10 Amazing Archaeological Finds Discovered by Ordinary People (and One Badger)

iStock.com/keni1
iStock.com/keni1

It's not always archaeologists who make the greatest archaeological discoveries. Sometimes it's regular people going about their business who inadvertently stumble on history-making finds. Sometimes it's a badger.

1. FRENCH LABORER SHOVELS UP CHILDERIC'S TREASURE.

On May 27, 1653, laborer Adrien Quinquin was working on the church of Saint-Brice in Tournai when, instead of dirt, he suddenly shoveled up gold coins. Further shoveling revealed an ancient tomb packed with wonders: a hundred more coins, gold and garnet-ornamented swords, horse fittings and buckles, a solid gold torc, a gold bull's head, 300 gold bees and a gold signet ring. The signet ring was tellingly inscribed CHILDERICI REGIS.

Monsieur Quinquin had found the tomb of Childeric I, king of the Salian Franks, who was buried in his capital of Tournai after his death in 481 or 482 CE. Two centuries after it was found, the treasure of Childeric was stolen from the Bibliotheque Nationale de France. The thieves melted down almost all of it, leaving only two coins, two bees and the sword fittings for police to fish out of leather bags immersed in the Seine.

2. FRENCH SOLDIERS FIND THE ROSETTA STONE.

French soldiers who were demolishing ancient walls to strengthen Fort Julien just outside of the Egyptian city of Rosetta in July 1799 uncovered an inscribed black slab that had been recycled in antiquity as building material. The soldiers' superior officers realized it could be a significant artifact, so they alerted Napoleon's scientists at the Institut d'Égypte, who dated the slab to the 2nd century BCE. The inscription—a decree establishing the divine cult of King Ptolemy V—was written in Greek, Demotic, and hieroglyphics. Because the same decree was written in three scripts, the Rosetta Stone gave researchers the chance to finally decipher ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. It took 20 years, but scholar Jean-François Champollion eventually cracked the code.

3. SPONGE DIVERS FIND THE WORLD'S OLDEST ANALOG COMPUTER.

The Antikythera Mechanism is a clockwork device of at least 30 interlocking gears made in Greece in the 2nd or 3rd century BCE. Used to calculate celestial events and the cycles for the Panhellenic Games (such as the Olympics), the mechanism is also considered the oldest-known analog computer. In the 1st century BCE, the Romans packed it on a ship full of luxury objects they'd looted from around Greece (experts don't know exactly where the mechanism came from).

The ship sank off the island of Antikythera, only to be rediscovered by sponge divers almost 2000 years later, in 1900. They retrieved the mechanism—now corroded into an unidentifiable lump of metal and wood—with no idea of what they'd found. It took seven decades and numerous X-rays for archaeologists to begin to figure it out.

4. DEMOLITION CREW FINDS THE MOST IMPORTANT COLLECTION OF ELIZABETHAN AND JACOBEAN JEWELRY EVER DISCOVERED.

Workers were demolishing the Wakefield House in Cheapside, London, in 1912 when a pickaxe through the cellar floor hit a wooden box filled with jewels. The box held more than 400 pieces of late-16th and early-17th century jewelry, among them a Swiss watch set in a solid Columbian emerald, a gold, diamond, and emerald salamander, and a Byzantine gemstone cameo.

Wakefield House was on a street known as Goldsmith's Row when those jewels were accumulated, so the stash was probably a goldsmith's working stock hidden under the floor during the English Civil War. The construction workers stuffed the treasures in their pockets, boots, and caps, and sold them to a local pawn shop owner who turned out to be the head of acquisitions for the London Museum. The Museum of London remains today the proud owner of the Cheapside Hoard.

5. BANANA PLANTATION WORKERS DISCOVER THE STONE SPHERES OF COSTA RICA.

When United Fruit Company workers cleared the jungle in the DiquÌs Delta of Costa Rica in the 1930s to make way for banana plantations, they found their bulldozers blocked by large stone spheres—some of them weighing tons. The local laborers had heard tales of great spheres filled with gold, so they did their utmost to get to the center of the stones, even to the point of dynamiting them. They found no gold, and many of the spheres were damaged by attempts to move or open them, but eventually the government intervened to preserve the artifacts.

