Everything You've Ever Wanted to Know About Donating Your Body to Science

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Pam Poulakos and Irene Hombs don’t want to be buried when they die. A standard cremation won’t do, either. The sisters from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, have discussed their end-of-life options at length, and ultimately, they want to serve the greater good.

They’ve decided to donate their bodies to science.

“I'd much rather be used for medical research than be buried,” Poulakos, 64, tells Mental Floss. “We're not going to be using our bodies anymore anyway, so they might as well use it for whatever they need.”

They, in this case, are the staff and clients at a Portland, Oregon-based company called MedCure, which is one of seven non-transplant tissue banks accredited by the American Association of Tissue Banks. These facilities oversee the donation of whole bodies (as opposed to organ transplants) and ensure they end up in the hands of scientists and medical professionals. One of the largest national organizations of its kind, MedCure has been around since 2005, connecting researchers with about 10,000 body parts annually.

These deceased donors help to save lives. Medical students dissect cadavers to learn about anatomy. Researchers use them to study diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Surgeons use corpses to refine new procedures like face transplants. And cadavers have even aided the advancement of surgical robots.

Yet corpses can be hard to come by: An estimated 20,000 Americans donate their bodies to science each year, which equates to less than 1 percent of the 2.7 million Americans who die annually. Put simply, the demand is far greater than the supply.

Heidi Kayser, MedCure’s director of donor education and outreach, says this is partly because body donation programs aren’t as well-known as organ donation programs. "A lot of people want to give. It's a matter of awareness and knowing that it's an option," she tells Mental Floss.

Donating to a non-transplant tissue bank like MedCure is just one way of leaving your body to science, though. While MedCure is a for-profit business, non-profit tissue banks provide an alternative. Universities and medical institutions across the country also accept "anatomical gifts" for research and teaching. Then there's the site known as the "Body Farm" in Tennessee, which helps forensic researchers study how cadavers decay.

In short, there are a variety of ways to continue being useful—even long after you're dead.

How were cadavers used in the past?

Female medical students perform a dissection
Medical students at the Women's College Hospital in Philadelphia dissect human bodies in 1911.
Topical Press Agency/Getty Images

While body donation programs are fairly recent, cadavers have been used for various purposes since ancient times—though for much of human history, the donors probably wouldn't have been too happy about it.

King Ptolemy I, ruler of ancient Egypt, was the first world leader to allow the dissection of corpses, according to Mary Roach, author of the 2003 book Stiff: The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers. Although mummification was also happening around the same time for religious reasons, the purpose of dissection was strictly scientific—to learn about human anatomy. Early physicians cut open the bodies of executed criminals; more gruesomely, Greek physician Herophilus is said to have dissected live criminals.

The practice of dissecting dead convicts was also common in Europe from the 14th century to the early 19th century. But because there weren’t enough executions to provide medical professionals a steady stream of corpses for study and training, grave robbing emerged as part of a lucrative black market. Body snatchers, at least in Great Britain and America, could be hired for a price—and sometimes the scientists themselves rolled up their sleeves and started digging. “Extreme measures ensued,” Roach writes in Stiff. “It was not unheard of for an anatomist to tote freshly deceased family members over to the dissecting chamber for a morning before dropping them off at the churchyard.”

Body snatching only began to decline after the British government passed the Anatomy Act of 1832, which allowed medical schools to use the unclaimed bodies of people who had died in prisons or workhouses. Still, donating one’s body to science at that time was considered taboo at best, and eternally damning at worst. (Many Christians of the day believed that dissected bodies couldn't be reanimated, and that believers would therefore be denied any chance of resurrection.)

Some scholars believe the English philosopher Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), who supported the Anatomy Act, was the first person to donate his body to science. Bentham didn’t want to pay burial fees to the Church of England, which he considered “irredeemably corrupt,” so in his will, he asked to be turned into what he called an "auto-icon"—essentially a preserved and dressed skeleton—now on display at the University College London. In addition, Bentham arranged for a public dissection of his corpse attended by eminent scholars.

