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American Museum of Natural History

11 Famous Mermaids and their Creators

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American Museum of Natural History

Mythology is rife with creatures that mix traits of the familiar and the fantastic. Maybe it’s because they resemble us, but half-human legends from werewolves to centaurs have been mesmerizing staples of world mythologies for thousands of years. Particularly alluring is a certain half-woman-half-fish that entices sailors and sea captains with her singing and curvaceous bod. Mermaids have appeared in Polynesian, Celtic, Middle Eastern, and Japanese mythology for centuries, and have swum into popular culture through folk tales, literature, song, and even the silver screen. From Ariel to the Sirens, here are 11 bewitching examples of what you get when you cross a fish and a pinup girl.

1. Hans Christian Andersen’s Little Mermaid

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Perhaps the most famous mermaid is the title nymph of the fairy tale by Hans Christian Andersen, who risks her life in order to follow the shipwrecked human prince she loves onto land. Originally conceived as a ballet, the Danish author’s children’s story appeared in 1837; the original tale includes such elements as the little mermaid’s beloved grandmother, who “was a very wise woman…[who] wore twelve oysters on her tail,” and the exchange of the princess’s tongue for a pair of human legs from an evil sea witch. When her human lover marries someone else, Anderson’s mermaid is unable to return to her underwater kingdom and evaporates into sea foam. A statue of her by sculptor Edvard Erikson sits on a rock in the Copenhagen harbor.

2. The Sirens

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One of the earliest records of bewitching sea-women appears in the Odyssey, where Odysseus, the hero of Homer’s epic poem, is warned by the sorceress Circe about the sirens whose singing lures sailors to a grisly death shipwrecked on the rocks. Odysseus convinces his crew to stuff wax in their ears so that the mesmerizing song won’t affect them, but has himself tied to the mast and more or less goes ballistic listening. The earliest ceramic paintings depict the sirens as women with the wings of sparrows, but in later folklore this image was changed to one closer resembling a modern mermaid (as in the 1909 painting by Herbert James Draper, above). The word itself survives in the Latin root for the words for mermaid in languages such as Italian (sirena) and French (sirene). 

3. Howard Pyle’s The Mermaid

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Nineteenth century artist and illustrator Howard Pyle was a celebrity in his time for his illustrations in Scribner’s and Harper’s Monthly magazines and for his vivid paintings of King Arthur, Robin Hood, and other exotic rogues and heroes featured in his numerous children’s books. He invented our modern visual concept of a pirate, and inspired such artists as Norman Rockwell and Hal Foster, the creator of the Prince Valiant comics. Pyle’s mermaid is a standalone example of his work in the golden age of American illustration. Though it appears complete, the 1910 painting was left on the easel prior to the artist’s last trip to Europe, and only partially finished by a student after he passed away in Florence.

4. The Starbucks Mermaid

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Since the Seattle-based coffee company is named for a seafaring character (the first mate of the ship Pequod in Herman Melville’s Moby Dick), its designers originally wanted a nautical logo. She’s since been watered down to something like the Statue of Liberty with fish bookends, but the original Starbucks queen was based on a voluptuous Nordic woodcut. A more obvious version of a mermaid survives on the coffee shop’s green plastic stirrers (go find one if you don’t believe me).

5. The First Siren in Hollywood

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On the long list of things Annette Kellerman could take credit for, her distinction as the first mermaid caught on film is only a flippered footnote. The Australian-born swimmer pioneered the first one-piece bathing costume for women (despite being arrested for public indecency for wearing one in 1907) and is credited as both the first woman to attempt to swim the English Channel and the inspiration behind the sport of synchronized swimming. Kellerman had a long-running career in vaudeville and early silent film as well; she was the first major actress to appear nude on film (in Garden of the Gods) and inspired a musical biopic in 1952 starring swimmer-actress Esther Williams (Million Dollar Mermaid). Her short films The Mermaid and The Siren of the Sea, both from 1911, are considered the first to feature an actress in a swimmable mermaid costume. 

