10 Facts You Should Know About Schizophrenia

Tero Vesalainen/iStock via Getty Images
Tero Vesalainen/iStock via Getty Images

Of all the misunderstood mental illnesses, schizophrenia gets an especially bad rap. The condition is characterized by disordered thoughts, unusual speech and behavior, and an inaccurate view of reality. It's often used as the go-to disorder for violent criminals in movies and television shows, but in reality, schizophrenia affects a diverse range of people, many of whom are able to lead normal, satisfying lives with the help of treatments like therapy and medication. From symptoms to possible causes, here are some facts you should know about schizophrenia.

1. Schizophrenia literally means “split mind” ...

The name schizophrenia comes from the Greek words skhizein ("to split") and phren ("mind"). Swiss psychiatrist Paul Eugen Bleuler came up with the word in 1910 for the dissociation of various mental functions he saw in his patients. Before the term schizophrenia was coined, patients who exhibited symptoms of the condition were thought to have something called dementia praecox or “dementia of early life.” When Bleuler observed that the disease didn’t necessarily lead to mental deterioration—and patients were even capable of improving—he realized dementia wasn’t the problem.

2. ... but schizophrenia has nothing to do with split personalities.

Schizophrenia is not the same thing as dissociative identity disorder, which was previously known as multiple personality disorder. Someone can be diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder if they alternate between two or more identities, each with their own distinct traits. Schizophrenia, on the other hand, is characterized by auditory and visual hallucinations, amnesia, and general misperceptions of reality—none of which have anything to do with changing personalities. The association with split personalities is one of the biggest misconceptions attached to schizophrenia.

3. There are “positive” and “negative” symptoms of schizophrenia.

When Paul Eugen Bleuler coined the term, he also came up with a list of positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms of the disorder. Positive and negative in this case don’t mean good and bad. Positive is used to describe the characteristics of schizophrenia that shouldn’t occur in a healthy person, like paranoid thoughts and hallucinations. Symptoms that fall under the negative label include healthy traits that are missing from patients, like motivation, interest in life, and coherent speech. The last category, cognitive symptoms, covers disorganized thinking, gaps in memory, and other signs of mental dysfunction. Doctors still use the system devised by Bleuler to treat patients today.

4. Schizophrenia has genetic and environmental causes.

No one cause has been linked to schizophrenia. Doctors suspect that genetics may play a role in some cases: A chemical imbalance related to the neurotransmitter dopamine may increase someone’s chances of developing schizophrenia, as can complications during their birth. People with a parent with schizophrenia are more likely to have it themselves, but this is thought to be the result of a cocktail of genetic factors and not one specific gene mutation. There’s also a clear line between schizophrenia and environmental pressures. Stressful situations can trigger schizophrenia in people who are already predisposed to it. People with schizophrenia are also more likely to abuse substances (up to 50 percent are addicted to drugs or alcohol) but it’s not always clear when the behavior exacerbates the disorder or vice versa.

5. The first signs of schizophrenia usually appear in adolescence.

Most people with schizophrenia develop it fairly early in life. The most common time for symptoms to appear is in late adolescence and early adulthood. While male patients typically start dealing with schizophrenia in their late teens or early 20s, women tend to develop it a bit later in their late 20s and early 30s.The brain goes through crucial changes in late adolescence, which could make it especially vulnerable to psychotic disorders like schizophrenia.

6. Hollywood fuels misconceptions about schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia is one of the most stigmatized mental illnesses, and that’s largely due to its portrayal in entertainment. When researchers looked at 41 movies featuring schizophrenic characters for a study published in 2012 [PDF], they found that 83 percent of them were depicted as dangerous to themselves or others. A third engaged in homicidal acts. In reality, violence is uncommon among people with schizophrenia and someone with the disorder is by no means destined to be a criminal. Struggles that are much more common for schizophrenic people—such as negative symptoms like depressed feelings and unexpressive speech—are rarely seen on screen.

7. Schizophrenia is rare.

Though many people have heard of the condition, schizophrenia isn’t very widespread. According to the World Health Organization, it affects 21 million people worldwide, or less than 1 percent of the global population.

