12 Enlightening Facts About His Dark Materials

Amazon (book cover), iStock.com/bjdlzx (background)
Amazon (book cover), iStock.com/bjdlzx (background)

In 1995, British author Philip Pullman published The Golden Compass (or Northern Lights, as it was called in most countries outside the U.S.), the first book in the fantasy trilogy collectively known as His Dark Materials. The series’ name referred to John Milton’s Paradise Lost, a heady reference for what were ostensibly books for teens. And indeed, each of the books—1995's The Golden Compass, 1997's The Subtle Knife, and 2000's The Amber Spyglass—grappled with questions about philosophy and science, and courted controversy with its critical eye toward organized religion. Yet the series, far from being prohibitively dense, is highly readable and contains all the elements of a spirited fantasy, including armored polar bears, witches, and a Texas gunslinger who flies a hot air balloon. Here are a few things you might not know about Pullman’s books—which HBO and the BBC have turned into a series starring Lin-Manuel Miranda that will debut in 2019—and the controversy surrounding them.

1. His Dark Materials is a retelling of Paradise Lost.

Milton’s epic poem from the 17th century tells the story of Adam and Eve, and of Satan’s banishment from heaven. Pullman read the book as a teenager and fell in love with it. Years later, he got the idea to write a story that flipped the poem on its head. Instead of an all-powerful God, he crafted a frail, petty deity called The Authority. And instead of a great fall after the loss of innocence, the books celebrate a young girl’s growing up and defying an all-powerful order called The Magisterium. Yes, there are more polar bears and airships in Pullman’s version than in Milton’s, but Pullman maintains the series is in response to the centuries-old work he still cherishes. “My story resolved itself into an account of the necessity of growing up, and a refusal to lament the loss of innocence,” he wrote in his introduction to an edition of Paradise Lost.

2. The title The Golden Compass was a mistake.

Pullman first called his series “The Golden Compasses,” a reference to a line from Milton’s epic poem: “The golden compasses, prepared / In God's eternal store, to circumscribe / The universe, and all created things." The “compass,” in this case, referred to the tool used to draw circles, not the one that indicates direction. After Pullman submitted the first book’s manuscript to U.S. publisher Alfred A. Knopf, editors there mistakenly referred to it as The Golden Compass, thinking the name a reference to young Lyra’s alethiometer. The name stuck, even after Pullman informed them that the title in the UK and elsewhere would be Northern Lights. Rather than fight with Knopf, though, Pullman acquiesced: “Their obduracy in this matter was accompanied by such generosity in the matter of royalty advances, flattery, promises of publicity, etc, that I thought it would be churlish to deny them this small pleasure.”

3. A Leonardo Da Vinci painting inspired Pullman's daemons.

In Pullman’s story characters are accompanied by a daemon, an animal that reflects their inner nature. The concept is heavily symbolic, especially since children’s daemons can change shape while those belonging to adults are fixed. The idea, Pullman notes, was visually inspired by Leonardo da Vinci’s painting Lady with an Ermine as well as other classical portraits of young women bravely posing with animals, including Holbein’s A Lady with a Squirrel and a Starling, and Tiepolo’s Young Woman with a Macaw.

4. Parts of the U.S. edition of The Amber Spyglass were censored.

The biggest change, occurring in Chapter 33, concerns a paragraph detailing Lyra’s sexual awakening. Both the UK and U.S. versions begin with, “As Mary said that, Lyra felt something strange happen to her body.” What follows in the UK version includes Lyra’s physiological reactions: her breathing quickens, she feels “a stirring at the roots of her hair,” and “sensations in her breast.” The U.S. version cuts these sentences and picks up again with a reference to Lyra feeling as if she’s been handed the key to a house. Knopf has never addressed the changes, though many believe it’s because they didn’t deem the details appropriate for a character under the age of 18.

5. Religious critics call the series "atheism for kids."

Christian organizations have denounced the books and the film version of The Golden Compass, calling them propaganda aimed at steering children away from religion. Bill Donohue, president of The Catholic League, has called the series “atheism for kids,” and his group, along with others, boycotted the film when it was released in 2007. “Atheism is screwy enough,” Donohue wrote in a blog post. “But when it is sold backdoor to little kids, it is downright pernicious.”

6. Pullman hasn't shied away from the criticism.

In numerous speeches, Pullman, who has described himself alternately as an “atheist” and an “agnostic atheist,” maintains that his books are more about the dangers of rigid theological doctrine and institutions than they are anti-God or anti-faith. He also argues that his books are a testament to storytelling’s ability to impart morals to children. “’Thou shalt not’ might reach the head, but it takes ‘Once upon a time’ to reach the heart,” he wrote in a newspaper column.