The military has played an important role in the use of corpses, too. In the early 1800s, both the French and Germans used corpses to test out weapons and assess the damage. Later, in 1893, surgeon Louis La Garde of the U.S. Army Medical Corps received orders to pepper corpses with bullets for the purpose of trying out a new .30-caliber Springfield rifle. “[Corpses] were to be suspended from a tackle in the ceiling of the firing range, shot at in a dozen places and with a dozen different charges (to simulate different distances), and autopsied,” Roach writes.

In the 20th century, automobile manufacturers also began using bodies to test their products. It started in the 1950s, when many car manufacturers assumed that nothing could be done to make serious crashes survivable—and an experiment by Wayne State University researchers proved otherwise. The researchers dropped a corpse down an elevator shaft to see how it would handle blunt force trauma, and learned that the human body can be remarkably resilient. They discovered that a human head, for instance, can handle 1.5 tons of force for a fraction of a second without sustaining any injury. This experiment paved the way for similar tests, and by 1995, Wayne State researcher Albert King estimated that the use of cadavers in car safety tests helped save 8500 lives per year.

Some car manufacturers and branches of the military still use corpses—as opposed to dummies—in crash tests. “There’s a lot of things done in the realm of safety,” Roach tells Mental Floss. “You want to make sure a car is safe for occupants, or a car seat or an automatic window isn’t going to break somebody’s fingers, or a helmet is going to protect someone’s head. You can’t just give it to someone and say, ‘Let’s see how this works for you.’”

However, Roach says using actual bodies in experiments is expensive and cumbersome—“You can’t just go to Cadavers R Us and pick one up the same day”—so most car companies now try to avoid it. Yet cadavers are still occasionally used in trauma tests, particularly by the military, because they're more effective at revealing the outcome of certain impacts, like battlefield wounds.

Of course, military and industrial uses are rarer. Medical research and surgical training still remain the most common uses for donated bodies—and the practice of dissecting cadavers continues to save lives, not to mention improve the quality of care for living patients.

How does body donation work, and how do you register?

A MedCure surgical facility
A MedCure surgical facility
MedCure

Non-transplant tissue banks aren't allowed to sell organs for transplant purposes. However, they are permitted to facilitate the sale of whole bodies or other human parts for research or educational purposes.

And in order to fulfill those needs, the companies need willing participants. Here’s how the donation process works, using MedCure as an example: Donors have the option of pre-registering with MedCure while they’re still alive, although donation can also be arranged by a deceased individual's attorney or next of kin. After filling out an online form to express interest, the prospective donor receives a welcome packet in the mail, which explains the entire process and includes consent forms that must be filled out. Once that’s done, nothing else is needed from the donor until they die or are placed in hospice care.

At that time, MedCure conducts a medical screening and background check for “risky behavior” to make sure an individual is eligible to donate. People with a history of IV drug use or recent incarceration aren’t eligible because they’re considered a higher risk for disease transmission. If someone’s application is rejected, they (or an authorized individual) will be told why they can’t donate.

Once an accepted donor has died, MedCure will come pick up the body from most states, at no cost to the donor or their family. (The exceptions are New Jersey, North Dakota, Minnesota, and Arkansas, which have stricter state laws regarding the transport of unembalmed bodies. People in these states who are interested in donating their bodies may opt for a program that's a little closer to home instead.) Blood samples are also sent to a lab to ensure the body doesn’t have infectious diseases like HIV or Hepatitis B or C, which can pose a risk to researchers.

The next step is deciding which research project a body is best suited for. Right now, robotics are driving the body donation industry, according to Rachel Mulligan, MedCure’s director of laboratory operations. New and improved surgical robots are constantly being developed, and some medical devices are tested out on cadavers in order to prove to the FDA that they're safe. In addition, many orthopedic engineers and researchers prefer to test their implants on cadavers to make sure they fit properly, according to MedCure. Most of the research is conducted in one of MedCure’s private labs located across the country, but the company will occasionally deliver human specimens to a recipient, such as a university.

Other organizations, like the Memphis-based non-profit Medical Education & Research Institute (MERI), provide similar services. MERI offers a door-to-door delivery and temperature control to preserve the human tissue. Likewise, the non-profit United Tissue Network, based in Norman, Oklahoma, works with shipping services that specialize in transporting tissue. In general, many of these tissue banks—both for-profit and non-profit—let donors sign up directly with the organization.

