13 Facts About Vertigo

Illustration by Mental Floss. Images: iStock
Illustration by Mental Floss. Images: iStock

It comes on suddenly. You feel like you're spinning—or maybe the world is spinning around you. Your stomach heaves, and you hold onto something so you don't fall. This is vertigo, a hallucination of motion—a mismatch between reality and the signals your eyes, inner ears, and sense of touch are sending your brain. Vertigo is a symptom, not a disease—an indication that something is wrong in the body—and it's surprisingly common. Here's what you need to know about the condition.


Dizziness is an umbrella term that describes the sensation of feeling lightheaded or faint. As kids, many of us experienced (and even enjoyed) that kind of garden-variety dizziness while spinning on a merry-go-round, but the sensation can also be caused by dehydration, motion sickness, or even a drop in blood pressure after standing up too fast.

While vertigo does make you dizzy, it also makes you feel like you’re spinning, swaying, or tilting. Some people with vertigo sense their bodies moving in space even though they’re standing still, while others sense their surroundings moving around them. A good way to tell you're experiencing vertigo and not just dizziness is that you feel like you're going to lose your lunch: “A person with vertigo can feel ill with nausea, vomiting, and other motion sickness-like symptoms,” says David Zee, a neurologist at Johns Hopkins University and a specialist in vertigo.


The name refers to the system located in parts of the inner ear and the brain that control balance and eye movements. The most common vestibular disorders often induce vertigo. Others include bilateral vestibular hypofunction (which causes balance problems), acoustic neuroma (a kind of benign tumor that can cause tinnitus or hearing loss), and a variety of autoimmune inner ear diseases.


Doctors split vertigo into two categories: peripheral or central. The former, which originates in the inner ear, is far more prevalent than the latter.

The most common form of peripheral vertigo is benign paroxymal positional vertigo (BPPV). BPPV comes on quickly, causing disorientation and stumbling; some even fall out of bed. (People can mistake it for a stroke, and not without reason—sudden vertigo and loss of balance experienced at the same time can be signs of one.) Most episodes last about a minute and recur over a period of a few days or weeks.

The majority of peripheral vertigo is caused by otoconia (also called canaliths), tiny limestone and protein crystals that reside deep inside your ear in the vestibule. You’d need a high-powered microscope to see a single otoconium—they’re roughly 10 microns across, or about 0.000393701 inches. Despite their small size, "otoconia create a lot of mischief,” Zee says. “These little stones can get dislodged and kind of float around, producing a powerful false sense of spinning.”

Most of us likely have a few renegade stones floating around in our inner ears, but it’s only when large clumps of more than three or four stones form and get loose that there’s a problem. Why they dislodge and relocate remains a mystery, but in some cases, the stones' movements can be triggered by external motion—a knock on the head or a ride on a bumpy road.


Migraine headaches can bring on the dizzying sensation, as can lying in the magnetic field of an MRI machine. Other causes include labyrinthitis, an infection in the inner ear, and vestibular neuronitis, an infection of the vestibular nerve, which controls balance. Some people have a rare type of chronic peripheral vertigo called Meniere’s disease, which is caused by a buildup of fluid in the inner ear. Often doctors can’t pinpoint a specific cause for an episode of vertigo.


Far less common is central vertigo, which originates in the brain. Symptoms can vary, but a person with central vertigo is often unable to walk due to severe imbalance and may have nystagmus—strange, involuntary eye movements. This type of vertigo can be caused by diseases or injuries to the brain, such as multiple sclerosis, tumors, concussions, or strokes. In some cases, it lasts for weeks or even the rest of someone's life, especially if they have permanent brain damage.


Nearly one-third of people over the age of 40 in the U.S.—roughly 69 million people—will experience vertigo at least once in their lives. It’s much more common in older people, especially those over the age of 60. But anyone can get vertigo, including children (though it may be harder to spot in kids because they can have difficulty describing their symptoms). Professional golfer Jason Day was just 27 when he developed vertigo during the U.S. Open, and basketball player Pau Gasol was in his early thirties when the condition benched him. Some medical historians believe Charles Darwin suffered from vertigo later in life.


Recent research suggests the disparity might be related to bone loss caused by aging, vitamin D deficiency (which impairs how the body metabolizes calcium—a key component of the otoconia’s mineral composition), or the increased frequency of migraine among women.


Because it's so disorienting and comes on so suddenly, vertigo can cause anxiety and panic attacks. Chronic vertigo can cause depression in some people because doing everyday tasks—like caring for themselves, their children, or their family—is often impossible. They might even lose their job because driving is out of the question.