7. The former Archbishop of Canterbury endorsed it.

Rowan Williams called the books instructive, saying they are in fact about the death of a false God and the upholding of true Christian values. He and Pullman had a lively public conversation back in 2004, a transcript of which you can read here. Williams even went so far as to say that Pullman’s series should be taught in schools. Fundamentalists, needless to say, did not agree.

8. Pullman rejects comparisons of His Dark Materials to other fantasy series.

Some have likened Pullman’s series to C.S. Lewis’s Chronicles of Narnia and Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings series, much to the author’s dismay. He’s called the Narnia books “blatantly racist” and “disparaging of women,” and wrote an essay called “The Dark Side of Narnia” that outlines his grievances. As for the Rings books, he has this to say: “Tolkien is not interested in the way grownup, adult human beings interact with each other. He’s interested in maps and plans and languages and codes.” 

9. The stage version of His Dark Materials was a hit.

Bringing Pullman’s 1300 pages to the stage presented a daunting task, but director Nicholas Hytner was more than game. He staged a two-part, six-hour-long production at London’s Royal National Theater that ran from 2003 to 2004, and was revived from 2004 to 2005. In addition to all the daemons, special effects and world-hopping, the play also managed to show an elaborate fight between two armored polar bears.

10. The Golden Compass movie was not a hit.

New Line Cinema purchased the rights to Pullman’s books in 2002 and hoped they would become the next Lord of the Rings franchise. But development of The Golden Compass was mired in controversy, including a boycott by religious groups, an odd choice of director, and its hand-wringing treatment of the book’s religious themes. The film bombed when it finally hit theaters in 2007—so badly, in fact, that it’s been cited as one of the main reasons New Line went under. Needless to say, there are no plans to produce the second and third installment.

11. Pullman has written to companion works and an audiobook.

Lyra’s Oxford and Once Upon a Time in the North include further adventures of Lyra and aeronaut Lee Scoresbee, and include various odds and ends like maps, postcards and playable games. The Collectors, a 32-minute audiobook read by the esteemed British actor Bill Nighy, tells of a conversation between two Oxford scholars that grows increasingly sinister.

12. A prequel to His Dark Materials was released in 2017.

Pullman worked on the first volume of The Book of Dust, La Belle Sauvage, for more than a decade. The book is a prequel to the original series. Lyra is just a baby, and the book introduces a new character named Malcolm Polstead who, according to Amazon, "will brave any danger, and make shocking sacrifices, to bring [Lyra] safely through the storm." The Book of Dust is slated to be a trilogy; a second book in the series, The Secret Commonwealth, has been announced, though there's no release date yet.

A version of this story ran in 2015.

10 of the Best Indoor and Outdoor Heaters on Amazon

Mr. Heater/Amazon
Mr. Heater/Amazon

With the colder months just around the corner, you might want to start thinking about investing in an indoor or outdoor heater. Indoor heaters not only provide a boost of heat for drafty spaces, but they can also be a money-saver, allowing you to actively control the heat based on the rooms you’re using. Outdoor heaters, meanwhile, can help you take advantage of cold-weather activities like camping or tailgating without having to call it quits because your extremities have gone numb. Check out this list of some of Amazon’s highest-rated indoor and outdoor heaters so you can spend less time shivering this winter and more time enjoying what the season has to offer.

Indoor Heaters

1. Lasko Ceramic Portable Heater; $20

Lasko/Amazon

This 1500-watt heater from Lasko may only be nine inches tall, but it can heat up to 300 square feet of space. With 11 temperature settings and three quiet settings—for high heat, low heat, and fan only—it’s a dynamic powerhouse that’ll keep you toasty all season long.

Buy it: Amazon

2. Alrocket Oscillating Space Heater; $25

Alrocket/Amazon

Alrocket’s oscillating space heater is an excellent addition to any desk or nightstand. Using energy-saving ceramic technology, this heater is made of fire-resistant material, and its special “tip-over” safety feature forces it to turn off if it falls over (making it a reliable choice for homes with kids or pets). It’s extremely quiet, too—at only 45 dB, it’s just a touch louder than a whisper. According to one reviewer, this an ideal option for a “very quiet but powerful” heater.

Buy it: Amazon

3. De’Longhi Oil-Filled Radiator Space Heather; $79

De’Longhi/Amazon

If you prefer a space heater with a more old-fashioned vibe, this radiator heater from De’Longhi gives you 2020 technology with a vintage feel. De’Longhi’s heater automatically turns itself on when the temperatures drops below 44°F, and it will also automatically turn itself off if it starts to overheat. Another smart safety feature? The oil system is permanently sealed, so you won’t have to worry about accidental spills.