8. Schizophrenia patients have a greater risk of earlier death.

The disease itself may not be deadly, but schizophrenia can have life-threatening consequences. Patients with schizophrenia are two to three times more likely to die early than people without it, and they generally live 20 years less. The causes of death that contribute to this high mortality rate are suicide, cancer, and heart disease. Drug and alcohol abuse and cigarette smoking is more common among people with schizophrenia, all of which can lead to a decline in health. The antipsychotic drugs many people with schizophrenia take for most of their lives can also cause adverse side effects like metabolic issues.

9. Other mental illnesses are related to schizophrenia.

Schizophrenic patients are at a greater risk for a slew of different mental illnesses. Rates of depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder are all higher among people with schizophrenia. Symptoms of schizophrenia can overlap with these disorders: Suicidal thoughts and a lack of motivation and interest in life are schizophrenic symptoms that are also hallmarks of depression.

10. There are many ways to treat schizophrenia.

While there’s no cure for schizophrenia, the illness is highly treatable. Antipsychotic medications that target the neurotransmitter dopamine are commonly prescribed to patients. Some examples of these drugs include aripiprazole (Abilify), brexpiprazole (Rexulti), and lurasidone (Latuda). Drugs can make life manageable for schizophrenic patients, but they can also come with side effects such as weight gain, constipation, low blood pressure, and even seizures. Psychosocial therapy is another common treatment for people with schizophrenia.

Keep Your Cat Busy With a Board Game That Doubles as a Scratch Pad

Cheerble
Cheerble

No matter how much you love playing with your cat, waving a feather toy in front of its face can get monotonous after a while (for the both of you). To shake up playtime, the Cheerble three-in-one board game looks to provide your feline housemate with hours of hands-free entertainment.

Cheerble's board game, which is currently raising money on Kickstarter, is designed to keep even the most restless cats stimulated. The first component of the game is the electronic Cheerble ball, which rolls on its own when your cat touches it with their paw or nose—no remote control required. And on days when your cat is especially energetic, you can adjust the ball's settings to roll and bounce in a way that matches their stamina.

Cheerable cat toy on Kickstarter.
Cheerble

The Cheerble balls are meant to pair with the Cheerble game board, which consists of a box that has plenty of room for balls to roll around. The board is also covered on one side with a platform that has holes big enough for your cat to fit their paws through, so they can hunt the balls like a game of Whack-a-Mole. And if your cat ever loses interest in chasing the ball, the board also includes a built-in scratch pad and fluffy wand toy to slap around. A simplified version of the board game includes the scratch pad without the wand or hole maze, so you can tailor your purchase for your cat's interests.

Cheerble cat board game.
Cheerble

Since launching its campaign on Kickstarter on April 23, Cheerble has raised over $128,000, already blowing past its initial goal of $6416. You can back the Kickstarter today to claim a Cheerble product, with $32 getting you a ball and $58 getting you the board game. You can make your pledge here, with shipping estimated for July 2020.

At Mental Floss, we only write about the products we love and want to share with our readers, so all products are chosen independently by our editors. Mental Floss has affiliate relationships with certain retailers and may receive a percentage of any sale made from the links on this page. Prices and availability are accurate as of the time of publication.

9 Outdoor Accessories for the Perfect Backyard Party

Amazon/OtterBox
Amazon/OtterBox

Hosting the perfect party in the great outdoors doesn't have to involve you moving any further than your own backyard. Whether you’re looking for games to play with friends, chairs to keep you comfortable, or tents to turn your yard into your own personal campsite, check out some of these essential products that will transform your own patch of nature into a true outdoor oasis.

1. Wine Tumbler; $20

Tumblers from Otterbox
OtterBox

These wine tumblers from Otterbox will make your backyard the toast of the summer. Made from 100 percent stainless steel and lined with copper, these 10-ounce cups will keep your wine at the perfect temperature until the last s’more is eaten and the fire is put out. Each tumbler holds two standard wine pours and has a sweat-resistant design so you can leave your coasters inside. And each tumbler is fitted with a press-in lid, keeping your drink secure whether you’re taking a walk or playing a game with friends.

