Blood Collected From Mosquitoes Could One Day Be Used as Forensic Evidence

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While blood collected from mosquitoes won’t be used to clone dinosaurs any time soon, it may one day be used as a tool to solve crime. A 2015 study published in the journal Genetics and Molecular Research [PDF] shows that human blood taken from the digestive tracts of mosquitoes in closed environments can provide accurate DNA profiles of the people nearby—perhaps including suspects.

To test their theory, researchers collected blood consumed by 26 female mosquitoes from two homes. From these samples they were able to assemble 11 DNA profiles that matched up with the saliva samples they had taken from the homes' residents. Mosquitoes have a tendency to feed quickly and remain at the site, so it's theoretically possible for specimens found at the scene of a crime to have bitten the perpetrator and stuck around for hours to follow. And because different species are active during different times of the day, a mosquito with a belly full of incriminating DNA that’s known to be active around the same time the crime occurred could add an extra layer of evidence to the case.

Another advantageous quality is that the mosquitoes only stop feeding when they're full, even if it means drinking from multiple hosts. Mosquitoes containing more than one DNA profile could possibly provide links between victims and criminals in future crime investigations. 

The support for mosquitoes' crime-solving potential was so strong that the scientists behind the study urged investigators to begin collecting the insects at indoor crime scenes. If unknown human blood was found inside one, they could run it through a DNA database of criminals. So next time you get annoyed by mosquitoes in your home, just think of them as tiny forensic detectives.

Here’s What You Need to Know About the New Coronavirus

jarun011/iStock via Getty Images
jarun011/iStock via Getty Images

This article has been updated.

This morning, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed the fifth case of the recently discovered coronavirus in the U.S. Find out what it is, where it is, how to avoid it, and all the other need-to-know information about the illness below.

What is the new coronavirus?

Coronaviruses are a group of viruses named for the crown-shaped spikes that cover their surfaces (corona is the Latin word for crown). According to the CDC, human coronaviruses can cause upper-respiratory tract illnesses, including the common cold, and can sometimes lead to more severe lower-respiratory tract issues like pneumonia or bronchitis.

Because this latest coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, is so new, health officials are currently trying to figure out how it works and how to treat it. It’s not the first time a potent new coronavirus has caused an international outbreak: SARS-CoV originated in Asia and spread to more than two dozen countries in 2003, and MERS-CoV first infected people in Saudi Arabia before spreading across the globe in 2012.

Where is the coronavirus outbreak happening?

Overall, China has more than 2700 confirmed cases, many of which are in Wuhan, a city in China’s Hubei province where 2019-nCoV was first detected last month. Around 50 additional cases have been reported in South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam.

The CDC has confirmed five U.S. cases—in California, Arizona, Illinois, and Washington—all of whom had recently returned from trips to Wuhan. Right now, the CDC is screening all passengers from Wuhan, and their flights are only allowed to land at one of five U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York, Los Angeles International Airport, San Francisco International Airport, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, or Chicago O’Hare International Airport.

Chinese officials have shut down transportation to and from Wuhan, and they’re also temporarily closing tourist spots like Beijing’s Forbidden City, Shanghai Disneyland, and a portion of the Great Wall.

What are the symptoms of the new coronavirus?

Symptoms are similar to those caused by a cold or the flu, including fever, dry cough, and breathing difficulty. As of Monday morning, 81 people in China had died from the virus, and The New York Times reported that older people with preexisting conditions like cirrhosis, diabetes, and Parkinson’s disease are most likely to be affected.

How does the new coronavirus spread?

Because most of the early cases of 2019-nCoV were traced back to a seafood and meat market in Wuhan, health officials think the virus originally spread from infected animals to humans, but it’s now being transmitted from person to person.

Though scientists are still studying exactly how that happens, the leading theory is that it travels in tiny droplets of fluid from the respiratory tract when a person coughs or sneezes.

How do you avoid the new coronavirus?

The CDC is warning everyone to avoid any nonessential trips to Wuhan, and to avoid animals or sick people if you’re traveling elsewhere in China. If you’ve been to China in the last two weeks and experience any of the symptoms listed above, you should seek medical attention immediately—and you should call the doctor’s office or emergency room beforehand to let them know you’re coming.

Otherwise, simply stick to the precautions you’d normally take when trying to stay healthy: Wash your hands often with soap and water, cover your nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing, stay away from sick people, and thoroughly cook any meat or eggs before eating them.

Should you be worried about the new coronavirus?

The global health community is taking 2019-nCoV seriously in order to curb the outbreak as quickly as possible, but you definitely shouldn’t panic. The CDC maintains that it’s a low-risk situation in the U.S., and public health officials are echoing that message.

Caitlin Wolfe, a former consultant epidemiologist for the World Health Organization (WHO) and current doctoral student at the University of South Florida’s College of Public Health, tells Mental Floss that it’s too early to tell if the virus will become a nationwide outbreak, but the fact that cases have been detected in the U.S. “means patients and physicians are paying attention to the relevant symptoms and travel history,” and “the public health systems we have here are working.”

“The most important messages to get out to the American public are ones that share the information we know and avoid the alarmist/sensationalist narrative,” Wolfe says. “Early estimates from the Chinese authorities suggest that the R0, or the average number of people each person with the virus infects, is between 1.4 and 2.5. To put this in perspective, the average number of susceptible people infected by someone with the measles virus is between 12 and 18.”

While experts work to understand and fight the virus, keep an eye out for updates from the CDC and WHO and be extra committed to practicing good hygiene habits—which, as Wolfe points out, will also help protect you from the flu or even just a regular cold.

[h/t USA Today]

Has An Element Ever Been Removed From the Periodic Table?

lucadp/iStock via Getty Images
lucadp/iStock via Getty Images

Barry Gehm:

Yes, didymium, or Di. It was discovered by Carl Mosander in 1841, and he named it didymium from the Greek word didymos, meaning twin, because it was almost identical to lanthanum in its properties. In 1879, a French chemist showed that Mosander’s didymium contained samarium as well as an unknown element. In 1885, Carl von Weisbach showed that the unknown element was actually two elements, which he isolated and named praseodidymium and neodidymium (although the di syllable was soon dropped). Ironically, the twin turned out to be twins.

The term didymium filter is still used to refer to welding glasses colored with a mixture of neodymium and praseodymium oxides.

One might cite as other examples various claims to have created/discovered synthetic elements. Probably the best example of this would be masurium (element 43), which a team of German chemists claimed to have discovered in columbium (now known as niobium) ore in 1925. The claim was controversial and other workers could not replicate it, but some literature from the period does list it among the elements.

In 1936, Emilio Segrè and Carlo Perrier isolated element 43 from molybdenum foil that had been used in a cyclotron; they named it technetium. Even the longest-lived isotopes of technetium have a short half-life by geological standards (millions of years) and it has only ever been found naturally in minute traces as a product of spontaneous uranium fission. For this reason, the original claim of discovery (as masurium) is almost universally regarded as erroneous.

As far as I know, in none of these cases with synthetic elements has anyone actually produced a quantity of the element that one could see and weigh that later turned out not to be an element, in contrast to the case with didymium. (In the case of masurium, for instance, the only evidence of its existence was a faint x-ray signal at a specific wavelength.)

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

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