Letting Eyewitnesses Sleep Could Make For More Accurate Testimony

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iStock

Despite what watching Law & Order might have taught you, eyewitness accounts of crimes are far from trustworthy. Human memory is fallible, and in fact, eyewitnesses are notoriously bad at providing accurate evidence. Misidentification by eyewitnesses has played a role in 70 percent of convictions overturned by DNA evidence in the U.S., according to the New York-based Innocence Project. But a new study suggests one way to help eyewitnesses provide more accurate evidence: sleep.

Published in the journal PLOS ONE and spotted by Futurity, the study finds that witness testimony is more accurate during police lineups if the person is well-rested.

In the study, Michigan State University students watched a video of a staged crime in which a man planted a bomb on a rooftop. They were then asked to look through several black-and-white lineups of six people, some of which included the perpetrator from the video, and some of which only had look-alike fillers. The participants had to wait 12 hours between watching the video and picking out the criminal from the lineup, but not all of them spent it the same way. Some watched the video in the morning and looked at the lineup at night, while others watched the video at night and then looked at the lineup in the morning, after they had slept.

The researchers found that when participants slept between seeing the “crime” and being presented with potential suspects, they were less likely to pick someone out of lineups that only included fillers. In other words, they were better able to reject innocent lookalikes, noting correctly that the perpetrator they had seen wasn’t present at all. People who had not slept misidentified an innocent person as the perpetrator 66 percent of the time compared to 42 percent of the people who had slept. That doesn’t seem like a huge difference, but even one misidentification in real life can have serious consequences for innocent people accused of crimes. The results track with existing research on sleep that has found that it plays an important role in cognitive processes like learning and memory.

However, sleep didn’t make the participants any better at identifying the correct suspect when he was in the lineup. Both groups could pick him out with about 50 percent accuracy. Essentially, sleep isn’t going to solve crimes, but it could help ensure that the wrong person doesn’t go to prison.

Previously, a 2016 study in Psychological Science found that it’s relatively easy for police to nudge witnesses into picking their prime suspect from a lineup by making sure that they’re the only person in the group with a particular distinguishing feature, like a beard. These unfair lineups not only resulted in misidentification, but participants who chose from them were more confident about their (incorrect) choice than people who saw more fair lineups.

Taking a long nap isn’t the only way to improve lineup accuracy. The criminal justice advocates at the Innocence Project recommend several methods to make sure that witness testimony is more accurate, such as making sure that the people shown in the lineups all roughly match the description of suspect (beard and all), having the lineup administered by an officer who doesn’t know which person in the lineup is the police’s suspect, and making sure the witnesses know that the perpetrator might not be in the lineup at all, and that the investigation will continue even if they don’t pick anyone.

[h/t Futurity]

Turn Your LEGO Bricks Into a Drone With the Flybrix Drone Kit

Flyxbrix/FatBrain
Flyxbrix/FatBrain

Now more than ever, it’s important to have a good hobby. Of course, a lot of people—maybe even you—have been obsessed with learning TikTok dances and baking sourdough bread for the last few months, but those hobbies can wear out their welcome pretty fast. So if you or someone you love is looking for something that’s a little more intellectually stimulating, you need to check out the Flybrix LEGO drone kit from Fat Brain Toys.

What is a Flybrix LEGO Drone Kit?

The Flybrix drone kit lets you build your own drones out of LEGO bricks and fly them around your house using your smartphone as a remote control (via Bluetooth). The kit itself comes with absolutely everything you need to start flying almost immediately, including a bag of 56-plus LEGO bricks, a LEGO figure pilot, eight quick-connect motors, eight propellers, a propeller wrench, a pre-programmed Flybrix flight board PCB, a USB data cord, a LiPo battery, and a USB LiPo battery charger. All you’ll have to do is download the Flybrix Configuration Software, the Bluetooth Flight Control App, and access online instructions and tutorials.

Experiment with your own designs.

The Flybrix LEGO drone kit is specifically designed to promote exploration and experimentation. All the components are tough and can totally withstand a few crash landings, so you can build and rebuild your own drones until you come up with the perfect design. Then you can do it all again. Try different motor arrangements, add your own LEGO bricks, experiment with different shapes—this kit is a wannabe engineer’s dream.

For the more advanced STEM learners out there, Flybrix lets you experiment with coding and block-based coding. It uses an arduino-based hackable circuit board, and the Flybrix app has advanced features that let you try your hand at software design.