Later studies determined the spheres were created by the DiquÌs culture starting in 600 CE and continuing well into the second millennium, stopping before the arrival of the Spanish. They range in size from a few inches in diameter to over six feet, and nobody knows what their purpose was. Approximately 300 of them survive today, as Costa Rican national icons whose massive roundness has inspired alien conspiracies and classic Indiana Jones moments alike.

6. FRENCH TEENAGERS DISCOVER LASCAUX CAVE PAINTINGS.

Eighteen-year-old apprentice garage mechanic Marcel Ravidat was walking in the woods outside his home village of Montignac, southwestern France, in September of 1940 when he came across the entrance to a cave. Some say his dog chased a rabbit into the entrance. Some say Marcel found it himself. Either way, he returned with three friends and explored the cave. Inside they found a riot of painted figures of bulls, horses, stags, rhinos, felines, and people on the walls, the paint still brilliant. They made a pact to keep their find secret, but only managed to hold on for a week before telling a teacher who was a local expert on prehistoric art.

The cave opened to the public after the war in 1948, but closed just 15 years later when the various miasmas and effluvia humans breathe and secrete caused a rapid decline in the caves' condition, introducing lichen, fungi, and mold to the previously pristine space. Now would-be visitors have to content themselves with a replica, Lascaux II, or take virtual tours.

7. SHEPHERD BOYS FIND THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS.

In 1947, three Bedouin shepherds followed a lost goat into a cave near the ancient site of Qumran, a mile from the Dead Sea, and found clay jars containing seven papyrus scrolls. They sold the papyri to an antiquities dealer in Bethlehem for a pittance. When scholars caught wind of the find, they tried to locate the cave. In 1949 they were successful, and over the next decade multiple excavations in multiple caves discovered 981 texts—books of the canonical Hebrew Bible, Second Temple apocrypha, the beliefs of one or more Jewish sectarian groups—written from the 4th century BCE to the 1st century CE. The Qumran scrolls beat the then-oldest known manuscript of the Hebrew Bible by more than a thousand years.

8. FARMERS DIGGING A WELL FIND THE TERRACOTTA ARMY OF EMPEROR QIN SHI HUANG.

On March 29, 1974, seven farmers digging a well outside Xian, China, struck the head of a life-size clay statue. They informed the local authorities, who called in archaeologists to excavate the find. The statue proved to be one of an estimated 8,000 terracotta soldiers, each with unique combinations of facial features, hair styles, postures, and armature. The clay soldiers, officers, archers, charioteers, and cavalrymen were aligned in trenches underground, a vast force arrayed to protect Emperor Qin Shi Huang (who died in 209 BCE and was buried in an unexcavated mausoleum behind them) in the afterlife. The pits have yet to be fully excavated, so these icons of funerary lavishness could well be even more numerous and complex than we know.

9. BADGER FINDS GRAVES OF MEDIEVAL SLAVIC CHIEFTAINS.

A badger spent five years digging his den on a farm in Stolpe, northeastern Germany, only to leave in 2012 after unearthing the pelvic bone of a previous (human) tenant. A subsequent archaeological excavation discovered eight 12th-century graves, two of which were of Slavic chieftains buried with bronze bowls at their feet. Other grave goods found included a double-edged sword three feet long, an arrowhead, a belt buckle with snake heads on each end, and a coin in the mouth of one of the skeletons—evidence of pre-Christian funerary rituals. Since the area was thoroughly Christianized by the 12th century, the badger discovered one of the last pagan burials in Brandenburg.

10. GERMAN TOURISTS FIND 5300-YEAR-OLD MUMMY FROZEN IN THE ALPS.

Helmut and Erika Simon were hiking in the Ötztal Alps on September 19, 1991, when they saw an upper body jutting out of the ice of the glacier. Thinking he was a climber who had recently met a deadly end, the couple reported their find to a gendarme. His attempt to extract the body using ice picks and a pneumatic drill, a much-lamented choice in hindsight, was successful on September 22, and within days a University of Innsbruck archaeologist identified the figure (from artifacts found with him) as a Bronze Age man.

