, there were approximately 1.4 million Realtors practicing in the United States and paying the $150 in dues to NAR annually. While nearly two-thirds are also real estate agents, some are brokers, who took a broker’s license exam after completing training on topics relating to legal issues, taxes, and insurance. Brokers typically need to have been working as a real estate agent for three years before obtaining a broker’s license. One can, of course, be a broker without being a Realtor.

So what does all this mean for you, the consumer? Real estate agents who become Realtors might swear by a Code of Ethics, but is it enforceable? If NAR receives complaints that a member is misrepresenting listings, the violation could lead to their dismissal from the group. An agent, meanwhile, might lose their license only if a crime has been committed. Naturally, any sales agent can perform their duties ethically, but a Realtor is likely to face more accountability—and the consumer more avenues for complaint—if a sale is handled improperly.

Does that mean all Realtors are automatically superior to agents? Not necessarily. Some agents may have more experience than a Realtor or might specialize in one area that fits your needs, like commercial real estate. When choosing a real estate professional, it's a good idea to get recommendations from friends and associates. You can also search for Realtors who have a focus on special consumer groups like military personnel.

While Realtors have a high rate of customer satisfaction—90 percent of homebuyers would recommend their Realtor, according to NAR—it’s best to take time and make a careful choice. Buying a home, after all, is the most expensive thing any of us are ever likely to do.

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