Critics of the industry say it's lightly regulated, with no federal law dictating how these businesses operate. Some so-called body brokers have suffered scandals over forgoing quality control or failing to return the cremated remains to families. In November 2017, reportedly amid larger scrutiny over the industry, MedCure's offices were raided by the FBI, but no charges have been filed.

Kayser says the raid occurred because the FBI was "investigating the industry as a whole." She highlighted the recent case of Arthur Rathburn, a Michigan cadaver dealer who was sentenced to prison last year for renting and selling infected body parts.

"[Rathburn] had a number of organizations he tried to procure from. MedCure was not one of them, but our name was in his files," Kayser told Mental Floss.

It's worth noting that many accredited tissue banks object to being lumped into the same category as unaccredited "body brokers." Rather, they emphasize that they’re selling a service: matching customers with cadavers that meet their criteria for crucial research needs.

What happens to bodies after they've been donated?

A cremation urn
Chris Hondros, Getty Images

Although the staff at MedCure doesn’t typically find out how their clients’ research is applied, they sometimes get to hear gratifying stories. One of their clients, for example, was a surgeon who used cadavers to practice a new technique for transcatheter aortic valve replacements (TAVR)—a minimally invasive procedure that involves making an incision, often in the leg, and using a catheter to deliver the heart valve replacement to the chest cavity. After racking up enough practice, the surgeon found a candidate who was deemed too high of a risk for open-heart surgery. The TAVR procedure was successfully carried out, saving the patient’s life. “That’s what excites us and keeps us going,” Mulligan says.

When one of their customers is done using a cadaver—whether at one of MedCure's labs or a facility that's been vetted, like a university lab—MedCure collects the body once again and cremates the remains. A family can opt to receive their loved one’s ashes or have them scattered at sea, all free of charge. For some people, the cost savings are reason enough to donate their bodies. Cremation services typically cost upwards of $600, while traditional funerals (with burial) cost about $7000 on average.

“Cremation is on the rise, but at the end of the day, cremation is relatively expensive,” Kayser tells Mental Floss, explaining that for some people, the motivation to donate is a combination of frugality and charity. “Whole body donation is free to the donor, and they’re contributing to the advancement of healthcare. A lot of people do want to leave a lasting legacy. They don’t want to die in vain.”

Of the seven American accredited non-transplant tissue banks, the majority offer free cremation and shipping services. MERI's partner company, Genesis, even gives donors the option of having their ashes interred in a mausoleum in the Memphis area.

These services also alleviate some of the pressure associated with planning a traditional open-casket funeral, since embalmed bodies cannot be accepted into whole body donation programs. If the family does wish to hold a memorial of some kind, they'll have several weeks to plan it while waiting for their loved one's cremated remains to be returned to them.

As for the donors, this process may also help relieve the fear of financially burdening their loved ones after their death. For Poulakos and Hombs, that was a major motivation for pre-registering as donors—and for convincing several other family members to sign up, too. "It's stressful and awful when someone dies,” Poulakos says, “[but] you make one phone call and not only is it taken care of, but it's done with dignity.”

Can I donate my body to a university instead?

For people who like the idea of donating their bodies to science but don’t feel comfortable going through a company, university programs are another viable option. Many universities across the country—including Harvard, Columbia, and Yale—have “willed body” or “anatomical gift” programs. The donation process and acceptance criteria are pretty similar to that of non-transplant tissue banks, but some might not offer the comprehensive services that for-profit companies offer, like free cremation and transport of the body and cremated remains.

The other big difference is that instead of aiding research, you’d be helping future surgeons, dentists, anesthesiologists, radiologists, and other physicians learn about anatomy while honing their craft. “Nothing equals the human body for teaching both normal and abnormal anatomy,” Columbia University writes on its website. “This experience cannot be replaced with books or 3D computer programs.”

The work being done in the classroom isn’t cold and clinical, though. At Yale, students are taught to refer to the body they’re dissecting as a “donor” rather than a “cadaver.” And many universities, including Columbia and Yale, hold an annual memorial service to honor the donors whose gift helped advance the field of medicine.

