9 Behind-the-Scenes Secrets of a Shark Week Cinematographer

Andy Casagrande in Return to the Isle of Jaws
Andy Casagrande in Return to the Isle of Jaws
Discovery Channel

What is it about sharks that fascinates us so? And why would anybody ever intentionally get in the water with them? Mental Floss talked with wildlife filmmaker Andy Brandy Casagrande IV, an Emmy-winning cameraman with more than 40 Shark Week credits to his name, about the reality of working with these magnificent predators.

1. IT’S A COMPETITIVE FIELD.

Casagrande got his start as a cameraman for a research team in South Africa, but he says there's really no single path to becoming a shark cinematographer. “I get about a hundred emails a month from people who want to do what I do,” Casagrande says. “Something about sharks just captivates the world ... You get to travel to these really pristine, remote places around the world. You’re diving in amazing conditions with amazing predators.” Casagrande says the best way to get started is to literally dive in, logging hours underwater and shooting lots of footage.

2. THAT CAGE IS NOT JUST FOR SHOW.

A shark and an underwater cage
Discovery Channel

The shark-proof cage so often seen in TV specials serves a real purpose. Casagrande is well-known for diving without one, but there are times when even he prefers the security a cage can provide. “The cage protects you from sharks that might be a little more bitey than usual,” Casagrande says. “It can keep you safe from sharks that might sneak up on you, or if visibility is bad, or in the dark.”

3. SHARKS HAVE THEIR OWN PERSONALITIES.

Sharks have personalities just like people, according to Casagrande. “If you’re at a party or a bar and you see some dude that has bloody knuckles or a black eye, and he looks angry, that’s not the kind of guy you walk up to and stick your GoPro in his face," he says. "Often if a shark is all chewed up and looks like a brawler, that shark is not afraid to engage in conflict.” But many sharks are ambush predators, and so you may not see that brawler coming—which is when that cage comes in handy.

4. THERE'S ONE THING THEY'VE NEVER BEEN ABLE TO FILM.

Great white shark
iStock

For all their bulk, great whites are elusive creatures. “The holy grail for most shark filmmakers would be to capture great white sharks mating," Casagrande says. "No one’s ever witnessed it. There’s no video proof or satellite data or anything to show when, where, and how white sharks mate.” Footage of two great whites getting it on would be a huge triumph not only for filmmakers, but for scientists, who know that we need to understand animals' lives in order to help protect them.

5. THE MOST DANGEROUS PART OF A SHOOT IS GETTING THERE.

The odds of the average person getting killed by a shark are 1 in 3.8 million. Even among shark cinematographers, shark-related injury and death are extremely rare. Car crashes, on the other hand, are pretty common. “I’m leaving tomorrow to go to the Bahamas to go film tiger sharks just for fun," Casagrande told us. "If you asked your average man if you wanted to go dump a bunch of blood and bait in the water and then jump in with a dozen tiger sharks, they’d be like, ‘Are you effing crazy?’ But the reality is that driving or flying to the location is way more dangerous. I’m way more likely to get killed on my way to a shark dive than I am in the water with the sharks.”

6. SOME OF THE MOST USEFUL CAMERA EQUIPMENT IS HOME-MADE.

Off-the-shelf technology is great—Casagrande uses GoPros as well as the RED epic 5K digital camera system—but most of it has its limits. So, like many wildlife filmmakers, Casagrande has started building his own. His inventions include a "bite cam" that consists of GoPros in waterproof housing surrounded by foam and a fin cam made with buoyant foam that clamps painlessly onto a shark’s dorsal fin to provide a real shark’s-eye view. The rig is equipped with fasteners that dissolve in sea water, which eventually releases the camera from the shark's fin and allows it to bob to the surface.

7. THAT “PUNCH THE SHARK IN THE NOSE” TRICK IS A COMPLETE MYTH.

Someone, somewhere, once decided that the best way to fend off an approaching shark is to punch it in the nose. And somehow, that advice caught on. This is absolute hooey, according to Casagrande. “The reality is that sharks are pretty durable," he says. "Plus, water magnifies images. The shark’s nose might look like it’s 6 inches in front of your face, but in reality its snout is further away, and when you punch and miss its nose, your punch trajectory will go slightly downward right into the shark’s mouth. Don’t put your arm in a shark’s mouth. You generally just do not want them to be within biting range of your body. They’re unpredictable, and you never really know when one’s had a bad day.”

8. SHARKS ARE NOT MAN-EATING MONSTERS.

Your average shark just wants to eat its seal meal and be left alone. “Sharks get such a bad reputation and it’s so unwarranted it’s just bizarre," Casagrande says. "They’re really very polite and professional predators. They’re not malicious in any way. Jaws painted them as evil monsters that sought out human flesh, but the reality is that sharks want to have very little or nothing to do with us."