Drug treatments vary, based on the type of vertigo a person has, and generally target the symptoms of vertigo, not the cause. Antiemetics such as meclizine may inhibit the nausea or vomiting that accompanies most types of vertigo. For migraine-associated vertigo, doctors may prescribe beta blockers, anticonvulsants, or antidepressants. People with Meniere's disease may benefit from steroids or non-pharmaceutical approaches, such as a low-salt diet, which reduces fluid retention, or surgical procedures that help drain the inner ear.


The most commonly used therapy for BPPV is the Epley maneuver (also known as a canalith repositioning procedure). Essentially, the exercises are human versions of those ball-in-a-maze puzzles you played as a kid, where you rolled a bead around in a maze, trying to get the bead to go into a hole. The goal is to roll the renegade otoconia (the beads) through the maze of canals inside your ear and return them to the vestibule (the hole). These moves, which take 15 minutes or less, resolve symptoms in about two-thirds or more of people with vertigo—usually after just a few tries.


As you get older, you lose neurons in your inner ears, your brain’s coordination center, and in your feet—a triple whammy of losses that sets up a perfect storm for balance problems, Zee tells Mental Floss. But activities that challenge your sense of balance—like tai chi, yoga, or dancing—help in the long run. You don't get have to be as nimble as Johnny Castle log dancing or blind Frank Slade doing the tango—just get moving to the beat when your favorite songs come on.


In 1982, French climber Alain Robert sustained massive injuries when he took a header from a rocky cliff during one climb—and though he recovered from multiple broken bones, the severe head trauma he sustained left him with chronic vertigo. Despite his condition, Robert returned to climbing (almost always without safety equipment), tackling the Empire State Building, the Eiffel Tower, and a multitude of other tall structures, eventually scaling the Burj Khalifa—the world’s tallest building. He now holds the Guinness World Record for climbing the most buildings.


Named the “greatest film of all time” by the British Film Institute’s Sight and Sound magazine, Vertigo, starring Jimmy Stewart and Kim Novak, is a twisted tale about the human psyche, full of mystery, romance, and suspense—classic Hitchcock. The film is famous for its pioneering use of the dolly zoom—a camera technique sometimes called "the Vertigo effect" that recreates the unsettling experience. Although Hitchcock got the special effects right, the condition that Jimmy Stewart’s character had is not vertigo—it's acrophobia, or fear of heights. When a person with acrophobia looks down from a great height, they might feel vertiginous—but they're not experiencing a vestibular disorder. The reaction may be rooted in humans’ natural fear of falling.

12 Creative Ways to Spend Your FSA Money Before the Deadline

stockfour/iStock via Getty Images
stockfour/iStock via Getty Images

If you have a Flexible Spending Account (FSA), chances are, time is running out for you to use that cash. Depending on your employer’s rules, if you don’t spend your FSA money by the end of the grace period, you potentially lose some of it. Lost cash is never a good thing.

For those unfamiliar, an FSA is an employer-sponsored spending account. You deposit pre-tax dollars into the account, and you can spend that money on a number of health care expenses. It’s kind of like a Health Savings Account (HSA), but with a few big differences—namely, your HSA funds roll over from year to year, so there’s no deadline to spend it all. With an FSA, though, most of your funds expire at the end of the year. Bummer.

The good news is: The law allows employers to roll $500 over into the new year and also offer a grace period of up to two and a half months to use that cash (March 15). Depending on your employer, you might not even have that long, though. The deadline is fast approaching for many account holders, so if you have to use your FSA money soon, here are a handful of creative ways to spend it.

1. Buy some new shades.

Head to the optometrist, get an eye prescription, then use your FSA funds to buy some new specs or shades. Contact lenses and solution are also covered.

You can also buy reading glasses with your FSA money, and you don’t even need a prescription.

2. Try acupuncture.

Scientists are divided on the efficacy of acupuncture, but some studies show it’s useful for treating chronic pain, arthritis, and even depression. If you’ve been curious about the treatment, now's a good time to try it: Your FSA money will cover acupuncture sessions in some cases. You can even buy an acupressure mat without a prescription.

If you’d rather go to a chiropractor, your FSA funds cover those visits, too.

3. Stock up on staples.

If you’re running low on standard over-the-counter meds, good news: Most of them are FSA-eligible. This includes headache medicine, pain relievers, antacids, heartburn meds, and anything else your heart (or other parts of your body) desires.

There’s one big caveat, though: Most of these require a prescription in order to be eligible, so you may have to make an appointment with your doctor first. The FSA store tells you which over-the-counter items require a prescription.

