6 Influential (and Awesome) Giant Japanese Robots

Any kid that grew up in the 1980s is familiar with giant Japanese robots like Voltron and Transformers. But those are just a small taste of the dozens of mechanical men that make up the "Super Robot" genre that has been popular in Japanese manga (comic books) and anime (cartoons) for more than 50 years. Although a complete history would be a monumental undertaking, here are a few of the influential giant robots you should know.

1. Tetsujin 28-go

Tetsujin 28-go follows the adventures of a 10-year-old boy, Shotaro Kaneda, and his remote-controlled, rocket-powered giant robot, Tetsujin 28 (Iron Man #28). The robot was built by Shotaro's father as a secret weapon during World War II, but the war ended and Dr. Kaneda died before #28 ever saw action. Now, Shotaro uses #28 to solve crimes and defend the world from other giant robots, like his nemesis, Black Ox. That is unless someone else gets their hands on the remote control, for whoever has the remote can command Tetsujin 28 to do their bidding.

Not only did writer/illustrator Mitsuteru Yokoyama's Tetsujin 28-go create the concept of a Super Robot, but it helped establish many of the common tropes of the genre, like the "orphaned boy wonder" that controls the titular giant robot. It first debuted as a manga in 1956, before it was adapted for television in 1963 as an anime, which helped it find international acclaim. As is common with foreign translations, many of the Japanese names were changed for a regional audience. For example, in America, Shotaro Kaneda became Little Jimmy Sparks, and his giant robot became known as Gigantor, a name that still resonates with kids from the era.

The opening sequence of Gigantor

Tetsujin 28 remains an iconic character in Japanese popular culture. The long-running manga and anime are still best-sellers and have been followed by numerous sequels and remakes over the years. And in 2009, the big robot himself was immortalized as a life-sized, 60-foot-tall, 50-ton statue in Yokoyama's hometown of Kobe:

The official unveiling of the Tetsujin 28 statue in Kobe

If you'd like to check out the adventures of Gigantor, you can watch the whole series for free on Hulu.

2. Giant Robo

Thanks to 1954's Gojira (Godzilla), Japanese audiences became obsessed with tokusatsu, a style of film making in which special effects take center stage and that often incorporates actors who dress in rubber suits to portray monsters, aliens, and superheroes. The style has also been used for television shows, including the first live-action Super Robot on TV, Giant Robo.

Tetsujin 28-go creator Mitsuteru Yokoyama developed Giant Robo for TV and as a manga, both debuting in 1967. Robo's master, a 12-year-old boy named Daisaku Kusama, is part of a secret police force known as Unicorn. Unicorn, made up of both kids and adults, battles the giant robots and monsters of the evil alien Emperor Guillotine and his human henchmen, known collectively as "Big Fire." Like #28, Giant Robo can fly and possesses incredible strength, but he also has an arsenal of weapons at his command, including laser beam eyes, fingertip missiles, a super strong "Megaton Punch," and other surprises. To control Robo, Daisaku speaks into his wristwatch, announcing the name of the special attack he wants Robo to execute, a practice that has since become common in the Super Robot genre.

Giant Robo was adapted for American audiences under the name Johnny Sokko and His Flying Robot. Other than a few name changes, like Daisaku becoming Johnny Sokko and Big Fire becoming The Gargoyle Gang, the show was a pretty faithful translation. This is a bit surprising, because Giant Robo was pretty violent by American TV standards, with characters dying left and right, and even the child agents of Unicorn taking the occasional bullet. You can find out for yourself over at Hulu, where the show is streaming.

Giant Robo remains popular in Japan and has been featured in numerous manga and anime sequels, most notably the critically acclaimed anime, Giant Robo: The Day the Earth Stood Still.

3. Mazinger Z

When the evil Dr. Hell unleashes his robotic Mechanical Beasts on Japan, Professor Juzo Kabuto develops his own giant robot, Mazinger Z, made from a mysterious alloy called Chogokin, to take them on. However, the professor is killed by one of Hell's henchmen, so it's up to the professor's grandson, Kouji, to command the robot and save Tokyo.