6. One Fishy Pin-up Girl

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Joyce Ballantyne Brand is best known as the creator of the Coppertone Sunscreen girl, but most of her subjects were a little older: She spent the majority of her career as one of the most successful American painters of pinup girls, and was one of the only women in the industry during the art form’s heyday in the 1930s and ‘40s. One of her tamer illustration gigs was the monthly cover for Sports Afield outdoor magazine. Subscribers to the publication, which usually featured a bird dog or hearty fishermen on the cover, were shocked when the April issue of 1949 came out with a buxom mermaid splashed across the front. Critics even accused Brand of corrupting the legions of young men who read the magazine. No report on whether it sold as many copies as some other swimsuit issues we could name.

7. The Fiji Mermaid

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In the summer of 1842, news broke in New York City of what many believed was conclusive proof of the existence of mermaids. Doubters and believers alike crowded to Broadway’s Concert Hall to view a curiosity brought from the Fiji Islands by one Dr. J. Griffin, a member of the British Lyceum of Natural History. Griffin’s dried specimen appeared to have the tail of a fish and the shriveled head and torso of a monkey—which, it turns out, was exactly what it was. There has never been a British Lyceum of Natural History, and “Dr. Griffin” was in league the whole time with showman P.T. Barnum, whose American Museum of oddities housed the Fiji Mermaid for nearly 20 years of ticket sales after its run on Broadway. A media frenzy in the newspapers of the time included images of voluptuous, bare-breasted sirens that remained in the popular imagination even after Barnum’s hoax was discovered. The whereabouts of the original critter (probably made by a Japanese fisherman around 1810) are unknown, but a similar stitched-together creation rests in Harvard’s Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology.

8. Miranda

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In the century since Annette Kellerman swam onto the screen, mermaids in Hollywood have enjoyed intermittent popularity. One of the best films featured a young Glynis Johns as Miranda, a wily seawitch who charms a hapless physician into taking her to London to see the human world and seduce as many landsmen as she can wrap her fins around. The film’s credits included a specific nod to the manufacture of Johns’ tail (the Dunlop tire and rubber company), and a single final frame reading FIN. Of her elaborate costume, the lead actress said, “I was quite an athlete…my muscles were strong from dancing, so the tail was just fine. I swam like a porpoise."

9. Ceasg and Selkies

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The British Isles have a long tradition of merpeople lore, and each region has its own incarnation of the half-human-half-fish beguilers. The Scottish Highland ceasg were women with tales of grilse, or salmon, while the selkies of coastal Scotland, Ireland, and the Orkney islands (as well as Iceland and the Faroe Islands) were a race of seals who could shape-shift by slipping out of their leathery skins and cavorting in human shape on land. According to legend, both creatures have been known to breed with humans—the ceasg who married human men produced great sailors and sea captains, while the MacFie clan traces its ancestry to a union between a clan patriarch and a selkie.

10. Disney’s The Little Mermaid

A little different than the fairy tale that inspired it (a Jamaican crab sidekick, and no foamy seppuku), Disney Animation Studios’ story of a wistful Atlantic princess is nonetheless a charming tale of young love, parental disobedience, and what not to do with a fork. As an animated feature, it broke ground in Disney artistic technique and employed more special effects than any project since Fantasia (1940). Special challenges included creating character color palettes for submarine night and day scenes, hand-painting over a million individual bubbles, and depicting the movement of Ariel’s hair underwater, which was allegedly based on footage of astronaut Sally Ride in zero gravity. Actress Jodi Benson, who played the title mermaid, recorded her famous song “Part of Your World” in the dark to simulate the feeling of being underwater.  

11. The Weeki Wachee Mermaids

Somewhere in the bowels of South Florida, there is a campground. In this campground there is a pool, and in the pool, mermaids dwell. They are mermaids with day jobs, families, hobbies, and favorite restaurants—one is a bartender, one loves tacos, and one has a cat named Shark Bait. The women who make up the roster of the Weeki Wachee Springs mermaids perform daily synchronized swimming and trick shows for visitors while costumed in 6-foot-long orange tails based on the designs made for Annette Kellerman. They are actually one of several mermaid performance groups that exist from Las Vegas to Cambridge, England, but are recognized as the longest running—and hidden legs aside, the women of Weeki Wachee remind us that the real sirens, while a little less sparkly, may still may be out there. 

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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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8 Common Dog Behaviors, Decoded
May 25, 2017
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Dogs are a lot more complicated than we give them credit for. As a result, sometimes things get lost in translation. We’ve yet to invent a dog-to-English translator, but there are certain behaviors you can learn to read in order to better understand what your dog is trying to tell you. The more tuned-in you are to your dog’s emotions, the better you’ll be able to respond—whether that means giving her some space or welcoming a wet, slobbery kiss. 

1. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing with his legs and body relaxed and tail low. His ears are up, but not pointed forward. His mouth is slightly open, he’s panting lightly, and his tongue is loose. His eyes? Soft or maybe slightly squinty from getting his smile on.

What it means: “Hey there, friend!” Your pup is in a calm, relaxed state. He’s open to mingling, which means you can feel comfortable letting friends say hi.

2. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing with her body leaning forward. Her ears are erect and angled forward—or have at least perked up if they’re floppy—and her mouth is closed. Her tail might be sticking out horizontally or sticking straight up and wagging slightly.

What it means: “Hark! Who goes there?!” Something caught your pup’s attention and now she’s on high alert, trying to discern whether or not the person, animal, or situation is a threat. She’ll likely stay on guard until she feels safe or becomes distracted.

3. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing, leaning slightly forward. His body and legs are tense, and his hackles—those hairs along his back and neck—are raised. His tail is stiff and twitching, not swooping playfully. His mouth is open, teeth are exposed, and he may be snarling, snapping, or barking excessively.

What it means: “Don’t mess with me!” This dog is asserting his social dominance and letting others know that he might attack if they don’t defer accordingly. A dog in this stance could be either offensively aggressive or defensively aggressive. If you encounter a dog in this state, play it safe and back away slowly without making eye contact.

4. What you’ll see: As another dog approaches, your dog lies down on his back with his tail tucked in between his legs. His paws are tucked in too, his ears are flat, and he isn’t making direct eye contact with the other dog standing over him.

What it means: “I come in peace!” Your pooch is displaying signs of submission to a more dominant dog, conveying total surrender to avoid physical confrontation. Other, less obvious, signs of submission include ears that are flattened back against the head, an avoidance of eye contact, a tongue flick, and bared teeth. Yup—a dog might bare his teeth while still being submissive, but they’ll likely be clenched together, the lips opened horizontally rather than curled up to show the front canines. A submissive dog will also slink backward or inward rather than forward, which would indicate more aggressive behavior.

5. What you’ll see: Your dog is crouching with her back hunched, tail tucked, and the corner of her mouth pulled back with lips slightly curled. Her shoulders, or hackles, are raised and her ears are flattened. She’s avoiding eye contact.

What it means: “I’m scared, but will fight you if I have to.” This dog’s fight or flight instincts have been activated. It’s best to keep your distance from a dog in this emotional state because she could attack if she feels cornered.

6. What you’ll see: You’re staring at your dog, holding eye contact. Your dog looks away from you, tentatively looks back, then looks away again. After some time, he licks his chops and yawns.

What it means: “I don’t know what’s going on and it’s weirding me out.” Your dog doesn’t know what to make of the situation, but rather than nipping or barking, he’ll stick to behaviors he knows are OK, like yawning, licking his chops, or shaking as if he’s wet. You’ll want to intervene by removing whatever it is causing him discomfort—such as an overly grabby child—and giving him some space to relax.

7. What you’ll see: Your dog has her front paws bent and lowered onto the ground with her rear in the air. Her body is relaxed, loose, and wiggly, and her tail is up and wagging from side to side. She might also let out a high-pitched or impatient bark.

What it means: “What’s the hold up? Let’s play!” This classic stance, known to dog trainers and behaviorists as “the play bow,” is a sign she’s ready to let the good times roll. Get ready for a round of fetch or tug of war, or for a good long outing at the dog park.

8. What you’ll see: You’ve just gotten home from work and your dog rushes over. He can’t stop wiggling his backside, and he may even lower himself into a giant stretch, like he’s doing yoga.

What it means: “OhmygoshImsohappytoseeyou I love you so much you’re my best friend foreverandeverandever!!!!” This one’s easy: Your pup is overjoyed his BFF is back. That big stretch is something dogs don’t pull out for just anyone; they save that for the people they truly love. Show him you feel the same way with a good belly rub and a handful of his favorite treats.

The best way to say “I love you” in dog? A monthly subscription to BarkBox. Your favorite pup will get a package filled with treats, toys, and other good stuff (and in return, you’ll probably get lots of sloppy kisses). Visit BarkBox to learn more.

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