10 Facts You Should Know About Epilepsy

Madrolly/iStock via Getty Images
Madrolly/iStock via Getty Images

While the signs of some chronic illnesses are vague or invisible, epilepsy symptoms can be hard to miss. The neurological disorder is characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures, or periods of excessive or overlapping activities in the brain. It also comes with a stigma: Patients who exhibit epileptic seizures have been accused of being violent, mad, and even possessed. Those misconceptions are sometimes more harmful than the epilepsy symptoms themselves. With proper treatment, people with the condition often lead safe, happy lives. Here are some more facts.

1. Epilepsy has fueled superstitions for centuries.

Before modern medicine, cultures around the world mistook epileptic seizures for spiritual possession. There’s even a passage in the New Testament of the Bible where Jesus performs an exorcism on a boy having an apparent epileptic fit. The ancient Greeks [PDF] believed seizures were a punishment sent from the gods, and therefore considered them sacred. We now know that seizures originate in the brain, but the superstitions that surround them persist.

2. Epileptic seizures are caused by a neurological imbalance.

The brain is controlled by neurons: cells that carry electrical impulses that allow us to process our environment. Some neurons stimulate other brain cells, while others tell them to calm down. This balance is what allows us to function normally. In people with epilepsy, too many stimulating or calming neurons fire at the same time, causing epileptic seizures.

3. There are different types of epileptic seizures.

When most picture someone having a seizure “seizing up,” losing consciousness, and convulsing uncontrollably. These are the characteristics of grand mal or tonic-clonic seizures, but it’s not the only form they take.

Generalized seizures are caused by activity in both hemispheres of the brain, and they include tonic-clonic seizures, as well as absence seizures (brief loss of consciousness), myoclonic seizures (random muscle jerks), and more. Focal seizures occur in only one region of the brain and can be simple—limited to twitching and odd feelings, tastes, or smells—or complex, where sufferers experience a temporary loss of awareness.

4. Not all seizures are signs of epilepsy.

Spontaneous, non-epileptic seizures happen for a number of reasons, ranging in seriousness from brain tumor or stroke to low blood sodium or lack of sleep. A patient is usually diagnosed as epileptic after they’ve experienced two or more seizures, or if they have a positive result on a diagnostic neurological test. The most common test, an electroencephalogram (EEG), monitors electrical activity in the brain.

5. Epilepsy causes vary from person to person.

A person can develop epilepsy for a variety of reasons. In some cases, mutations in the genes related to regulating neurons can make some people more vulnerable to the environmental factors that cause the disorder. Other causes include brain damage, infectious diseases like AIDS, and developmental disorders like autism. But in roughly half of all cases, the condition is cryptogenic, which means doctors can’t pinpoint a specific cause.

6. Outside stimuli can trigger epileptic seizures.

Things that affect brain function, like drinking alcohol, taking drugs, and not getting enough sleep, can make someone more vulnerable to having epileptic fit. Other triggers are much harder to avoid: People with reflex epilepsy get seizures as a reaction to stimuli, such as flashing lights or even music.

7. Auras can signal an impending seizure.

Warning signs known as auras can take the form of a strange smell or taste, a sudden wave of fear or joy, a feeling of déjà vu, or random muscle twitches. Auras are technically focal seizures, which are seizures the sufferer is aware of, and though they often precede bigger seizures that trigger a loss of consciousness, they can also happen on their own.

8. Temporary paralysis sometimes follows an epileptic seizure.

After their seizure has stopped, patients may experience full or partial paralysis, usually on one side of their body. The loss of motor function can last anywhere from 30 minutes to 36 hours, but most of the time it doesn’t exceed 15 hours. This phenomenon is named Todd’s paralysis after Victorian physician Robert Bentley Todd, who first described it.

9. Few epileptic seizures are fatal.

The biggest threat during an epileptic fit is injury from falling down and convulsing in an unconscious state, but the majority of seizures don’t cause serious harm on their own. The exception is tonic-clonic status epilepticus, which is the name for a seizure that lasts five minutes or longer. These are considered emergency seizures and can result in brain damage or death [PDF].

10. Epilepsy can be treated with vagus nerve stimulation.

Epilepsy is highly treatable with a number of methods, from drugs to brain implants. Many patients take anti-seizure medications that balance neural signals and prevent seizures from happening. Surgery to remove the area of the brain where seizures typically begin is another form of treatment. Other options include a high-fat, low-carb diet, which can stabilize neuron function, and vagus nerve stimulation, which uses implants to send electric pulses up the vagus nerve in the neck to regulate brain activity.

Here’s What You Need to Know About the New Coronavirus

jarun011/iStock via Getty Images
jarun011/iStock via Getty Images

This morning, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed the second case of the recently discovered coronavirus in the U.S. Find out what it is, where it is, how to avoid it, and all the other need-to-know information about the illness below.

What is the new coronavirus?