Who is the Flybrix LEGO Drone Kit for?

Flybrix is a really fun way to introduce a number of core STEM concepts, which makes it ideal for kids—and technically, that’s who it was designed for. But because engineering and coding can get a little complicated, the recommended age for independent experimentation is 13 and up. However, kids younger than 13 can certainly work on Flybrix drones with the help of their parents. In fact, it actually makes a fantastic family hobby.

Ready to start building your own LEGO drones? Click here to order your Flybrix kit today for $198.

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Barnard College’s Corpse Flower Just Bloomed for the First Time Ever—Watch It Here

This corpse flower is ready for her closeup.
This corpse flower is ready for her closeup.
Nicholas Gershberg/Barnard College

If someone’s talking about a corpse flower, or Amorphophallus titanum, there’s a good chance they’ll end up mentioning one or all of these characteristics: It’s phallic, it smells atrocious, and it might only bloom about once a decade.

Earlier this week, Barnard College’s corpse flower unfurled for the first time ever, and you can watch its slow progress in real time on the YouTube livestream below. This particular specimen was given to Barnard’s Arthur Ross Greenhouse by the Brooklyn Botanic Garden Horticulture Department in 2013, and it’s named “Berani,” after the Indonesian word for brave—a nod to the species’s native region of Sumatra, Indonesia.

In previous years, the greenhouse staff has watched the potato-like tuber sprout into a tall, leafy structure—each taller than the last, with the most recent one measuring about 12 feet—hoping that next time, they’d get to watch it blossom into a flower instead. When Berani began to shoot up again this spring, they noticed it looked different, and by the time it was nearly 3 feet tall, they could confirm that the swollen spathe would soon unsheath a beautiful, putrid flower.

Since the coronavirus pandemic prevented them from inviting the public to see Berani blossom in person, greenhouse administrator Nick Gershberg and his colleagues have documented the process on the greenhouse’s Instagram account (as well as the livestream), and they’re planning to release a time-lapse video soon.


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A post shared by The Arthur Ross Greenhouse (@barnardgreenhouse) on

Gershberg tells Mental Floss that the flower reached its peak on Sunday night, May 31, at which point it measured 72 inches tall and 44 inches wide. And, true to its reputation, the corpse flower filled the room with a heavy stench that initially smelled like a dead rat. As the flower heated itself up to a temperature about 12 degrees warmer than the room—a respiration process called thermogenesis—Gershberg detected other recognizable scents, including dead fish, Camembert cheese that’s been left out overnight, and the odor of slightly decayed lilies. After the flower’s temperature came back down, it settled into a much more pleasant smell: a freshly-gutted pumpkin.

The corpse flower gets its name because its odor is often compared to that of a corpse, but Gershberg’s experience suggests that the association might be more in our heads than anything else.

“It was only when I went on the mental expedition of happening upon [the smell] in a jungle and thinking, ‘Oh my god, that’s a dead body,’ that it was actually nauseating. At that point, it was very nauseating,” he explains. “But as soon as I stopped thinking about it as, like, ‘Oh this is a dead body, or maybe dead person, even,’ then it didn’t have that effect. So it was interesting to see how in the face of this extreme odor, so much of it was really psychological, as far as whether I thought it was a good smell or a bad smell.”

Since a corpse flower only blooms for about 48 hours, Berani will soon begin to wither, and it’ll eventually fall over and separate from its base. After the roots die, the only thing left will be what Gershberg describes as “a 40-pound, beach ball-sized potato.” The team will remove it from the pot, clean it, inspect it for any infections, replant it, and wait for the now-dormant tuber to send up a new leaf, which will likely happen sometime in the next three to six months.

barnard college corpse flower closeup
Berani is giving every glamorous red carpet gown a run for its money.
Nicholas Gershberg/Barnard College

According to Gershberg, the experience of seeing the corpse flower bloom in all its majestic glory fundamentally changes how you view its usual tuber and leaves.

“It’s like when you see someone do karaoke and you’re like, ‘My god, that person can really sing,’ and you never quite look at them the same way again,” he says. “You’re like, ‘There’s actually a superstar in that head of accounting over there.’”

To help them remember just how big of a superstar Berani really is—and give the public a chance to see it for themselves in the future—the Barnard team is hoping to preserve some of it as a flower pressing. While you’re waiting to see what that looks like, you can learn more about corpse flowers here.