Since then, Ötzi, named after the mountains where he was found, has been an immense boon to archaeology thanks to his outstanding state of preservation. Researchers have sequenced his genome, discovered he likely had Lyme disease and was lactose intolerant, studied his final days and cause of death, and identified 19 modern men from South Tyrol who are genetically related to him. Scientists have also found the oldest human blood yet discovered—red blood cells trapped in tissue by one of Ötzi's wounds. He is the 5300-year-old mummy who keeps on giving.

10 of the Best Indoor and Outdoor Heaters on Amazon

Mr. Heater/Amazon
Mr. Heater/Amazon

With the colder months just around the corner, you might want to start thinking about investing in an indoor or outdoor heater. Indoor heaters not only provide a boost of heat for drafty spaces, but they can also be a money-saver, allowing you to actively control the heat based on the rooms you’re using. Outdoor heaters, meanwhile, can help you take advantage of cold-weather activities like camping or tailgating without having to call it quits because your extremities have gone numb. Check out this list of some of Amazon’s highest-rated indoor and outdoor heaters so you can spend less time shivering this winter and more time enjoying what the season has to offer.

Indoor Heaters

1. Lasko Ceramic Portable Heater; $20

Lasko/Amazon

This 1500-watt heater from Lasko may only be nine inches tall, but it can heat up to 300 square feet of space. With 11 temperature settings and three quiet settings—for high heat, low heat, and fan only—it’s a dynamic powerhouse that’ll keep you toasty all season long.

Buy it: Amazon

2. Alrocket Oscillating Space Heater; $25

Alrocket/Amazon

Alrocket’s oscillating space heater is an excellent addition to any desk or nightstand. Using energy-saving ceramic technology, this heater is made of fire-resistant material, and its special “tip-over” safety feature forces it to turn off if it falls over (making it a reliable choice for homes with kids or pets). It’s extremely quiet, too—at only 45 dB, it’s just a touch louder than a whisper. According to one reviewer, this an ideal option for a “very quiet but powerful” heater.

Buy it: Amazon

3. De’Longhi Oil-Filled Radiator Space Heather; $79

De’Longhi/Amazon

If you prefer a space heater with a more old-fashioned vibe, this radiator heater from De’Longhi gives you 2020 technology with a vintage feel. De’Longhi’s heater automatically turns itself on when the temperatures drops below 44°F, and it will also automatically turn itself off if it starts to overheat. Another smart safety feature? The oil system is permanently sealed, so you won’t have to worry about accidental spills.

Buy it: Amazon

4. Aikoper Ceramic Tower Heater; $70

Aikoper/Amazon

Whether your room needs a little extra warmth or its own heat source, Aikoper’s incredibly precise space heater has got you covered. With a range of 40-95°F, it adjusts by one-degree intervals, giving you the specific level of heat you want. It also has an option for running on an eight-hour timer, ensuring that it will only run when you need it.

Buy it: Amazon

5. Isiler Space Heater; $37

Isiler/Amazon

For a space heater that adds a fun pop of color to any room, check out this yellow unit from Isiler. Made from fire-resistant ceramic, Isiler’s heater can start warming up a space within seconds. It’s positioned on a triangular stand that creates an optimal angle for hot air to start circulating, rendering it so effective that, as one reviewer put it, “This heater needs to say ‘mighty’ in its description.”

Buy it: Amazon

Outdoor Heaters

6. Mr. Heater Portable Buddy; $104

Mr. Heater/Amazon

Make outdoor activities like camping and grilling last longer with Mr. Heater’s indoor/outdoor portable heater. This heater can connect to a propane tank or to a disposable cylinder, allowing you to keep it in one place or take it on the go. With such a versatile range of uses, this heater will—true to its name—become your best buddy when the temperature starts to drop.