Buy it: Amazon

4. Aikoper Ceramic Tower Heater; $70

Aikoper/Amazon

Whether your room needs a little extra warmth or its own heat source, Aikoper’s incredibly precise space heater has got you covered. With a range of 40-95°F, it adjusts by one-degree intervals, giving you the specific level of heat you want. It also has an option for running on an eight-hour timer, ensuring that it will only run when you need it.

Buy it: Amazon

5. Isiler Space Heater; $37

Isiler/Amazon

For a space heater that adds a fun pop of color to any room, check out this yellow unit from Isiler. Made from fire-resistant ceramic, Isiler’s heater can start warming up a space within seconds. It’s positioned on a triangular stand that creates an optimal angle for hot air to start circulating, rendering it so effective that, as one reviewer put it, “This heater needs to say ‘mighty’ in its description.”

Buy it: Amazon

Outdoor Heaters

6. Mr. Heater Portable Buddy; $104

Mr. Heater/Amazon

Make outdoor activities like camping and grilling last longer with Mr. Heater’s indoor/outdoor portable heater. This heater can connect to a propane tank or to a disposable cylinder, allowing you to keep it in one place or take it on the go. With such a versatile range of uses, this heater will—true to its name—become your best buddy when the temperature starts to drop.

Buy it: Amazon

7. Hiland Pyramid Patio Propane Heater; Various

Hiland/Amazon

The cold’s got nothing on this powerful outdoor heater. Hiland’s patio heater has a whopping 40,000 BTU output, which runs for eight to 10 hours on high heat. Simply open the heater’s bottom door to insert a propane tank, power it on, and sit back to let it warm up your backyard. The bright, contained flame from the propane doubles as an outdoor light.

Buy it: Amazon

8. Solo Stove Bonfire Pit; $345

Solo Stove/Amazon

This one is a slight cheat since it’s a bonfire pit and not a traditional outdoor heater, but the Solo Stove has a 4.7-star rating on Amazon for a reason. Everything about this portable fire pit is meticulously crafted to maximize airflow while it's lit, from its double-wall construction to its bottom air vents. These features all work together to help the logs burn more completely while emitting far less smoke than other pits. It’s the best choice for anyone who wants both warmth and ambiance on their patio.

Buy it: Amazon

9. Dr. Infrared Garage Shop Heater; $119

Dr. Infrared/Amazon

You’ll be able to use your garage or basement workshop all season long with this durable heater from Dr. Infrared. It’s unique in that it includes a built-in fan to keep warm air flowing—something that’s especially handy if you need to work without wearing gloves. The fan is overlaid with heat and finger-protectant grills, keeping you safe while it’s powered on.

Buy it: Amazon

10. Mr. Heater 540 Degree Tank Top; $86

Mr. Heater/Amazon

Mr. Heater’s clever propane tank top automatically connects to its fuel source, saving you from having to bring any extra attachments with you on the road. With three heat settings that can get up to 45,000 BTU, the top can rotate 360 degrees to give you the perfect angle of heat you need to stay cozy. According to a reviewer, for a no-fuss outdoor heater, “This baby is super easy to light, comes fully assembled … and man, does it put out the heat.”

Buy it: Amazon

Sign Up Today: Get exclusive deals, product news, reviews, and more with the Mental Floss Smart Shopping newsletter!

This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

Who Is Enola Holmes? 7 Facts About Nancy Springer’s Hit YA Book Series

Henry Cavill as Sherlock Holmes, Millie Bobby Brown as Enola Holmes, and Sam Claflin as Mycroft Holmes in Netflix's Enola Holmes (2020).
Henry Cavill as Sherlock Holmes, Millie Bobby Brown as Enola Holmes, and Sam Claflin as Mycroft Holmes in Netflix's Enola Holmes (2020).
Robert Viglaski /Legendary ©2020

For mystery fans searching for female sleuths in the same league as Sherlock Holmes, the pickings are pretty slim. So it’s no wonder that the new Netflix film Enola Holmes has become a breakout hit and rallying cry for young people searching for projects that center around non-male detectives.

Enola is Sherlock Holmes’s much smarter and more worldly teenage sister. Though her name may be lesser known, she’s been around for more than a decade. The film is based on Nancy Springer’s young adult mystery book series, which puts the intrepid teenage detective smack in the middle of the Holmes boys' club. If the movie has left you anxious for a sequel, you might want to pick up the books.