4. Treat your feet.

Give your feet a break with a pair of massaging gel shoe inserts. They’re FSA-eligible, along with a few other foot care products, including arch braces, toe cushions, and callus trimmers.

In some cases, foot massagers or circulators may be covered, too. For example, here’s one that’s available via the FSA store, no prescription necessary.

5. Get clear skin.

Yep—acne treatments, toner, and other skin care products are all eligible for FSA spending. Again, most of these require a prescription for reimbursement, but don’t let that deter you. Your doctor is familiar with the rules and you shouldn’t have trouble getting a prescription. And, as WageWorks points out, your prescription also lasts for a year. Check the rules of your FSA plan to see if you need a separate prescription for each item, or if you can include multiple products or drug categories on a single prescription.

While we’re on the topic of faces, lip balm is another great way to spend your FSA funds—and you don’t need a prescription for that. There’s also no prescription necessary for this vibrating face massager.

6. Fill your medicine cabinet.

If your medicine cabinet is getting bare, or you don’t have one to begin with, stock it with a handful of FSA-eligible items. Here are some items that don’t require a prescription:

You can also stock up on first aid kits. You don’t need a prescription to buy those, and many of them come with pain relievers and other medicine.

7. Make sure you’re covered in the bedroom.

Condoms are FSA-eligible, and so are pregnancy tests, monitors, and fertility kits. Female contraceptives are also covered when you have a prescription.

8. Prepare for your upcoming vacation.

If you have a vacation planned this year, use your FSA money to stock up on trip essentials. For example:

9. Get a better night’s sleep.

If you have trouble sleeping, sleep aids are eligible, though you’ll need a prescription. If you want to try a sleep mask, many of them are eligible without a prescription. For example, there’s this relaxing sleep mask and this thermal eye mask.

For those nights you’re sleeping off a cold or flu, a vaporizer can make a big difference, and those are eligible, too (no prescription required). Bed warmers like this one are often covered, too.

Your FSA funds likely cover more than you realize, so if you have to use them up by the deadline, get creative. This list should help you get started, and many drugstores will tell you which items are FSA-eligible when you shop online.

10. Go to the dentist.

While basics like toothpaste and cosmetic procedures like whitening treatments aren’t FSA eligible, most of the expenses you incur at your dentist’s office are. That includes co-pays and deductibles as well as fees for cleanings, x-rays, fillings, and even the cost of braces. There are also some products you can buy over-the-counter without ever visiting the dentist. Some mouthguards that prevent you from grinding your teeth at night are eligible, as are cleaning solutions for retainers and dentures.

11. Try some new gadgets.

If you still have some extra cash to burn, it’s a great time to try some expensive high-tech devices that you’ve been curious about but might not otherwise want to splurge on. The list includes light therapy treatments for acne, vibrating nausea relief bands, electrical stimulation devices for chronic pain, cloud-connected stethoscopes, and smart thermometers.

12. Head to Amazon.

There are plenty of FSA-eligible items available on Amazon, including items for foot health, cold and allergy medication, eye care, and first-aid kits. Find out more details on how to spend your FSA money on Amazon here.

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Doctor’s 60-Second Trick Makes Any Face Mask Fit Better

Mika Baumeister, Unsplash
Mika Baumeister, Unsplash

As face masks have become part of daily life, people have come up with innovative ways to make them more comfortable and effective. There are tricks for masking up without hurting your ears, fogging up your glasses, or breaking out. This new tip from Olivia Cuid, M.D. could be the key to making large masks fit better around your face.

As Self reports, this hack takes 60 seconds or less and works on both disposable masks or cloth masks with ear loops. To prevent the sides of your mask from popping out—making it easier for microbes to travel in and out of the space behind it—tie both ear loops into a knot. The closer the knot is to the side of the mask, the tighter the mask will fit on your face.

Once the loops are secure, open up the mask and look for gaps where the knots meet the fabric. Close these holes by tucking them behind the loops. Now, when you wear your mask, the fabric should fit snugly against your face. You can watch Dr. Cuid demonstrate the trick in the TikTok below.

@oliviacuidmdHighly requested 60s version of my viral mask hack ##fyp ##doctorsoftiktok ##masktutorial ##covid19 ##viral ##maskhack ##learnontiktok

♬ original sound - Dr. Olivia

This trick is great for people with small faces, or anyone who wants more protection from their mask. After adjusting the fit of your face mask, make sure to wash it regularly. Here's the best way to keep reusable face masks clean.

[h/t Self]