The opening sequence of the Mazinger Z anime

Mazinger Z, created by Go Nagai, debuted in 1972 as both an anime and a manga. The series was influential on many levels, most notably because it introduced the concept of a human pilot inside the giant robot, unlike the external remote controls of Tetsujin 28-go and Giant Robo. Kouji used a small hover craft that locked into Mazinger Z's head, which not only controlled the robot's motions, but also his arsenal of special weapons, like laser beam eyes, heat rays from his chest plate, and the now genre staple, "Rocket Punch," which launched the robot's fist towards the enemy. The show also featured the first female Super Robot, Aphrodite A, a very un-P.C. heroine whose only special attack was to fire missiles from her breasts. In addition, toy company Popy borrowed the word Chogokin to name their line of die-cast metal Super Robot action figures that were incredibly popular in Japan through the 1970s and early '80s.

The anime made its way to syndication in America as 1985's Tranzor Z. However, it didn't get much traction, because network censors demanded the show be heavily edited for violent content, rendering some episodes virtually unwatchable. Overseas, Mazinger Z was followed closely by two sequels, Great Mazinger (1974) and UFO Robot Grendizer (1975), which starred different robots but tied the shows together with common characters to create the Mazinger Trilogy (the three robots are together in the image above left). It went on hiatus until the 1984 anime, God Mazinger, but has pretty much been in some type of manga or anime ever since.

The opening sequence of Tranzor Z for American audiences

4. Getter Robo

Although Professor Saotome initially created three specially designed jets for space exploration, those plans changed when the Dinosaur Empire, evolved from the few dinosaurs that survived extinction, attacked with robotic Mechasauruses. Now, the professor must convince three teenage pilots to combine forces and become the Getter Robo team to save mankind.

The opening sequence of the Getter Robo anime

The Getter Robo manga and anime series, created by Ken Ishikawa and Go Nagai in 1974, only ran for one year, but it introduced "combining robots" to the genre, without which we wouldn't have Voltron or the Constructicons from Transformers. The three jets joined together to form three different robots, each with its own special weapons, and each best suited for fighting in a particular environment — Getter-1 was good for aerial combat, Getter-2 was better on the ground, and Getter-3 was made for underwater melees.

The original show was never adapted for American audiences, but its immediate sequel, Getter Robo G (as well as the Mazinger Z sequel, UFO Robot Grendizer) was adapted as part of a series called Force Five, a syndicated collection of anime shows that was popular in the U.S. during the late '70s and early '80s. In Japan, the series has seen numerous sequels, most recently with 2004's New Getter Robo.

5. Brave Raideen

The opening sequence of Raideen the Brave, with English subtitles of the song lyrics

Released in 1975, the anime Raideen the Brave (commonly called Brave Raideen) told the story of Akira, a young boy who discovers he is a descendant of the lost continent of Mu. When the Demon Empire attacks Earth, Akira is the only one that can pilot the ancient Mu robot, Raideen, in order to defeat Barao, the leader of the Demons.

Akira "fading in," or entering, Raideen for the first time

After beating up his enemy with missiles, a shield and sword hidden in his forearm, a boomerang, a bow with giant arrows, and other awesome weapons, Raideen's special finishing move was to turn into the God Bird, a jet plane with even more special attacks. Not only was this transformation a new concept in anime and manga, but it also revolutionized robot toys. With just a few twists and turns, the Chogokin Raideen action figure could change into the God Bird just like on the show. Since then, many other Super Robots have had alternate forms, including everyone's favorite Robots in Disguise, the Transformers.

Brave Raideen was, and continues to be, a very popular anime in Japan, spawning two remakes — 1996's Raideen the Superior and Raideen in 2006. It's also credited with becoming the first anime to reach a mainstream audience in America, as it was broadcast in syndication across many markets, and even had merchandising tie-ins like T-shirts and toys.

