9 Things You Might Not Know About Alfred Eisenstaedt’s V-J Day in Times Square

Soldier kissing woman in nurse's uniform in Times Square

Wikimedia Commons // Fair Use

An exhausted nation had just gotten the news it was waiting for: Japan had surrendered, ending World War II after more than three and a half years of American involvement. The scene on August 14, 1945 was chaotic, as celebrations—some jubilant, others destructive—unfolded all across the United States, but in Times Square one photo in particular was about to etch its way into our collective memory. This photo, taken by Alfred Eisenstaedt, has come to symbolize everything that was right about that day—and the post-World War II boom period to follow.

Known as V-J Day in Times Square, or even just The Kiss, it depicts an elated sailor and a woman in a nurse's uniform locked in a bent-over kiss with Times Square standing watch in the background. It was romantic. It was hopeful. It was what the country was in desperate need of at the time.

Since it was printed in the August 27, 1945 issue of Life magazine, the picture has gone on to become one of the most iconic—and controversial—of the 20th century. But despite how memorable the photo has become over the years, we still don't know the whole story behind it. Here are nine things you might not know about Eisenstaedt's V-J Day in Times Square.


V-J Day in Times Square is an unforgettable part of 20th century photography, but which version do you see when you picture it in your mind? Arguably the most popular one was printed in Life magazine by photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt. With the couple firmly placed in the center of the image, the photo's composition is structured so you can see their full bodies with the distinct presence of Times Square serving as the backdrop. It was the perfect moment in the right location on a historic day.

As it turns out, Victor Jorgensen, a photographer for the U.S. Navy, caught the same kiss at nearly the same time. Jorgensen’s image, however, was taken much closer, with less of Times Square’s familiar aura in the background. While it never reached the heights of the Life image, the picture by Jorgensen does have the benefit of existing in the public domain, meaning it’s far easier to use for promotional purposes.


Eisenstaedt’s photo wasn’t the only piece of V-J Day PDA that graced the August 27, 1945 issue of Life. The issue also featured photos of servicemen from Washington, D.C; Kansas City; and Miami sweeping women off their feet for a celebratory kiss. None of those quite entered the zeitgeist like Eisenstaedt's, though.

The magazine’s editors must have also seen the potential in the Manhattan photograph, as it was given a full-page spread, while the others all had to fight for attention on a shared page. Life had more pictures of couples embracing in the heart of Manhattan that went unpublished in the issue—some of them, once again, shot by Eisenstaedt, who also got in on the action with a picture of himself planting a kiss on a woman in Times Square.


Due to the chaos in Times Square that day, neither Eisenstaedt nor Jorgensen thought to get the kissing couple’s names. This bit of anonymity led to a mystery over who exactly these two were, and over the decades numerous people have come forward claiming to be from the photo.

After years of questions and false leads, the names of two people pop up the most: George Mendonsa and Greta Zimmer Friedman as the sailor and nurse, respectively. This was achieved through firsthand accounts from the duo and other witnesses, and analysis from far-ranging experts, including a professor of photography from Yale (who recognized a bump on Mendonsa’s arm in person and in the picture) and a forensic anthropologist named Norman Sauer, whose research was used in a 2012 book on the subject called The Kissing Sailor by authors Lawrence Verria and George Galdorisi.


Despite the conclusions reached by many experts, there is still plenty of doubt clouding the couple’s identity. A man named Glenn Edward McDuffie was one of the most prominent other possibilities for the sailor; major news outlets even wrote obituaries for the self-proclaimed “Kissing Sailor” when he died in 2014.

Mendonsa has always been steadfast in his belief of his involvement in the picture (even bringing the magazine to court over the whole ordeal), but McDuffie came along in 2007 with evidence from a forensic artist to back up his role in the kiss.

The mystery even caught the attention of astronomers and physicists, who spent four years researching every shadow in the picture, placing the kiss at 5:51 p.m., which lines up with McDuffie’s account of the day. Conversely, in The Kissing Sailor, Dr. Sauer noted how the facial structure of the sailor in the picture could only match Mendonsa. More than 70 years later, each potential sailor has his own group of believers.

Those in the know don't believe we'll ever have an official answer. Liz Ronk, who serves as the photo editor of Life, has said, "So many people have come forward and said, 'That was me.’ So we really don't know."


Greta Friedman had no clue about her contribution to the country’s cultural consciousness until years later, when, as she told the Veteran’s History Project, she stumbled upon the photo.

“I didn't see the picture until the 1960s when I looked at a book called The Eye of Eisenstaedt,” she said. She immediately contacted Life magazine, but at this point, someone had already come along, claiming to be the nurse in the picture.

