Why Are Hurricanes and Typhoons More Common in the Pacific?

Typhoon Nepartak swirling over the Pacific Ocean on July 6, 2016
Typhoon Nepartak swirling over the Pacific Ocean on July 6, 2016

 Taiwan endured the impact of ferocious Typhoon Nepartak this month, a storm that crashed ashore with winds equivalent to those of a category four hurricane. The island nation, which sits off the southeastern coast of China, is a regular target for major tropical cyclones, Nepartak being the second such intense storm to come ashore there within the past year. The eastern Pacific Ocean is also hopping this summer, producing one tropical cyclone every couple of days so far this month. Meanwhile, the Atlantic has been dead quiet. This is a common pattern during the summer, and it raises a natural question: Why are hurricanes and typhoons more common in the Pacific Ocean than the Atlantic Ocean?

Tropical cyclones go by many names around the world, and the terminology can get confusing. Once a tropical cyclone strengthens to the point where it has gale-force winds—39 mph or greater—it becomes a tropical storm. A storm that reaches tropical storm strength usually gets its own name to help us quickly identify it in forecasts and warnings.

Once a tropical storm begins producing sustained winds of around 75 mph, we call the storm a typhoon in the western Pacific near Asia and a hurricane in the oceans on either side of North America. A “typhoon” and a “hurricane” are the same kind of storm, they just go by different names.

The Atlantic Ocean sees its fair share of named storms each year, averaging around 11 named storms in a normal season. The eastern Pacific Ocean averages around 16 named storms every year, and the western Pacific churns out more than two dozen named storms in a normal year. There are several factors that contribute to the Pacific teeming with cyclones while the Atlantic can sometimes struggle to see rogue thunderstorms let alone anything more ominous.

THE PACIFIC IS WARMER

Sea surface temperatures (°C) around the world on July 14, 2016. Image credit: NOAA/ESRL/PSD

 
Warm sea surface water is the fuel that drives tropical cyclones. If you ignore large-scale anomalies like El Niño and La Niña, the waters in the Pacific Ocean are usually warmer than those of the Atlantic Ocean, and the temperatures stay pretty toasty through almost the entire year. If you were to take a swim in the water off the coast of the northern Philippines, it would feel like you dunked yourself into a freshly drawn bath, just as it would if you took a dip in the ocean at a beach in Florida. Though parts of the Atlantic get uncomfortably warm, the expanse of hot water is much larger in the Pacific than it is in the Atlantic. The larger pool of steamy water gives more disturbances the opportunity to spin-up into major storms.

The persistent warmth of the western Pacific allows the typhoon season there to last the entire year, unlike around North America where it starts in May in the eastern Pacific and June in the Atlantic, both stretching through November. In addition to ocean currents, which have a major impact on sea surface temperatures, another significant factor in the Atlantic’s relative coolness is its proximity to land.

THE LAND IS A GOOD DEFENSE

Deep cold fronts don’t stop at the beach when they’re finished sweeping across the United States and Canada. Some cold fronts can keep sailing long after they leave shore, traveling across vast swaths of the ocean and dipping as far south as the islands of the Lesser Antilles. The constant train of cold fronts marching out to sea during the early spring and late fall can put the kibosh on tropical cyclone formation, stabilizing and drying out the air and chilling the warm sea surface waters. The Pacific doesn’t have that common issue—most storms stay far enough north that they don’t much affect the typhoon and hurricane seasons across the basin.

Saharan dust crossing the Atlantic Ocean in June 2010. The image was stitched together from a series of images collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite during successive orbits; gray areas show gaps between satellite overpasses. Image credit: NASA Earth Observatory

 
Dry air is also a major problem in the Atlantic Ocean. The Saharan Air Layer (SAL) recently made the news as dust blowing off Africa’s Sahara Desert traveled across the entire ocean and made for some hazy, colorful sunsets in the southeastern United States. These puffs of dry, dusty air coming off Africa don’t only alter our sunsets, but they can have a big effect on tropical cyclones. Dry air is the arch nemesis of tropical cyclones; by their very nature, these cyclones need as much moist air as they can ingest to survive and thrive during their life cycle. Dry air that spirals into the center of a tropical cyclone can collapse the thunderstorms and cause the storm to fizzle out.