6. Shogun Warriors

Thanks to the stateside popularity of Brave Raideen, Marvel Comics and the Toei Company, the producer of many Super Robot anime, entered into a deal that enabled both companies to develop the other's creative properties into new shows and comic books. Toei used this opportunity to bring a few Marvel-inspired TV shows to Japan, including Spider-Man. Marvel created the Shogun Warriors, a comic book series that starred a handful of Toei's Super Robots. Released in 1979 and only running for 20 issues (the cover of the first issue is at left), the comic is mostly forgotten today. However, the same can't be said for the tie-in toys from Mattel.

The Shogun Warriors toyline featured 13 Super Robot action figures like Brave Raideen (the name was Americanized as "Raydeen"), Great Mazinger, Grandizer, the three robots from Getter Robo G, and others that were popular in Japan, including the giant robot, Leopardon, used by the Japanese version of Spider-Man. (The Japanese Spider-Man show was obviously quite a bit different than the American comic, but that's another mental_floss story for another day.) Kids loved all the accessories, the ability to transform some of the robots into other configurations, and the spring-loaded Rocket Punch action, which became a signature of the line.

A commercial for Shogun Warriors toys

But the toys didn't last long after parents reported that kids were swallowing tiny missiles or getting hit in the eye with those spring-loaded fists. These injuries contributed to stronger regulations in the toy industry and, as a result, sales quickly declined. The Shogun Warriors toys were gone by 1980, but their awesomeness paved the way for Transformers, Voltron, and, arguably, the entire Japanese toy, anime, and manga craze that has since become a national phenomenon in the United States.

Since their peak in the 1970s, Super Robots have been on the decline. Oddly enough, this is often attributed to the creators of Brave Raideen, Yoshiyuki Tomino and Yoshikazu Yasuhiko, with their anime Mobile Suit Gundam released in 1979. Gundam created a new genre called "Real Robots" that has since spawned popular titles like Patlabor, Macross, and Robotech. As opposed to Super Robots, which are essentially indestructible metal superheroes, Real Robot stories take into account things like fuel consumption, limited ammunition, and machine maintenance; perhaps more importantly, the good guys don't always win. While both robot genres have their place in modern pop culture, the uncontested reign of the Super Robot is, sadly, a thing of the past.

Warner Bros.
Everything That’s Leaving Netflix in April
Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.

If you’ve been desperately trying to plan a Batman movie marathon with your friends, you’d better make it happen quickly. As of April 1, Netflix will no longer be streaming Tim Burton’s stylish 1989 reimagining of the Caped Crusader. (They’ll be eliminating Batman Returns, Batman Forever, and Batman & Robin, too—though you may not care as much about those latter two efforts.) In order to make room for the dozens of new movies, TV series, and specials making their way to Netflix in April, here’s everything that’s leaving the streaming giant’s library.


30 Days of Night

88 Minutes

Ace Ventura: Pet Detective

Ace Ventura: When Nature Calls

American Pie

American Pie 2

Apollo 13


Batman & Robin

Batman Forever

Batman Returns


Charlie and the Chocolate Factory

Cool Runnings

Death Sentence

Dolphin Tale

Eagle vs. Shark

John Mulaney: New in Town

Never Let Me Go

Set Up

Small Soldiers

The Dukes of Hazzard

The Men Who Stare at Goats

The Pursuit of Happyness

The Shawshank Redemption

The Whole Nine Yards

Wild Wild West


Starry Eyes


The Hallow

The Nightingale


The Emperor’s New Clothes


Happy Tree Friends

Leap Year


Son of God


Z Storm


The Exorcism of Molly Hartley


The Prestige


Exit Through the Gift Shop


Kung Fu Panda 3


Begin Again

12 Outrageous The Office Fan Theories

Mind-bending shows like Lost and Westworld bring out the conspiracy theorist in all of us. But even less cerebral shows have a way of inspiring some absolutely bonkers ideas. The Office was a sitcom that ran on NBC for eight years. But the way some of its fans talk on Reddit, you’d think it was a piece of science fiction. Here are 12 of the wildest theories about Andy’s “alcohorse,” radon poisoning, the Loch Ness Monster, and beyond.