“I didn't believe that because I know it happened to me, and it's exactly my figure and what I wore and my hairdo especially, and I sent them some photographs,” she explained. “So time went by, and in 1980 they contacted me, LIFE Magazine contacted me, and I brought the picture to Mr. Eisenstaedt, and he signed it and apologized.”

It took Mendonsa even longer—he wouldn’t see the picture until 1980. Though doubts will remain about their identity, both Friedman and Mendonsa have been more widely recognized as the two in the picture in recent decades. When Friedman, who passed away in 2016, was honored by the Veteran’s History Project in 2005, the organization also made reference to Mendonsa as the sailor in question. Shortly after, Mendonsa himself was interviewed by the organization.


The image on that day in Times Square is perfect: The sailor, fresh from war, is seen giving a passionate kiss to a military nurse as victory is proclaimed. It makes for a nice photo, but, as always, the truth isn’t quite so storybook.

Friedman was born in Austria and came to America when she was 15 to escape the Nazis; her parents stayed behind and later died in concentration camps. She worked in Manhattan as a dental assistant and rushed over to Times Square to soak in the victory celebration.

Her dental office’s unique uniforms, with the white dress and stockings, inadvertently caused many people to believe she was a nurse, perhaps even for the military. When asked by the Veterans History Project, Friedman confirmed her civilian status at the time. Though she had no military background, her outfit fed into the national mythology (and made for an unforgettable photo-op).


George Mendonsa’s very public kiss may seem like the work of a bachelor serviceman looking to celebrate victory with a pretty, young nurse, but if you look closely over his right shoulder, you’ll see a beaming smile from a woman in the background named Rita Petry. She and Mendonsa (who was on leave from the Navy at the time) were on their first date on August 14, 1945 when the celebration broke out, leading to him kiss another woman in front of her. Not a great start for a budding romance.

Petry isn’t featured in Eisenstaedt’s most famous angle of the picture, but she is prominent in one of the other three he took of the kiss in quick succession. Claiming not to be bothered by the kiss, she would eventually become Mendonsa’s wife. Though in 2012 she told the New York Post, “In all these years, George has never kissed me like that.”

As Mendonsa points out, his wife is the “biggest proof” of his identity in the picture, as she has been determined to have "considerable physical resemblance to" the woman in the background and was witness to the kiss.


V-J Day in Times Square focused on the romantic, joyous side of a country celebrating the end of war. But there was a fair amount of mayhem among all the revelry. As Time magazine explained:

“Booze flowed; inhibitions were cast off; there were probably as many fists thrown as kisses planted: in other words, once the inconceivable had actually been confirmed and it was clear that the century’s deadliest, most devastating war was finally over, Americans who for years had become accustomed to almost ceaseless news of death and loss were not quite ready for a somber, restrained reaction to the surrender.”

Pedestrians and servicemen alike took part in the debauchery. Additional photos in that famous Life magazine show sailors breaking into liquor stores in San Francisco to secure some celebratory libations, as New York City apartment-dwellers littered the city with a parade that left paper debris and mangled fabric ankle-deep on the city streets.

More serious hazards included drunken joy-riders in Hollywood, mobs of people in Washington D.C. charging toward the White House, and other San Franciscans inexplicably dropping potted plants onto the sidewalks below. After nearly four years of war—and a devastating Depression before that—the country allowed itself to cut loose.


One 2012 blog post inspired a heated debate about the dynamic depicted in the image, pointing to interviews Friedman did over the years, saying in 2005. "It wasn't my choice to be kissed," she said. "The guy just came over and kissed or grabbed," and in 2012 saying, "I wasn't kissing him, he was kissing me." The kiss Einsenstaedt captured constitutes sexual assault, the blogger argued, and anyone who interprets it as a romantic, passionate embrace is exhibiting "willful blindness." According to her son Josh, Friedman "always had an appreciation for a feminist viewpoint, and understood the premise that you don't have a right to be intimate with a stranger on the street." Still, he added, "she didn't assign any bad motives to George in that circumstance, that situation, that time."

7 Top-Rated Portable Air Conditioners You Can Buy Right Now

Black + Decker/Amazon
Black + Decker/Amazon

The warmest months of the year are just around the corner (in the Northern Hemisphere, anyway), and things are about to get hot. To make indoor life feel a little more bearable, we’ve rounded up a list of some of the top-rated portable air conditioners you can buy online right now.

1. SereneLife 3-in-1 Portable Air Conditioner; $290

SereneLife air conditioner on Amazon.

This device—currently the best-selling portable air conditioner on Amazon—is multifunctional, cooling the air while also working as a dehumidifier. Reviewers on Amazon praised this model for how easy it is to set up, but cautioned that it's not meant for large spaces. According to the manufacturer, it's designed to cool down rooms up to 225 square feet, and the most positive reviews came from people using it in their bedroom.

