10 Game-Changing Hispanic Scientists You Didn’t Learn About In School

Ellen Ochoa, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain
Ellen Ochoa, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Many of the greatest Hispanic scientists are people you never learned about in school. From groundbreaking biologists and physicists to innovators in the fields of medicine, botany, and environmental studies, here are 10 game-changing Hispanic scientists you should know about.

1. CARLOS JUAN FINLAY

Today, the world recognizes Cuban doctor and scientist Carlos Juan Finlay as a pioneer in the study of yellow fever. But back in 1881, when Finlay first presented his extensive research suggesting that mosquitoes transmitted the disease to Havana’s Academy of Sciences, he became a laughingstock. According to Finlay’s son, the speech was greeted with initial silence, followed by “universal ridicule.” It took another two decades before Finlay’s hypothesis became widely accepted. During that time, Finlay didn’t give up on his research. Instead, he spent those twenty years refining his theory, breeding mosquitoes, and conducting hundreds of tests to support this theory.

2. MARIO J. MOLINA

The first Mexican-born scientist to win a Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Mario Molina discovered the serious environmental threat posed by chlorofluorocarbon gases (CFCs). Along with fellow chemist Sherwood Rowland, Molina found that CFCs—chemicals commonly used as refrigerants, and colloquially known as Freon—released into the atmosphere were contributing to ozone depletion.

3. ELLEN OCHOA

In 1993, astronaut Ellen Ochoa became the first Hispanic woman to go to space. She first served on a nine-day mission aboard the space shuttle Discovery, where she and a team of astronauts studied the Earth’s ozone layer, then returned to space three more times, spending nearly 1000 hours in orbit. Today, Ochoa, who holds NASA’s Distinguished Service Medal, serves as the director of the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.

4. CÉSAR MILSTEIN

Nobel Prize winning biochemist César Milstein opened new doors in the diagnosis and treatment of disease with his 1975 study on monoclonal antibodies. Milstein and his team developed a technique for the unlimited production of monoclonal antibodies, a type of antibody made by identical immune cells. Thanks to Milstein’s work, monoclonal antibodies are now used in everything from diagnostic tests to the treatments of several autoimmune diseases.

5. FRANCE A. CÓRDOVA

Astrophysicist France A. Córdova is the director of the National Science Foundation, a federal agency that develops programs to advance all fields of scientific discovery. She was nominated for the position in 2014 by President Barack Obama. Before she spent her days overseeing America’s science and scientific education programs, Córdova conducted important research on x-ray and gamma ray sources, accretion discs, and black holes, publishing more than 150 scientific papers. Back in 1993, she also became the first woman to hold the position of NASA Chief Scientist.

6. YNES MEXIA

Mexican-American botanist Ynes Mexia discovered two new plant genera and 500 new plant species—and she didn’t even start collecting plants until she was 51 years old. Born in 1870 in Washington D.C. to a Mexican diplomat father, Mexia spent many years as a social worker before enrolling as an undergraduate at the University of California Berkeley and discovering her passion for botany. In the 1910s and 1920s, she traveled thousands of miles around Mexico, South America, and Alaska, collecting some 145,000 plant specimens in just 13 years. Today, 50 plant species are named for her.

7. JUAN M. MALDACENA

Born in Buenos Aires in 1968, physicist Juan M. Maldacena studies the relationship between quantum gravity and quantum field theories. Currently a faculty member at the Institute for Advanced Studies, he has been awarded the Fundamental Physics Prize (2012) and appeared on the “Einstein’s Dream” episode of PBS’s Big Ideas. Maldacena’s research on the duality of conjecture was so groundbreaking, the participants of a 1998 string theory conference wrote a song to honor him called “The Maldacena” (sung and danced to the tune of “The Macarena.” It was the 1990s, after all). While much of Maldacena’s work is tough reading for non-physicists, he has also written several explanations of his work on quantum theory for general audiences, including a popular 2007 Scientific American article tantalizingly entitled “The Illusion of Gravity.”