1. The Enola Holmes books bring an old fan theory back to life.

Springer’s six-part book series revives an old fan fiction about a third Holmes sibling. In William S. Baring-Gould’s Sherlock Holmes of Baker Street, Sherlock and Mycroft have an older brother named Sherrinford who manages the family estate. While the BBC's Sherlock conjured up Eurus Holmes, their secret sister, Springer’s books predate the hit series starring Benedict Cumberbatch. Published between 2006 and 2010, the Enola Holmes books borrow characters and themes from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s canon, but Enola is Springer’s own creation.

2. Netflix's Enola Holmes is largely based on the first book in the series, The Case of the Missing Marquess.

The first Enola Holmes book, 2006's The Case of the Missing Marquess, builds on Baring-Gould’s fan theory. Like Sherrinford, Enola and her mother inhabit Ferndell Hall, the Holmes family’s country estate. Enola meets her famous, semi-estranged brothers for the first time in 10 years after her mother disappears on the eve of her 14th birthday. Following clues involving anagrams and ciphers, she sets off for London to find her missing mother, and proves herself a worthy detective in her own right. The new Netflix adaptation closely mirrors this book.

3. Sherlock Holmes is often Enola Holmes's greatest antagonist.

Sherlock may seem rather open-minded in the Enola Holmes film, but in Springer's series he is sexist to the extreme and largely dismissive of his younger sister. "Thoughtful and imaginative perhaps, but certainly no stranger to the weakness, the irrationality of her sex," Sherlock says of Enola at one point. One of the most arresting aspects of Springer's series is the way the tables are turned on Sherlock: For the better part of the series, he is the bad guy—and Enola stands in great contrast to him.

4. Being a young woman is partly why Enola Holmes is able to regularly best her brothers.

Enola follows in the footsteps of her trailblazing suffragist mother, and disrupts her brothers’ attempts to cart her off to a finishing school. And she knows how to use the trappings of 19th-century womanhood (skirts, bustles, corsets, etc.) to her investigatory advantage. She solves cases that leave her much more experienced brothers baffled. In one instance, the brothers fail to track down some runaways because they don't realize what can be stored in a bustle. They don’t know the languages of fans, sealing-wax, or dangling handkerchiefs either, and thus find themselves being constantly outwitted by Enola.

5. Strong female bonds are at the heart of Enola Holmes.

Penguin Random House

Throughout the series, Enola alternates between trying to escape Sherlock and working with him to solve mysteries. In The Case of the Left-Handed Lady, Enola is determined to rescue the missing Lady Cecily—a young woman Enola does not know, but feels a strong kinship with and who is being held prisoner—so she disguises herself as a nun to save Cecily, and try to learn more about her own mother's whereabouts. But her disguise is also a way to evade her brothers and guard her own freedom.

6. Dr. Watson plays a part in Enola Holmes's life, too.

Dr. Watson is very much around in the books. He goes missing in The Case of the Bizarre Bouquets, but Sherlock doesn’t have the slightest clue as to where Watson could be. Enola is intrigued by the disappearance, especially when she learns that a bizarre bouquet—with flowers symbolizing death—has been delivered to the Watson residence. Getting involved in the hunt to find Watson could prove to be disastrous to Enola, since she’s still on the run from her brothers, but she’s determined to help and ends up beating Sherlock at his own game.

7. Netflix's Enola Holmes prompted a lawsuit from the Conan Doyle Estate.

Millie Bobby Brown and Helena Bonham Carter in Enola Holmes (2020).Alex Bailey/Legendary ©2020

Sherlock Holmes is one of the most adapted characters in literary history, in large part because the bulk of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's books about the brilliant detective are in the public domain. Still, that didn't stop Conan Doyle's estate from suing Netflix over Enola Holmes based solely on the fact that the filmmakers dared to give Sherlock some actual, human feelings. Since it wasn't until the later Sherlock Holmes books—the ones that are still copyrighted—that Sherlock started to reveal shreds of his humanity, the lawsuit alleges that the Sherlock seen in Enola Holmes was based on the later, more emotion-prone Sherlock:

"After the stories that are now in the public domain, and before the Copyrighted Stories, the Great War happened. In World War I Conan Doyle lost his eldest son, Arthur Alleyne Kingsley. Four months later he lost his brother, Brigadier-general Innes Doyle. When Conan Doyle came back to Holmes in the Copyrighted Stories between 1923 and 1927, it was no longer enough that the Holmes character was the most brilliant rational and analytical mind. Holmes needed to be human. The character needed to develop human connection and empathy."

The lawsuit is ongoing.