Both students and the donor’s family are invited to participate in the memorials, and students at some schools are encouraged to contribute kind words or a song. Roach attended one such memorial while writing Stiff and called it a touching moment. “Students talked about the gratitude they felt toward those cadavers that they’d spent the year with. Some had written songs or poems. It was very moving,” she says. “It made me want to donate.”

However, she thinks the willed body programs at many universities aren't publicized enough, so few people know they exist—and believes that there’s a great opportunity to spread the word in a fun, lighthearted way. “I feel like they could really get out there more and try to encourage people to donate. Harvard Medical School should have a T-shirt that says ‘I’m going to Harvard’ and on the back it says ‘Harvard Willed Body Program,” she jokes. “They should own it.”

Can I donate to the "Body Farm"?

At first glance, being left to rot in a field might not seem like a dignified way to go, but the crucial work being done at the University of Tennessee’s Body Farm—officially the Anthropology Research Facility—is enough to attract a sizable number of living, pre-registered donors. About 5000 people, to be exact.

Here, corpses are brought to decay naturally in shallow graves, plastic bags, and maybe even a car trunk. It looks like a crime scene, but the end goal is the opposite: to make it easier for investigators to bring murderers to justice. “Pretty much anything a killer might do to dispose of a dead body the researchers at UT have done also,” Roach writes in Stiff.

Experiments at the Body Farm allow students and law enforcement professionals to study the body in different states of decay. Various biological clues—degrees of bloat and decomposition, certain isotopes, and the number of flies and beetles hanging around, for example—all paint a picture of how long someone has been dead. One recent project, for example, involves looking at the ways in which fat in the bone breaks down over time. This, too, helps investigators determine the time since death.

As the first human decomposition center in the world, the Body Farm was a pretty novel concept when it was founded by anthropologist Bill Bass back in the 1980s. Today, there are at least eight other body farms across the U.S., according to Lee Meadows Jantz, associate director of the Forensic Anthropology Center, which encompasses the original Body Farm at the University of Tennessee.

When the center receives a donated body, they document it, photograph it, list any scars or tattoos, and weigh and measure it. Blood, hair, and fingernail samples are taken to help facilitate future research, and the body is placed in a cooler until it’s needed for a project. Once a body is brought out into the open air, it's left there until only the bones remain. And yes, in case you're wondering, it does smell. A lot. "I’ve been doing this for over 30 years and it still stinks," Meadows Jantz tells Mental Floss.

The bones don't go to waste, either. They're collected and logged into the university’s skeletal archive, which helps illustrate how bones decay over time. The oldest ones in the collection belonged to someone born in 1892.

Their center receives 100 cadavers each year on average. To get the process started, interested donors must simply fill out forms that are available online. Many donors find the Body Farm an interesting concept, and they want to help out however they can, according to Meadows Jantz. “I actually met with two of our pre-registered donors [last year] and I think they’re just fascinated by forensics. Both of them are retired EMTs,” she says.

Roach, who has done extensive research on all forms of whole body donation, says she understands that rotting away under the watchful eye of college students might not be everyone’s first afterlife choice. However, she feels that donating one’s body to some scientific pursuit is a noble legacy to leave behind—and it’s one she personally plans on pursuing.

“I saw a woman who, as a dead person donating her organs, saved three lives. You can’t usually do that kind of a heroic thing while you’re alive,” Roach says. “You look at your options as a dead person: you’re going to rot in the ground, you’re burned up and cremated ... or you can do something useful.”

10 of the Most Popular Portable Bluetooth Speakers on Amazon

Altech/Bose/JBL/Amazon
Altech/Bose/JBL/Amazon

As convenient as smartphones and tablets are, they don’t necessarily offer the best sound quality. But a well-built portable speaker can fill that need. And whether you’re looking for a speaker to use in the shower or a device to take on a long camping trip, these bestselling models from Amazon have you covered.