One of the most enduring fan theories is that Michael Scott, noted idiot and jerk, is actually a brilliant businessman. A lot of people have suggested that Michael is putting on an act the whole time, making clients and bosses underestimate him so that he can manipulate them into giving him what he wants. Reddit points to the season two episode “The Client” as one example; this is the episode where Jan Levinson and Michael have a very important meeting, which Michael moves from the Radisson to Chili’s. He’s completely blowing it from Jan’s perspective, coming off as an unprofessional clown to their VIP client (Tim Meadows), but Michael’s approach loosens the guy up, allowing him to swiftly close the deal. There are a few other examples of Michael’s possible genius. Or he could just be a lucky dummy.


From season one, fans were rooting for Jim Halpert to win over Pam Beesly and get out of the paper business. But one fan theory suggests Dunder Mifflin’s slacker salesman manipulated us all. Reddit user Yahnster thinks Jim actually wrote the show, which is why he comes off as the hero and the coworkers he doesn’t like (i.e. Dwight Schrute) seem so annoying. Meanwhile his boss Michael, who never punishes Jim for his pranks or for being plain lazy, is written as a buffoon.


Kevin Malone isn’t the sharpest employee at Dunder Mifflin. He shreds his own credit cards by accident and can’t transfer a call to save his life. In one especially mean prank, Dwight convinces new HR exec Holly Flax that Kevin is mentally challenged. Like the Michael Scott theory, some fans believe Kevin was just pretending to be dumb—in this case, so that no one would notice he was embezzling money from the company. It would explain how he was able to buy a bar, and why he makes a weird comment about insider trading. (“I had Martin explain to me three times what he got arrested for, because it sounds an awful lot like what I do here every day.”) Check out the video above for even more evidence.


Anyone who has watched all nine seasons of The Office has probably noticed that the characters get a little bit stranger as the series goes along. There’s a theory that explains this—and it’s kind of dark! There’s a running joke on the show that the office is due for radon testing. But because Toby Flenderson is always the one bringing it up, it’s dismissed. According to one theory, Toby was right—and the entire staff has slowly been developing brain cancer. Eventually, the illness begins to alter their personalities, causing them to act in demented and strange ways. It’s also why Michael is way more mature in the series finale. Moving to Colorado with Holly did wonders for his radon-poisoned brain. Once he was out of the toxic office, he could finally grow up.


Reddit has piggybacked off the radon theory to explain Andy Bernard’s behavior, which is probably the most exaggerated of the bunch. While Andy could be suffering from radon poisoning, one theory suggests his brain damage is more directly the result of a fateful drink. In the season seven episode “Viewing Party,” Andy is having a hard time dealing with his ex Erin Hannon’s new relationship with Gabe Lewis. He’s processing all this while he’s in Gabe’s room, where he finds a mysterious container. Temp Ryan Howard tells him it’s full of powdered seahorse, which gives people superhuman strength. Andy dumps it in his wine and downs it all. The combination of alcohol and, uh, seahorse messes Andy up permanently. If this theory weren’t crazy enough, it also comes with a ridiculous name: “alcohorse.”


Fans might like the Michael theory, but they love the idea that HR’s milquetoast Toby is the Scranton Strangler. Seriously, there are entire videos laying out the claims (see one above). Could Toby actually be the notorious criminal who dominates the local news in later seasons? Fans have built up quite the case. For starters, he wasn’t at work when everyone watched the police chase and apprehend the Scranton Strangler. He didn’t even show up for the Glee party later that day! Then he makes it onto the jury, where he can help put the other guy behind bars. He’s pretty eager to share insider info from the courtroom with his coworkers—eager because of the attention, or because he’s getting away with murder? Later on, after the Strangler is found guilty, he tells everyone he’s not so sure they convicted the right guy. Did his guilty conscience overwhelm him? Or is Toby just a normal dude who takes jury duty seriously? You decide.