8. ALBERT BAEZ

Father of singers Joan Baez and Mimi Fariña, Mexican-American physicist Albert Baez was the co-inventor of the X-ray reflection microscope. Though he created the device, which allows scientist to examine living cells, in 1948, it’s still considered a crucial scientific tool to this day. A pacifist, he refused a series of defense industry positions during the Cold War arms race, instead conducting research and teaching physics at the University of the Redlands, Baghdad University, MIT, and Harvey Mudd College. 

9. HELEN RODRÍGUEZ TRÍAS

Born in New York City in 1929, Puerto Rican-American pediatrician and healthcare advocate Helen Rodríguez Trías helped improve access to public health services for women and children in both the United States and Puerto Rico. She was the first Hispanic president of the American Public Health Association as well as a founding member of the Committee to End Sterilization Abuse, an organization that fought against the practice of forced sterilization. In 2001, she was awarded the Presidential Citizen’s Medal for her work on behalf of people with HIV and AIDS. 

10. TED TAYLOR

Nuclear physicist Ted Taylor worked at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1940s and 1950s, where he helped design small nuclear weapons and reactors, as well as the Super Oralloy Bomb, which was the largest pure fission bomb ever detonated. While detonating a test bomb in the Nevada desert, Taylor once suavely lit a cigarette off of the blast using a parabolic mirror.

After observing the damage nuclear weapons could do, Taylor ultimately had a change of heart. He went on to serve as a consultant to the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, where he worked to develop safeguards against the use of nuclear weapons. “He was ten or twenty years ahead of the rest of us,” Freeman Dyson, famed physicist and Taylor’s colleague, once said. “I think he is perhaps the greatest man that I ever knew well. And he is completely unknown.”

The New Apple Watch SE Is Now Available on Amazon

Apple/Amazon
Apple/Amazon

Apple products are notorious for their high price tags. From AirPods to iPads to MacBooks, it can be difficult to find the perfect piece of tech on sale when you are ready to buy. Luckily, for those who have had their eye on a new Apple Watch, the Apple Watch SE is designed with all the features users want but at a lower starting price of $279— and they're available on Amazon right now.

The SE exists as a more affordable option when compared to Apple's new Series 6 line of watches. This less expensive version has many of the same functions of its pricier brethren, except for certain features like the blood oxygen sensor and electrical heart sensor. To make up for the truncated bells and whistles, the SE comes in at least $120 cheaper than the Series 6, which starts at $400 and goes up to $800. The SE comes with technical improvements on previous models as well, such as the fall detection, a faster processor, a larger screen, water resistance, and more.

Now available in 40mm ($279) and 44mm ($309), both SE models offer a variety of colors to choose from, such as sliver, space gray, and pink. If you want cellular connection, you’ll have to pay a bit more for the 40mm ($329) and the 44mm ($359).

For more, head to Amazon to see the full list of offerings from Apple.

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100 Fascinating Facts About Earth

The best Spaceball.
The best Spaceball.
NASA

Did you know that there’s a place in the South Pacific Ocean called Point Nemo that’s farther from land than any other point on Earth? So far, in fact, that the closest humans are usually astronauts aboard the International Space Station. (And by the way: The map you’re about to look for Point Nemo on might not be entirely accurate; a certain amount of distortion occurs when trying to depict a 3D planet on a 2D surface.)

In this all-new episode of The List Show, Mental Floss editor-in-chief Erin McCarthy is journeying to the center of the Earth, and visiting its oceans, its atmosphere, and even space, in search of 100 facts about our endlessly fascinating planet.

The subjects that fall under the umbrella of “facts about Earth” are nearly as expansive as Earth itself. Geology, biology, astronomy, and cartography, are all fair game—and those are just a few of the many -ologies, -onomies, and -ographies you’ll learn about below. 

Press play to find out more Earth-shattering facts, and subscribe to the Mental Floss YouTube channel for more fact-filled videos here.