Sharks test their food with their mouths and, unfortunately for us, we're roughly seal-shaped. To find out if a swimming, seal-shaped animal is in fact a seal, a shark will take a bite. "If they do bite someone, it’s usually an accident," Casagrande says. "I’ve gone to parties in dark rooms with tables where I know there’s food. It looks like a piece of pizza, but maybe there’s a pretzel smashed on top of it, or some potato chips. You don’t really know what the hell it is, but you know that it’s on a table that has food. It’s most likely food, and you’re so hungry you’re going to try to eat it. Occasionally, I think sharks are in that same predicament. They know you’re something potentially edible, but it’s not as if they’re actively seeking us out.”

Want to avoid a case of mistaken identity? Steer clear of the food table. "Sharks aren’t going to jump up into your living room and eat you," Casagrande says. "The only way you get bitten by a shark is by entering their domain."

9. THEY’RE ALSO NOT OBJECTS FOR OUR AMUSEMENT.

“Every time I dive with sharks, it’s like the first time. And yes, I want to hug sharks and kiss them and tell the world how incredible they are, but they’re not toys," Casagrande says. "People need to respect them for the wild animals that they are. Don’t grab their tails or ride on their dorsal fins.” Any interaction with a wild animal, especially a stressful interaction, disrupts its life and can affect its ability to eat, migrate, or mate. If you really love sharks, you'll give them what they want: to be left in peace.

A version of this story ran in 2016.

12 Secrets of Roller Coaster Designers

People ride a spinning roller coaster in the Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk Park
People ride a spinning roller coaster in the Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk Park
hanusst/iStock via Getty Images

Back in the early 20th century, engineers attempting to push the limits of roller coaster thrills subjected riders to risky upside-down turns and bloody noses. A century later, coaster designers rely on computer software, physics, and psychology to push the limits of the roughly 5000 rides in operation worldwide. To get a sense of what their job entails, Mental Floss spoke with several roller coaster specialists about everything from testing rides with water-filled dummies to how something as simple as paint can influence a coaster experience. Here’s what we learned.

1. Getting strapped in might be the most exciting part of the roller coaster ride.

Known as a “thrill engineer,” UK-based Brendan Walker consults with coaster manufacturers and parks on the psychology of riding the rails. In his experience, riders getting secured into their seats are at the peak of their excitement—even more so than during the ride itself. “The moment the lap bar is being locked down and you have that feeling of things being inescapable, that you have to suffer the effects of the ride, is the highest moment of arousal,” Walker says. “The actual ride might only achieve 80 percent of that excitement.”

2. Designers test roller coasters with water-filled dummies.

Bill Kitchen, founder of U.S. Thrill Rides, says it can take anywhere from two to five years for a coaster to go from idea to execution. Part of that process is devoted to the logistics of securing patents and permits for local site construction—the rest is extensive safety testing. “We’re subject to ASTM [American Society for Testing Materials] standards,” Kitchen says. “It covers every aspect of coasters. The rides are tested with what we call water dummies, or sometimes sandbags.”

The inanimate patrons allow designers to figure out how a coaster will react to the constant use and rider weight of a highly trafficked ride. The water dummies—which look a bit like crash test dummies, but filled with water—can be emptied or filled to simulate different weight capacities. Designers also sometimes use the kind of crash-test dummies found in the auto industry to observe any potential issues prior to actual humans climbing aboard.

3. Every foot of roller coaster track costs a lot of money.

Thrill seekers go upside-down while riding on the Mind Eraser roller coaster in Agawam, Massachusetts
Thrill seekers go upside-down while riding on the Mind Eraser roller coaster in Agawam, Massachusetts
Kirkikis/iStock via Getty Images

There is absolutely nothing random about the length of a coaster’s track. In addition to designing a ride based on the topography of a park site, designers take into account exactly how much space they’ll need to terrorize you and not an inch more. When England’s Alton Towers park was preparing to build a ride named TH13TEEN for a 2010 opening, they asked Walker exactly how much of a drop was needed to scare someone in the dark. “It was a practical question,” Walker says. “For every extra foot of steelwork, it would have cost them £30,000 [roughly $40,000].”

4. Rollercoaster Tycoon brought a lot of people into the business.

The popular PC game, first released in 1999, allowed users to methodically construct their own amusement parks, including the rides. As a proving ground for aspiring engineers and designers, it worked pretty well. Jeff Pike, President of Skyline Attractions, says he’s seen several people grow passionate about the industry as a direct result of the game. “I remember when the game first got popular, I would go to trade shows and there would be kids looking to get into it using screen shots of rides they designed. The game definitely brought a lot of people into the fold.”

5. Paint makes a big difference in coaster speed.

A group of tin metal cans with colorful paint
scanrail/iStock via Getty Images

For all of their high-tech design—the software, fabrication, and precise measures of energy—a good coaster ride can often come down to whether it’s got too much paint on it. “The one thing that will slow down a steel coaster is a build-up of paint on the track rails,” Pike says. “It softens where the wheel is rolling and hitting the track, which increases the drag.” A good, worn-in track will have gray or silver streaks where the wheel has worn down the paint, making it move more quickly.

6. A roller coaster’s skyline is key.

Brian Morrow, former Corporate Vice President for Theme Park Experience at SeaWorld Parks and Entertainment, says that the looming curvature of coasters spotted as guests drive toward and enter the park is very purposeful. “It’s like a movie trailer in that we want you to see some iconic coaster elements, but not the whole thing,” he says. “You approach it with anticipation.”

7. Some coasters arrive as giant model kits.

Whether a coaster’s theme or design comes first is largely left up to the end user—the amusement park. But for some rides, manufacturers are able to offer pre-fabricated constructions that designers can treat like the world’s biggest Erector Set. “Sometimes I work on rides that have already been built,” Walker says. “They’re produced by a company and presented almost like a kit with parts, like a model train set. There’s a curve here, a straight bit here, and you can pick your own layout depending on the lay of the land.”

8. Wooden roller coasters are weather-sensitive.

If you’ve ever been on a wooden coaster that seems a little shaky from one trip to the next, check the forecast: It might be because of the weather. Pike says that humidity and other factors can shrink the wood, affecting how bolts fit and leading to a slightly shakier experience. “The structure itself can flex back and forth,” he says. It’s still perfectly safe—it just takes more maintenance to make sure the wood and fasteners are in proper operating condition. A well-cared-for wooden coaster, Pike says, can usually outlast a steel model.

9. The time of day can affect the coaster experience.

“A coaster running in the morning could run slower when cooler,” Morrow says. “The wheels are not as warm, the bearings are warming up. That could be different by 2 p.m., with a slicked-up wheel chassis.” Coasters experiencing their first-ever test runs can also be slightly unpredictable, according to Pike. "Those first trial runs [during the testing phase] can be slow because everything is just so tight," he says. "A lot of coasters don't even make it around the track. It's not a failure. It's just super-slow."

10. Roller coaster designs can come from unusual places—like Jay Leno’s chin.

The twisting, undulating tracks of coasters can often be the result of necessity: Pike says that trees, underground piping, and available real estate all inform designers when it comes to placing a ride in a specific park. But when they have more freedom, coasters can sometimes take on the distinctive shape of whatever happens to be around the designers at the time of conception. “We had a giant piece of land in Holland that just had no constraints, and we were sitting around talking," Pike says. “And we started talking about Jay Leno’s chin.” The ride was a “loose” representation of the comedian's jaw, but “it is there.”

11. Roller coaster riders double as performers.

A woman taking a ride on a rollercoaster at Oktoberfest in Munich, Germany
A woman taking a ride on a rollercoaster at Oktoberfest in Munich, Germany
exithamster/iStock via Getty Images

For Walker, the best advertising for a coaster is having spectators watch riders de-board after an exhilarating experience. “It’s all about that emotion,” he says. “A spectator basically asks, ‘What’s making them so aroused? What’s giving them such pleasure?’ The line for the ride is the audience. Imagining yourself on the structure becomes a very powerful thing."

12. The future of coasters is vertical.

Biggest, fastest, longest—coasters are running out of superlatives. Because rides can only be designed with so many drips, rolls, or G forces, some companies are looking to the sky for their next big idea. Kitchen has been overseeing design of the Polercoaster for years: It’s a sprawling, skyscraper-esque ride that uses electromagnetic propulsion to carry riders upwards instead of across horizontal tracks. “We want to put it in places where land is very expensive, like the Vegas strip,” he says. “You can only do that if it takes up a lot less space.” The project is set to exceed the 456 feet of the current tallest ride, Kingda Ka at Six Flags in New Jersey. “It’ll be the world’s tallest—and hopefully the most fun.”

This list first ran in 2017.

Here's Why You Should Always Tip Your Delivery Driver With Cash

Khosrork/iStock via Getty Images
Khosrork/iStock via Getty Images

In our microchip- and app-happy society, we’ve all but abandoned paying for things in cold, hard cash. And while that’s almost definitely more efficient for you, it could be costing your delivery driver their tip, Lifehacker reports.

Some food delivery services guarantee a minimum payment for their drivers, which seems like a good thing on the surface. Basically, the company will pay the driver the agreed-upon base payment, even if it’s a slow shift and they don’t actually reach that amount in delivery charges. But it also means that everything they earn, including tip, is going toward that base payment. In other words, your tip is saving the company from having to pay more of the base payment.

The best way to ensure that your tip goes into your driver’s pocket is to give them a tip that they can literally put in their pocket—namely, cash. If you don’t have cash around or like to keep your finances digital for credit card rewards or tracking purposes, you should choose a delivery service that promises to pay their employees the full amount of whatever they earn, including tip.

Take a look at Lifehacker’s handy breakdown below to find out which delivery services you can trust with your tips, and read the policy details for each service here.

Delivery Services That Give Tips Directly to Drivers

PostMates
Grubhub/Seamless
Instacart
UberEats

Delivery Services That Keep Drivers’ Tips for Base Payment

DoorDash
Amazon Flex
Caviar

Keep in mind that this is only for companies whose whole business is based on being the go-between for you and your favorite restaurant. If you’re ordering directly from a restaurant, make sure to ask about its own delivery rules, or just tip in cash to be safe.

[h/t Lifehacker]

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