Thunderstorms that develop over Africa also serve as the nucleus for some of the worst storms the Atlantic can produce. Disturbances that drift off the African coast can quickly come to life near the Cape Verde Islands, gaining steam as they spiral west toward North America. If western Africa experiences a drought (or the SAL keeps blowing west), it can have a significant impact on the Atlantic hurricane season.

The ironic thing about tropical cyclones is that they produce some of the worst winds on Earth, yet relatively weak winds in the atmosphere can force them to dissipate. Atmospheric wind shear—strong winds that change speed and direction with height—is a death sentence to budding tropical storms. Winds blow the tops off the thunderstorms and prevent them from developing into much more than a brief pulse. Wind shear is also much greater in the tropical Atlantic than it is in the tropical Pacific, both due to regular jet stream patterns and the constant stream of low-pressure systems blowing off North America. 

10 Reusable Gifts for Your Eco-Friendliest Friend

Disposable tea bags can't compete with this pla-tea-pus and his friends.
Disposable tea bags can't compete with this pla-tea-pus and his friends.
DecorChic/Amazon

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By this point, your eco-friendly pal probably has a reusable water bottle that accompanies them everywhere and some sturdy grocery totes that keep their plastic-bag count below par. Here are 10 other sustainable gift ideas that’ll help them in their conservation efforts.

1. Reusable Produce Bags; $13

No more staticky plastic bags.Naturally Sensible/Amazon

The complimentary plastic produce bags in grocery stores aren’t great, but neither is having all your spherical fruits and vegetables roll pell-mell down the checkout conveyor belt. Enter the perfect alternative: mesh bags that are nylon, lightweight, and even machine-washable.

Buy it: Amazon

2. Animal Tea Infusers; $16

Nothing like afternoon tea with your tiny animal friends.DecorChic/Amazon

Saying goodbye to disposable tea bags calls for a quality tea diffuser, and there’s really no reason why it shouldn’t be shaped like an adorable animal. This “ParTEA Pack” includes a hippo, platypus, otter, cat, and owl, which can all hang over the edge of a glass or mug. (In other words, you won’t have to fish them out with your fingers or dirty a spoon when your loose leaf is done steeping.)

Buy it: Amazon

3. Rocketbook Smart Notebook; $25

Typing your notes on a tablet or laptop might save trees, but it doesn’t quite capture the feeling of writing on paper with a regular pen. The Rocketbook, on the other hand, does. After you’re finished filling a page with sketches, musings, or whatever else, you scan it into the Rocketbook app with your smartphone, wipe it clean with the microfiber cloth, and start again. This one also comes with a compatible pen, but any PILOT FriXion pens will do.

Buy it: Amazon

4. Food Huggers; $13

"I'm a hugger!"Food Huggers/Amazon

It’s hard to compete with the convenience of plastic wrap or tin foil when it comes to covering the exposed end of a piece of produce or an open tin can—and keeping those leftovers in food storage containers can take up valuable space in the fridge. This set of five silicone Food Huggers stretch to fit over a wide range of circular goods, from a lidless jar to half a lemon.

Buy it: Amazon

5. Swiffer Mop Pads; $15

For floors that'll shine like the top of the Chrysler Building.Turbo Microfiber/Amazon

Swiffers may be much less unwieldy than regular mops, but the disposable pads present a problem to anyone who likes to keep their trash output to a minimum. These machine-washable pads fasten to the bottom of any Swiffer WetJet, and the thick microfiber will trap dirt and dust instead of pushing it into corners. Each pad lasts for at least 100 uses, so you’d be saving your eco-friendly friend quite a bit of money, too.

Buy it: Amazon

6. SodaStream for Sparkling Water; $69

A fondness for fizzy over flat water doesn’t have to mean buying it bottled. Not only does the SodaStream let you make seltzer at home, but it’s also small enough that it won’t take up too much precious counter space. SodaStream also sells flavor drops to give your home-brewed beverage even more flair—this pack from Amazon ($25) includes mango, orange, raspberry, lemon, and lime.

Buy it: Amazon

7. Washable Lint Roller; $13

Roller dirty.iLifeTech/Amazon

There’s a good chance that anyone with a pet (or just an intense dislike for lint) has lint-rolled their way through countless sticky sheets. iLifeTech’s reusable roller boasts “the power of glue,” which doesn’t wear off even after you’ve washed it. Each one also comes with a 3-inch travel-sized version, so you can stay fuzz-free on the go.

Buy it: Amazon

8. Countertop Compost Bin; $23

Like a tiny Tin Man for your table.Epica/Amazon

Even if you keep a compost pile in your own backyard, it doesn’t make sense to dash outside every time you need to dump a food scrap. A countertop compost bin can come in handy, especially if it kills odors and blends in with your decor. This 1.3-gallon pail does both. It’s made of stainless steel—which matches just about everything—and contains an activated-charcoal filter that prevents rancid peels and juices from stinking up your kitchen.

Buy it: Amazon

9. Fabric-Softening Dryer Balls; $17

Also great for learning how to juggle without breaking anything.Smart Sheep

Nobody likes starchy, scratchy clothes, but some people might like blowing through bottles of fabric softener and boxes of dryer sheets even less. Smart Sheep is here to offer a solution: wool dryer balls. Not only do they last for more than 1000 loads, they also dry your laundry faster. And since they don’t contain any chemicals, fragrances, or synthetic materials, they’re a doubly great option for people with allergies and/or sensitive skin.

Buy it: Amazon

10. Rechargeable Batteries; $40

Say goodbye to loose batteries in your junk drawer.eneloop/Amazon

While plenty of devices are rechargeable themselves, others still require batteries to buzz, whir, and change the TV channel—so it’s good to have some rechargeable batteries on hand. In addition to AA batteries, AAA batteries, and a charger, this case from Panasonic comes with tiny canisters that function as C and D batteries when you slip the smaller batteries into them.

Buy it: Amazon

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What Is My Turkey Wearing Frilly Paper Hats On Its Legs?

All dressed up and nowhere to go.
All dressed up and nowhere to go.
Matt Cottam via Flickr // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Donning a chef’s hat while you cook Thanksgiving dinner is one thing, but sticking a tiny one on the end of each crispy turkey leg seems like it might be taking the holiday a bit too far.

Over the years, these traditional paper coverings have been called many creative names, including turkey frills, turkey booties, and even turkey panties. And while they’ve fallen out of fashion in recent decades, they originally served a very specific purpose. According to 19th-century writer John Cordy Jeaffreson, paper trimmings gained popularity in the 17th century as a way for women to keep their hands clean while they carved meat.

“To preserve the cleanness of her fingers, the same covering was put on those parts of joints which the carver usually touched with the left hand, whilst the right made play with the shining blade,” he explained in A Book About the Table in 1875. “The paper-frill which may still be seen round the bony point and small end of a leg of mutton, is a memorial of the fashion in which joints were dressed for the dainty hands of lady-carvers, in time prior to the introduction of the carving-fork.”

When etiquette books started encouraging "lady-carvers" to use carving forks, the paper didn’t become obsolete—it just got frillier. During the 19th and 20th centuries, chop frills were a cute and classy way to conceal the unsightly leg bones of roast turkey, lamb, chicken, or any other bird. “Dress up any leggy food with them for parties or the children’s birthdays,” Iowa’s Kossuth County Advance wrote in 1951. “They will be thrilled.”

If you’d like to dress up a leggy food or two this Thanksgiving, here are some instructions for making your own chop frills, courtesy of HuffPost.

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