Coronaviruses are a group of viruses named for the crown-shaped spikes that cover their surfaces (corona is the Latin word for crown). According to the CDC, human coronaviruses can cause upper-respiratory tract illnesses, including the common cold, and can sometimes lead to more severe lower-respiratory tract issues like pneumonia or bronchitis.

Because this latest coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, is so new, health officials are currently trying to figure out how it works and how to treat it. It’s not the first time a potent new coronavirus has caused an international outbreak: SARS-CoV originated in Asia and spread to more than two dozen countries in 2003, and MERS-CoV first infected people in Saudi Arabia before spreading across the globe in 2012.

Where is the coronavirus outbreak happening?

The majority of cases are in China, which counts more than 800 confirmed diagnoses. Most are in Wuhan, a city in China’s Hubei province where 2019-nCoV was first detected last month. Additional cases have been reported in South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam.

The CDC has confirmed two U.S. cases—a man in his thirties outside Seattle, and a 60-year-old woman in Chicago—both of whom had recently returned from trips to Wuhan. A CDC official said another 63 potential cases are being investigated in 22 states, and airports in New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Atlanta, and San Francisco are conducting health screenings on passengers arriving from China.

Chinese officials have shut down transportation to and from Wuhan. Tourist spots like Beijing’s Forbidden City, Shanghai Disneyland, and a portion of the Great Wall are also closed temporarily.

What are the symptoms of the new coronavirus?

Symptoms are similar to those caused by a cold or the flu, including fever, dry cough, and breathing difficulty. The New York Times reported that as of Friday morning, 25 people in China have died from the virus, and most of them were older men with preexisting health conditions like cirrhosis, diabetes, and Parkinson’s disease.

How does the new coronavirus spread?

Because most of the early cases of 2019-nCoV were traced back to a seafood and meat market in Wuhan, health officials think the virus originally spread from infected animals to humans, but it’s now being transmitted from person to person.

Though scientists are still studying exactly how that happens, the leading theory is that it travels in tiny droplets of fluid from the respiratory tract when a person coughs or sneezes.

How do you avoid the new coronavirus?

The CDC is warning everyone to avoid any nonessential trips to Wuhan, and to avoid animals or sick people if you’re traveling elsewhere in China. If you’ve been to China in the last two weeks and experience any of the symptoms listed above, you should seek medical attention immediately—and you should call the doctor’s office or emergency room beforehand to let them know you’re coming.

Otherwise, simply stick to the precautions you’d normally take when trying to stay healthy: Wash your hands often with soap and water, cover your nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing, stay away from sick people, and thoroughly cook any meat or eggs before eating them.

Should you be worried about the new coronavirus?

The global health community is taking 2019-nCoV seriously in order to curb the outbreak as quickly as possible, but you shouldn’t panic. The CDC maintains that it’s a low-risk situation in the U.S., and public health officials are echoing that message.

“We don’t want the American public to be worried about this, because their risk is low,” Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, told USA Today.

[h/t USA Today]

10 Best U.S. Cities for Reducing Stress

Anaheim, California's Paradise Pier.
Anaheim, California's Paradise Pier.
Kirkikis/iStock via Getty Images

Looking to reduce your stress level? You might want to consider moving to Anaheim, California. Homeowner website House Method analyzed data from America’s largest 100 cities in order to determine the best—and worst—cities for managing your stress level.

The company looked at the same five factors across all 100 cities: commute time, mental health counselors per capita, the percentage of people who exercise regularly, walkability (specifically: to a park), and the number of yoga instructors and classes. Once all the data was tallied, Anaheim, California ended up in the top spot with an overall score of 38.5.

"The city has beautiful weather, lots of sunshine, and Disneyland. How could you be stressed when Mickey lives right down the road?," House Method’s senior editor and researcher David Cusick wrote of the results. "While Anaheim didn’t have the best score for commute time, it did rank number one for the city with the most mental health counselors per capita and has a very high percentage of people who like to exercise frequently."

California did well overall; four of the survey’s top 10 cities were located in The Golden State: Oakland came in second, Irvine came in fourth, and San Francisco came in fifth (despite its high housing costs). Seattle and Spokane, Washington—which came in eighth and tenth, respectively—tipped the scales in the west coast’s favor. Here are the 10 best cities for reducing stress:

  1. Anaheim, CA
  2. Oakland, CA
  3. Jersey City, NJ
  4. Irvine, CA
  5. San Francisco, CA
  6. Minneapolis, MN
  7. Madison, WI
  8. Seattle, WA
  9. Aurora, CO
  10. Spokane, WA

On the other end of the rankings were America’s worst cities for reducing stress, with Laredo, Texas taking the title as the very worst. “Laredo ranked last for the amount of mental health counselors per capita, percentage of people who exercise, and the amount of yoga instructors/classes,” Cusick wrote. “Filling out the bottom five cities are Bakersfield, California (96); Indianapolis, Indiana (97); San Antonio, Texas (98); and Jacksonville, Florida (99).”

For the full list of city rankings, visit House Method.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER