Is There a Difference Between Mutts and Mixed-Breed Dogs?

eldadcarin/iStock via Getty Images
eldadcarin/iStock via Getty Images

July 31 is National Mutt Day, a day to celebrate everything great about mutts. In 2005, animal welfare advocate Colleen Paige created the day, which is acknowledged once again on December 2 (because all those good boys and girls deserve two days of nonstop treats and belly rubs). But what exactly is a mutt? Is it the same as a mixed-breed dog? And how does it differ from other dog breeds?

First off: The fact that National Mutt Day is also referred to as National Mixed Breed Dog Day should tell you something—namely, that mutts and mixed-breeds are basically the same thing. Meaning that, as the latter name suggests, they are made up of more than one breed of dog.

Whereas purebred dogs have registration papers that confirm the dog's single-breed pedigree, mutts aren't registered and each of their parents could be a mix of several breeds themselves.

Where it gets a little confusing is when you come to designer or hybrid dogs, where two specific breeds are intentionally cross-bred in order to create a sort of sub-breed that mixes the best traits of both pups (like mating a poodle with a Labrador to get a Labradoodle). Though designer dogs are extremely popular, they're essentially just fancy mutts. While the American Kennel Club (AKC) does offer some activities for mixed-breed dogs to take part in, the organization only formally recognizes purebred dogs on its official registry (sorry Puggle lovers).

Ladies Morgan and Mathilda Wood-Menzies
Ladies Morgan and Mathilda Wood-Menzies
Erin McCarthy

With so many different types of dog breeds, what are the benefits of adopting a mutt? According to the dog lovers behind National Mutt Day, approximately 80 percent of all shelter dogs are mixed breeds. That’s a lot of dogs—and a lot of dogs in need of forever homes! And there are plenty of benefits to adopting a dog versus purchasing one: first, adopting a dog is almost always cheaper than purchasing one from a (reputable) breeder. And because there are so many dogs in shelters, and only so much room to accommodate them, adopting a dog means that you're potentially saving one dog's life and making room for another dog to move in to the shelter. (Of the 3.3 million dogs that enter shelters each year, the ASPCA estimates that 670,000 of them are euthanized.)

And when you get your mutt home, the benefits continue. Though there's some debate over the topic, some experts have found that because mixed-breed pooches aren’t exposed to as many genetically inherited health issues, they can often be healthier. According to some statistics, mutts can also have a longer life expectancy. Mutts are great in work situations, too, like serving as guide and therapy dogs or sniffing out drugs and bombs. And in 2014, for the first time ever, The Westminster Kennel Club allowed mutts to compete in their annual dog show.

One downside to owning a mutt (if it can be considered a downside) is that if you don't know a dog's ancestry, you might have trouble predicting its temperament or unique behaviors. But many pet parents see this as one of the benefits of adopting a mixed-breed pupper: they're full of surprises and totally unique. (Plus, dog DNA tests are widely available, so if you really want to know what your dog is made of, it's easy to find out.)

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Why Do Fruitcakes Last So Long?

iStock
iStock

Fruitcake is a shelf-stable food unlike any other. One Ohio family has kept the same fruitcake uneaten (except for periodic taste tests) since it was baked in 1878. In Antarctica, a century-old fruitcake discovered in artifacts left by explorer Robert Falcon Scott’s 1910 expedition remains “almost edible,” according to the researchers who found it. So what is it that makes fruitcake so freakishly hardy?

It comes down to the ingredients. Fruitcake is notoriously dense. Unlike almost any other cake, it’s packed chock-full of already-preserved foods, like dried and candied nuts and fruit. All those dry ingredients don’t give microorganisms enough moisture to reproduce, as Ben Chapman, a food safety specialist at North Carolina State University, explained in 2014. That keeps bacteria from developing on the cake.

