We Reach Pluto Tomorrow! 10 Fast Facts About 'New Horizons'

NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute
NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute

Tomorrow morning, July 14, at 7:49 am ET, the spacecraft New Horizons makes its closest approach to Pluto in history. We'll be nearer to Pluto than New York City is to Hong Kong. Over the coming months the spacecraft will return libraries of knowledge about the mysterious planet. Here are a few things you might not know about the extraordinary probe.

1. New Horizons is the fastest spacecraft ever launched.

In 2006, an Atlas V rocket blasted New Horizons into space. By its third separation stage, the spacecraft was traveling a shade under 10 miles per second. To give some idea of its speed, it took the Apollo astronauts three days to get to the moon. New Horizons reached the same distance in nine hours.

2. Jupiter’s gravity acted as a slingshot on the probe.

A “gravity assist” involves a spacecraft flying near a planet and using that planet’s gravity to change speed or direction, as if flung by a giant slingshot. Jupiter’s gravity hurled New Horizons an extra 9,000 miles per hour, ramping up its speed to 52,000 miles per hour. While traveling through the Jovian system, New Horizons gave its instruments a test run, capturing such never-before-seen phenomena as lightning near Jupiter’s poles.

3. It is carrying the ashes of the man who discovered Pluto.

In 1930, Clyde Tombaugh, an American astronomer at the Lowell Observatory, discovered the planet that was eventually named Pluto. Tombaugh died in 1997, and New Horizons is carrying a small amount of his ashes. When the probe eventually moves beyond the Kuiper Belt, Tombaugh's ashes will be the first to travel beyond our solar system. The probe also carries a CD-ROM containing the names of 434,000 people who signed up to have their names sent to Pluto.

4. Planetary scientists consider Pluto a “science wonderland.”

That’s how the team at Johns Hopkins University’s Applied Physics Laboratory, which operates the New Horizons mission for NASA, describes the Pluto system. In addition to mapping Pluto’s geology and morphology, and analyzing its atmosphere and weather, New Horizons will study Charon, Pluto’s largest moon. By orbiting around a common center of gravity, the two worlds make up the only “binary planet” in the solar system. This is the first time we can study a new planetary class known as “ice dwarf” (the other two in our solar system being terrestrial planets and gas giants).

5. The entire mission will use less power than two 100-watt bulbs.

The energy efficient spacecraft is powered by a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), a kind of plutonium power plant. Like a big thermos bottle, the spacecraft is wrapped in thermal blankets (the gold foil seen in photographs) to hold in the heat produced by the spacecraft’s electronics, keeping them at a stable temperature. Notably, the RTG doesn’t provide propulsion. The spacecraft is still flying on the speed created by the launch and Jupiter’s gravity assist.

6. Its data is transmitted to Earth at 2 kbps.

The spacecraft uses a giant dish antenna to communicate with NASA’s Deep Space Network. It’s no trivial effort, though; the beam is only 0.3-degrees wide and has to hit Earth from Pluto and, eventually, beyond. (Considering the distances involved, New Horizons is quite the sharpshooter.) It takes four hours for data to arrive at the spacecraft, and once the flyby is complete, the probe will need a full 16 months to send all the data home.

7. There is almost zero margin for error.

The numbers are astonishing: New Horizons has traveled 3 billion miles at approximately 31,000 miles per hour (currently) and, if all goes as planned, will hit a target just 200 miles across. Because of orbital mechanics, if it is 100 seconds off course, it will not be able to gather 100 percent of the desired scientific data. Think about that: 100 seconds off course from a travel time of 9.5 years. Now that’s precision.

8. New moons mean new dangers.

In 2011, New Horizons discovered a second moon orbiting Pluto (Kerberos), and a year later a third (Styx). That’s been both exciting and worrying. These moons lack the mass and gravity to keep debris caused by planetary collisions from flying into space, where they could potentially smash into New Horizons. Debris doesn’t have to be big to be a threat: a piece the size of a grain of rice could prove catastrophic to the probe. Think of a rock hitting your windshield. Now imagine if you were driving 31,000 miles per hour.

