You can spend weeks planning a road trip, but there's not much you can do to prepare for the little inconveniences that make driving a pain. One thing you can do, however, is avoid cities that are notoriously inhospitable to drivers. The list below compiled by WalletHub shows which metro areas have earned that distinction in 2020.

For their report on the worst cities for drivers in 2020, the personal finance website compared 100 of the biggest cities in the country across 31 different metrics. The criteria they looked at included average gas prices, annual hours spent in traffic per commuter, and auto-repair shops per capita.

Oakland, California, ranked top on the list of worst, largely thanks to the high cost of car ownership and maintenance rates in the Bay Area. It was followed by Philadelphia, which has some of the worst traffic and driving infrastructure of any U.S. city. San Francisco, Detroit, and New York City rounded out the bottom five. You can see the full list of 20 cities below.

Places with abundant resources for motorists don't always boast the most skilled drivers. If you want your next road trip to go smoothly, whom you share the road with matters. The states with the worst drivers in America may be worth avoiding if possible.

  1. Oakland CA
  1. Philadelphia, PA
  1. San Francisco, CA
  1. Detroit, MI
  1. New York, NY
  1. Los Angeles, CA
  1. Chicago, IL
  1. San Bernardino, CA
  1. Newark, NJ
  1. Seattle WA,
  1. San Jose, CA
  1. Honolulu, HI
  1. Baltimore, MD
  1. Washington, D.C.
  1. Sacramento, CA
  1. North Las Vegas, NV
  1. Boston, MA
  1. San Diego, CA
  1. Long Beach, CA
  1. New Orleans, LA