Buy it: Amazon

7. Hiland Pyramid Patio Propane Heater; Various

Hiland/Amazon

The cold’s got nothing on this powerful outdoor heater. Hiland’s patio heater has a whopping 40,000 BTU output, which runs for eight to 10 hours on high heat. Simply open the heater’s bottom door to insert a propane tank, power it on, and sit back to let it warm up your backyard. The bright, contained flame from the propane doubles as an outdoor light.

Buy it: Amazon

8. Solo Stove Bonfire Pit; $345

Solo Stove/Amazon

This one is a slight cheat since it’s a bonfire pit and not a traditional outdoor heater, but the Solo Stove has a 4.7-star rating on Amazon for a reason. Everything about this portable fire pit is meticulously crafted to maximize airflow while it's lit, from its double-wall construction to its bottom air vents. These features all work together to help the logs burn more completely while emitting far less smoke than other pits. It’s the best choice for anyone who wants both warmth and ambiance on their patio.

Buy it: Amazon

9. Dr. Infrared Garage Shop Heater; $119

Dr. Infrared/Amazon

You’ll be able to use your garage or basement workshop all season long with this durable heater from Dr. Infrared. It’s unique in that it includes a built-in fan to keep warm air flowing—something that’s especially handy if you need to work without wearing gloves. The fan is overlaid with heat and finger-protectant grills, keeping you safe while it’s powered on.

Buy it: Amazon

10. Mr. Heater 540 Degree Tank Top; $86

Mr. Heater/Amazon

Mr. Heater’s clever propane tank top automatically connects to its fuel source, saving you from having to bring any extra attachments with you on the road. With three heat settings that can get up to 45,000 BTU, the top can rotate 360 degrees to give you the perfect angle of heat you need to stay cozy. According to a reviewer, for a no-fuss outdoor heater, “This baby is super easy to light, comes fully assembled … and man, does it put out the heat.”

Buy it: Amazon

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Did the Northern Lights Play a Role in the Sinking of the Titanic? A New Paper Says It’s Possible

Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain
Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

The sinking of the RMS Titanic on April 15, 1912, is the most famous maritime disaster in history. The story has been retold countless times, but experts are still uncovering new details about what happened that night more than a century later. The latest development in our understanding of the event has to do with the northern lights. As Smithsonian reports, the same solar storm that produced an aurora over the North Atlantic waters where the Titanic sank may have caused equipment malfunctions that led to its demise.

Independent Titanic researcher Mila Zinkova outlines the new theory in a study published in the journal Weather. Survivors and eyewitnesses from the night of the Titanic's sinking reported seeing the aurora borealis light up the dark sky. James Bisset, second officer of the ship that responded to the Titanic's distress calls, the RMS Carpathia, wrote in his log: "There was no moon, but the aurora borealis glimmered like moonbeams shooting up from the northern horizon."

Zinkova argues that while the lights themselves didn't lead the Titanic on a crash course with the iceberg, a solar storm that night might have. The northern lights are the product of solar particles colliding and reacting with gas molecules in Earth's atmosphere. A vivid aurora is the result of a solar storm expelling energy from the sun's surface. In addition to causing colorful lights to appear in the sky, solar storms can also interfere with magnetic equipment on Earth.

Compasses are susceptible to electromagnetic pulses from the sun. Zinkova writes that the storm would have only had to shift the ship's compass by 0.5 degrees to guide it off a safe course and toward the iceberg. Radio signals that night may have also been affected by solar activity. The ship La Provence never received the Titanic's distress call, despite its proximity. The nearby SS Mount Temple picked it up, but their response to the Titanic went unheard. Amateur radio enthusiasts were initially blamed for jamming the airwaves used by professional ships that night, but the study posits that electromagnetic waves may have played a larger role in the interference.

If a solar storm did hinder the ship's equipment that night, it was only one condition that led to the Titanic's sinking. A cocktail of factors—including the state of the sea, the design of the ship, and the warnings that were ignored—ultimately sealed the vessel's fate.

[h/t Smithsonian]