No really, hear this one out: A bunch of people sincerely believe that the Scranton office is hell—but that it didn’t become a hellscape until after one key episode. “Stress Relief” is a two-parter from season five. In the first part, Stanley has a heart attack in the middle of a safety drill. He survives, and soon returns to work. But what if Stanley really died that day? The theory goes that Stanley’s heart attack kills him and he’s sent straight to hell. (He did have all those affairs, after all.) Stanley hated his work more than anyone, so for him, hell is the office. But because this is hell, all his coworkers are exaggerated versions of themselves: more annoying and more cartoonish.


It’s impossible to forgot where Bob Vance works, because he repeats the name of his business (Vance Refrigeration) every time he introduces himself. But is Bob an awkward hype man, or a savvier businessman than we all suspected? One popular theory says that Bob isn’t selling his services to the people he meets onscreen, but to the people watching the documentary. It’s his way of scoring free ads, even if he does seem a little strange to Phyllis’s coworkers.


Rainn Wilson in 'The Office'

Dwight Schrute frequently struggles to separate fiction from reality. Here’s a quick list of examples, as documented by TimmestTim: He thinks he can raise and lower his cholesterol at will; he thinks Jim might be turning into a vampire and that his neighbor’s dog is a werewolf; he can’t tell the difference between a hero and a superhero or a Benjamin Franklin impersonator and the actual Benjamin Franklin. TimmestTim posits that Dwight has this disconnect because he wasn't allowed to watch movies growing up. Once he got older, and got very into fantasy and sci-fi (i.e. Battlestar Galactica), his brain couldn’t quite separate what he saw on the screen from real life. Since he had no exposure during his formative years, the distinction was harder, which is why he has no problem believing Jim is a creature of the night.


Dunder Mifflin is never the most financially stable company. Even before Sabre buys it out, Michael’s bosses are constantly warning him about layoffs or branch shutdowns—and begging him to stop spending large amounts of money on holiday parties. Based on the wider company problems and Michael’s frequent mistakes, the Scranton branch should’ve been shuttered during the first episode. So how does it survive for so long? One Reddit user theorizes that the camera crew kept them in business. Sensing that the office antics would make for great television, the crew bought up Dunder Mifflin paper so they could keep filming, and eventually make their money back on a TV show deal. Considering the damage Michael does to the warehouse alone, it must have been a lot of paper.


There’s a pretty convincing case that The Office is happening at the same time as Parks and Recreation and Dexter, and it all comes down to office supplies. In season six, a printer company called Sabre buys out Dunder Mifflin. A few Sabre employees became recurring characters, like Jo Bennet (Kathy Bates) and Gabe Lewis (Zach Woods), and the Scranton office suddenly has to drink out of metal water bottles, as per company policy. Otherwise, not much changes. But Sabre is important, because its products have appeared on other shows. Eagle-eyed viewers have spotted Sabre printers on Parks and Recreation and even Dexter. But some people think the connections run deeper. (Here’s a lengthier case for crossover involving Creed and a Parks and Rec cult.)


Creed, the strangest man at Dunder Mifflin, is the subject of many theories. But by far the best one is that he’s trying to catch Nessie. In “The Seminar,” Creed gives a speech about the Loch Ness Monster (which you can watch above), where he describes the creature and mentions the totally fake reward for its capture: all the riches in Scotland. So he’s clearly fixated on this folklore, but LaxBro316 pieced it together with another Creed non sequitur to explain his ultimate goal. “If I can’t scuba, then what’s this all been about?” he asks. “What am I working toward?” It’s unclear if Creed ever found Nessie, but we hope he’s enjoying all the riches of Scotland.


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