Buy it: Amazon

2. Black + Decker 14,000 BTU Portable Air Conditioner and Heater; $417

Black + Decker portable air conditioner

Black + Decker estimates that this combination portable air conditioner and heater can accommodate rooms up to 350 square feet, and it even comes with a convenient timer so you never have to worry about forgetting to turn it off before you leave the house. The setup is easy—the attached exhaust hose fits into most standard windows, and everything you need for installation is included. This model sits around four stars on Amazon, and it was also picked by Wirecutter as one of the best values on the market.

Buy it: Amazon

3. Mikikin Portable Air Conditioner Fan; $45

Desk air conditioner on Amazon

This miniature portable conditioner, which is Amazon's top-selling new portable air conditioner release, is perfect to put on a desk or end table as you work or watch TV during those sweltering dog days. It's currently at a four-star rating on Amazon, and reviewers recommend filling the water tank with a combination of cool water and ice cubes for the best experience.

Buy it: Amazon

4. Juscool Portable Air Conditioner Fan; $56

Juscool portable air conditioner.

This tiny air conditioner fan, which touts a 4.6-star rating, is unique because it plugs in with a USB cable, so you can hook it up to a laptop or a wall outlet converter to try out any of its three fan speeds. This won't chill a living room, but it does fit on a nightstand or desk to help cool you down in stuffy rooms or makeshift home offices that weren't designed with summer in mind.

Buy it: Amazon

5. SHINCO 8000 BTU Portable Air Conditioner; $320

Shinco portable air conditioner

This four-star-rated portable air conditioner is meant for rooms of up to 200 square feet, so think of it for a home office or bedroom. It has two fan speeds, and the included air filter can be rinsed out quickly underneath a faucet. There's also a remote control that lets you adjust the temperature from across the room. This is another one where you'll need a window nearby, but the installation kit and instructions are all included so you won't have to sweat too much over setting it up.

Buy it: Amazon

6. Honeywell MN Series Portable Air Conditioner and Dehumidifier; $400

Honeywell air conditioner on Walmart.

Like the other units on this list, Honeywell's portable air conditioner also acts as a dehumidifier or a standard fan when you just want some air to circulate. You can cool a 350-square-foot room with this four-star model, and there are four wheels at the bottom that make moving it from place to place even easier. This one is available on Amazon, too, but Walmart has the lowest price right now.

Buy it: Walmart

7. LG 14,000 BTU Portable Air Conditioner; $699

LG Portable Air Conditioner.
LG/Home Depot

This one won't come cheap, but it packs the acclaim to back it up. It topped Wirecutter's list of best portable air conditioners and currently has a 4.5-star rating on Home Depot's website, with many of the reviews praising how quiet it is while it's running. It's one of the only models you'll find compatible with Alexa and Google Assistant, and it can cool rooms up to 500 square feet. There's also the built-in timer, so you can program it to go on and off whenever you want.

Buy it: Home Depot

This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

Why Was Route 66 Decommissioned?

David Winkler, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0
David Winkler, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

Very little inspires nostalgia for the golden age of road trips the way Route 66 does. The roadway that runs from Chicago to Los Angeles, which first opened in 1926, was clearly designed with convenience and efficiency in mind, as it connected small towns with major thoroughfares throughout its 2448-mile stretch. By the 1950s, America's "Mother Road"—with its roadside tourist traps, charming drive-ins, and kitschy hotels—had become a major tourist attraction in and of itself.

Route 66 inspired John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath, was the basis for a popular television series, and supported countless small business owners who served vacationers as they passed through. So how did the beloved Main Street of America fall into a state of disrepair and disuse less than 30 years after the height of its popularity?

Three words: the Eisenhower Interstate.

During WWII, General Eisenhower saw how efficient the German Autobahn was. In 1956, President Eisenhower enacted the Federal Interstate Act, which called for the construction of four-lane highways to make crossing the U.S. more efficient, eliminate traffic congestion, and make it easier to evacuate big cities in the event of a nuclear attack.

Unfortunately for Route 66 and the people who depended on it, the Federal Interstate Act meant that parts of the Mother Road had to be upgraded, replaced, or bypassed entirely. By the 1970s, the original route had been almost entirely chopped up; on June 27, 1985, the all-American roadway was decommissioned.

Much of the actual Route still remains—85 percent, in fact. The famous Wigwam Motel and other attractions still stand, helped in part by the Route 66 Corridor Preservation Program, which was launched in 1999. You may see more of the route being revitalized in the coming years, too. In 2015, several preservation organizations combined to form the U.S. 66 Highway Association, an organization dedicated to preserving the roadway and all of its architecture, historic sites, and attractions.

Perhaps by its 2026 centennial, the Mother Road will once again serve millions of Americans headed west for adventure.

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