Oh, and the booze helps. A good fruitcake involves plenty of alcohol to help it stay shelf-stable for years on end. Immediately after a fruitcake cools, most bakers will wrap it in a cheesecloth soaked in liquor and store it in an airtight container. This keeps mold and yeast from developing on the surface. It also keeps the cake deliciously moist.

In fact, fruitcakes aren’t just capable of surviving unspoiled for months on end; some people contend they’re better that way. Fruitcake fans swear by the aging process, letting their cakes sit for months or even years at a stretch. Like what happens to a wine with age, this allows the tannins in the fruit to mellow, according to the Wisconsin bakery Swiss Colony, which has been selling fruitcakes since the 1960s. As it ages, it becomes even more flavorful, bringing out complex notes that a young fruitcake (or wine) lacks.

If you want your fruitcake to age gracefully, you’ll have to give it a little more hooch every once in a while. If you’re keeping it on the counter in advance of a holiday feast a few weeks away, the King Arthur Flour Company recommends unwrapping it and brushing it with whatever alcohol you’ve chosen (brandy and rum are popular choices) every few days. This is called “feeding” the cake, and should happen every week or so.

The aging process is built into our traditions around fruitcakes. In Great Britain, one wedding tradition calls for the bride and groom to save the top tier of a three-tier fruitcake to eat until the christening of the couple’s first child—presumably at least a year later, if not more.

Though true fruitcake aficionados argue over exactly how long you should be marinating your fruitcake in the fridge, The Spruce says that “it's generally recommended that soaked fruitcake should be consumed within two years.” Which isn't to say that the cake couldn’t last longer, as our century-old Antarctic fruitcake proves. Honestly, it would probably taste OK if you let it sit in brandy for a few days.

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What’s the Difference Between Crocheting and Knitting?

djedzura/iStock via Getty Images
djedzura/iStock via Getty Images

With blustery days officially upon us, the most pressing question about your sweaters, scarves, hats, and mittens is probably: “Are these keeping me warm?” If you’re a DIY enthusiast, or just a detail-oriented person in general, your next question might be: “Were these knitted or crocheted?”

Knitting and crocheting are both calming crafts that involve yarn, produce cozy garments and other items, and can even boost your mental well-being. Having said that, they do have a few specific differences.

To knit, you need needles. The size, material, and number of those needles depends on the project; though most traditional garments are made using two needles, it’s also possible to knit with just one needle, or as many as five. But regardless of the other variables, one or both ends of your knitting needles will always be pointed.

While crocheting calls for a similar long, thin tool that varies in size and material, it has a hooked end—and you only ever need one. According to The Spruce Crafts, even if you hear people refer to the tool as a crochet needle, they’re really talking about a crochet hook.

crotchet hook and garment
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Part of the reason you only use one hook brings us to the next difference between crocheting and knitting: When crocheting, there’s only one “active loop” on your hook at any given time, whereas knitting entails lining up loops down the length of your needles and passing them between needles. The blog Darn Good Yarn explains that since each loop is attached to a long row of stitches, accidentally “dropping” one off the end of your needle might unravel the entire row.

Of course, you have a better chance of avoiding that type of manual error if you’re using a knitting machine or loom, which both exist. Crocheting, on the other hand, has to be done by hand. Since machines can create garments with extremely small stitches, some knit clothes can be much more lightweight or close-fitting than anything you’d be able to crochet—and knitted clothes can also be mass-produced.

When it comes to what the items actually look like, crochet stitches characteristically look more like knots, while knit stitches seem flatter and less bulky. However, materials and techniques have come a long way over the years, and now there’s more crossover between what you’re able to knit and crochet. According to The Spruce Crafts, socks and T-shirts—traditionally both garments that would be knitted—can now technically be crocheted.

knitting needles and garment
Sedan504/iStock via Getty Images

And, believe it or not, knitting and crocheting can even be used to depict complicated mathematical concepts: see what a crocheted hyperbolic plane, Lorenz manifold, and more look like here.

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