9. The USA is the first country to explore every planet in the solar system.

NASA has been the first to launch each spacecraft that has successfully visited every planet, starting with Mariner 2 in 1962. July 14 is also the 50th anniversary of the Mariner 4 mission to Mars, the first exploration of the red planet. New Horizons completes humanity’s reconnaissance of the classical solar system.

10. The New Horizons mission does not stop with Pluto.

Once the spacecraft passes Pluto, it will have enough power and propellant to continue into the Kuiper Belt, a gigantic zone of icy bodies and mysterious small objects orbiting beyond Neptune. These objects are the building blocks of Pluto and planets like it. The new course will take New Horizons one billion miles beyond Pluto.

Looking to Downsize? You Can Buy a 5-Room DIY Cabin on Amazon for Less Than $33,000

Five rooms of one's own.
Five rooms of one's own.

If you’ve already mastered DIY houses for birds and dogs, maybe it’s time you built one for yourself.

As Simplemost reports, there are a number of house kits that you can order on Amazon, and the Allwood Avalon Cabin Kit is one of the quaintest—and, at $32,990, most affordable—options. The 540-square-foot structure has enough space for a kitchen, a bathroom, a bedroom, and a sitting room—and there’s an additional 218-square-foot loft with the potential to be the coziest reading nook of all time.

You can opt for three larger rooms if you're willing to skip the kitchen and bathroom.Allwood/Amazon

The construction process might not be a great idea for someone who’s never picked up a hammer, but you don’t need an architectural degree to tackle it. Step-by-step instructions and all materials are included, so it’s a little like a high-level IKEA project. According to the Amazon listing, it takes two adults about a week to complete. Since the Nordic wood walls are reinforced with steel rods, the house can withstand winds up to 120 mph, and you can pay an extra $1000 to upgrade from double-glass windows and doors to triple-glass for added fortification.

Sadly, the cool ceiling lamp is not included.Allwood/Amazon

Though everything you need for the shell of the house comes in the kit, you will need to purchase whatever goes inside it: toilet, shower, sink, stove, insulation, and all other furnishings. You can also customize the blueprint to fit your own plans for the space; maybe, for example, you’re going to use the house as a small event venue, and you’d rather have two or three large, airy rooms and no kitchen or bedroom.

Intrigued? Find out more here.

[h/t Simplemost]

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How to See August’s Full Sturgeon Moon

It'd be pure lunacy to skip an opportunity to see this beauty.
It'd be pure lunacy to skip an opportunity to see this beauty.
mnchilemom, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

This summer has been an especially exciting time for avid sky-gazers—the NEOWISE comet flew close to Earth in mid-July, and the ongoing Perseid meteor shower is gearing up for its peak around August 11. Though full moons aren’t quite as rare, the sight of a glowing white orb illuminating the night is still worth a glance out your window.

When Is August’s Full Moon?

As The Old Farmer’s Almanac reports, the eighth full moon of 2020 will reach its peak at 11:59 a.m. EST on Monday, August 3. If that’s daytime where you live, you’ll have to wait for the sun to set that night, or you can catch it the night before—Sunday, August 2.

Why Is It Called a Sturgeon Moon?

Each month’s full moon has a nickname (or multiple nicknames), usually of folk origin, that coincides with certain plant, animal, or weather activity common at that time of year. January’s full moon, for example, was named the “wolf moon” because wolves were said to howl more often during January. June’s “strawberry moon” occurred when strawberries were ripe and ready to be picked.

Since people caught an abundance of sturgeon—a large freshwater fish that’s been around since the Mesozoic era—in the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain during this part of summer, they started calling August’s full moon the sturgeon moon. It has a few lesser-known monikers, too, including the “full green corn moon” (a nod to the approaching harvest season), and the slightly wordy “moon when all things ripen.”

[h/t The Old Farmer’s Almanac]