Buy it: Otterbox

2. Wood-Burning Fire Pit; $300

Wood-burning fire pit from Wayfair.
Martha Stewart/Wayfair

This steel wood-burning fire pit is exactly what you need to create a little ambiance once the moon is out and friends and family are ready to unwind with some roasted marshmallows. The pit itself is only a few feet across, so you'll be able to build a cozy fire for a handful of people, and the mesh screen that secures over it will keep the sparks away from you and your party. 

Buy it: Wayfair

3. Kabob Grilling Baskets; $17

Kebob grilling baskets on UncommonGoods.
UncommonGoods

No backyard adventure is complete without a tasty meal, and these kabob grilling baskets will help you spend less time on the grill and more time enjoying the beauty of nature. These baskets can be packed with all the ingredients you could ever want for kabobs, and without wooden skewers involved, you’ll avoid any unwanted splinters in your meal. With the ability to customize each basket, you’ll have the flexibility to create the perfect portable dinner for guests (or just for yourself).

Buy it: UncommonGoods

4. Beer Caddy; $25

A beer caddy on Amazon.
LEGACY/Amazon

Beer lovers won’t have to worry about foregoing a cold one while spending some time outside. This soft cotton canvas caddy can hold up to six bottles or cans, and it comes with a removable inner divider, so you have the flexibility of mixing and matching different-sized beverages. Its attached bottle opener—which is hooked to the caddy via a retractable cord— can be stowed in a side pocket for quick access, allowing you to open your drinks with ease.

Buy it: Amazon

5. Outdoor Jenga; $119

A large outdoor Jenga game
Jenga/Amazon

Mix up the usual ghost stories and campfire singalongs with this giant game of outdoor Jenga. Fifteen times larger than the size of a standard Jenga game, these extra-large Jenga blocks can stack up to over 5 feet high and are the perfect size for a deck or beach towel. This set comes with a portable bag for all the blocks so you can easily transport the game from one spot in the backyard to another.

Buy it: Amazon

6. and 7. Camping Chair; $30 and Loveseat Camping Chair; $73

A Colman outdoor chair on Amazon.
Coleman/Amazon

If you’re not a fan of sitting on wet grass or getting bugs on your clothes, this camping chair from Coleman will help you kick back in style. The chair has a cushioned seat and back for maximum outdoor comfort, and it also has a built-in four-can cooler pouch to keep cold beverages handy. It even comes with a nifty side pocket for books, magazines, and newspapers.

An outdoor loveseat that's available on Amazon.
Goplus/Amazon

For anyone who hates toting multiple chairs outside, check out this loveseat-style camping chair! Its ergonomic design seats two people with ease, and it’s supported by a rust-resistant steel frame and weather-resistant fabric for withstanding the elements (or just a shower from a nearby sprinkler). Even though it can hold up to 400 pounds of weight, the chair itself weighs only 11 pounds, making it an ideal choice for anyone who wants to avoid making extra trips to the garage for gear.

Buy itAmazon (camping chair); Amazon (loveseat)

8. Camping Hammock; $29-$40

A hammock that's available on Amazon.
Wise Owl Outfitters/Amazon

If you're one to go a bit horizontal toward the end of a party, take a look at this hammock from Wise Owl Outfitters. Made from heavy-duty parachute nylon, this hammock is incredibly durable and can be secured to trees with a simple set of straps. The hammock comes in two different sizes, a twin and a full, so you can choose the size that's right for you. And best of all? The largest one weighs only 26 ounces, making it easy to take comfort on the go.

Buy it: Amazon

9. Magnetic Door House Tent; $172

A magnetic door house tent on Wayfair.
Wayfair

Mosquitos, flies, and other outdoor pests don’t stand a chance against this portable screened-in porch from Wayfair. This outdoor sanctuary is big enough to fit a picnic table (and all of your friends) inside, and it features two magnetic-close front and back doors. This tent even comes with a 10-year warranty, so you can rest easy knowing that it will provide you with backyard adventures—and zero bug bites—for years to come.

Buy it: Wayfair

At Mental Floss, we only write about the products we love and want to share with our readers, so all products are chosen independently by our editors. Mental Floss has affiliate relationships with certain retailers and may receive a percentage of any sale made from the links on this page. Prices and availability are accurate as of the time of publication.