1. OontZ Angle 3 Bluetooth Portable Speaker; $26-$30 (4.4 stars)

Oontz portable bluetooth speaker
Cambridge Soundworks/Amazon

Of the 57,000-plus reviews that users have left for this speaker on Amazon, 72 percent of them are five stars. So it should come as no surprise that this is currently the best-selling portable Bluetooth speaker on the site. It comes in eight different colors and can play for up to 14 hours straight after a full charge. Plus, it’s splash proof, making it a perfect speaker for the shower, beach, or pool.

Buy it: Amazon

2. JBL Charge 3 Waterproof Portable Bluetooth Speaker; $110 (4.6 stars)

JBL portable bluetooth speaker
JBL/Amazon

This nifty speaker can connect with up to three devices at one time, so you and your friends can take turns sharing your favorite music. Its built-in battery can play music for up to 20 hours, and it can even charge smartphones and tablets via USB.

Buy it: Amazon

3. Anker Soundcore Bluetooth Speaker; $25-$28 (4.6 stars)

Anker portable bluetooth speaker
Anker/Amazon

This speaker boasts 24-hour battery life and a strong Bluetooth connection within a 66-foot radius. It also comes with a built-in microphone so you can easily take calls over speakerphone.

Buy it: Amazon

4. Bose SoundLink Color Bluetooth Speaker; $129 (4.4 stars)

Bose portable bluetooth speaker
Bose/Amazon

Bose is well-known for building user-friendly products that offer excellent sound quality. This portable speaker lets you connect to the Bose app, which makes it easier to switch between devices and personalize your settings. It’s also water-resistant, making it durable enough to handle a day at the pool or beach.

Buy it: Amazon

5. DOSS Soundbox Touch Portable Wireless Bluetooth Speaker; $28-$33 (4.4 stars)

DOSS portable bluetooth speaker
DOSS/Amazon

This portable speaker features an elegant system of touch controls that lets you easily switch between three methods of playing audio—Bluetooth, Micro SD, or auxiliary input. It can play for up to 20 hours after a full charge.

Buy it: Amazon

6. Altec Lansing Mini Wireless Bluetooth Speaker; $15-$20 (4.3 stars)

Altec Lansing portable bluetooth speaker
Altec Lansing/Amazon

This lightweight speaker is built for the outdoors. With its certified IP67 rating—meaning that it’s fully waterproof, shockproof, and dust proof—it’s durable enough to withstand harsh environments. Plus, it comes with a carabiner that can attach to a backpack or belt loop.

Buy it: Amazon

7. Tribit XSound Go Bluetooth Speaker; $33-$38 (4.6 stars)

Tribit portable bluetooth speaker
Tribit/Amazon

Tribit’s portable Bluetooth speaker weighs less than a pound and is fully waterproof and resistant to scratches and drops. It also comes with a tear-resistant strap for easy transportation, and the rechargeable battery can handle up to 24 hours of continuous use after a full charge. In 2020, it was Wirecutter's pick as the best budget portable Bluetooth speaker on the market.

Buy it: Amazon

8. VicTsing SoundHot C6 Portable Bluetooth Speaker; $18 (4.3 stars)

VicTsing portable bluetooth speaker
VicTsing/Amazon

The SoundHot portable Bluetooth speaker is designed for convenience wherever you go. It comes with a detachable suction cup and a carabiner so you can keep it secure while you’re showering, kayaking, or hiking, to name just a few.

Buy it: Amazon

9. AOMAIS Sport II Portable Wireless Bluetooth Speaker; $30 (4.4 stars)

AOMAIS portable bluetooth speaker
AOMAIS/Amazon

This portable speaker is certified to handle deep waters and harsh weather, making it perfect for your next big adventure. It can play for up to 15 hours on a full charge and offers a stable Bluetooth connection within a 100-foot radius.

Buy it: Amazon

10. XLEADER SoundAngel Touch Bluetooth Speaker; $19-$23 (4.4 stars)

XLeader portable bluetooth speaker
XLEADER/Amazon

This stylish device is available in black, silver, gold, and rose gold. Plus, it’s equipped with Bluetooth 5.0, a more powerful technology that can pair with devices up to 800 feet away. The SoundAngel speaker itself isn’t water-resistant, but it comes with a waterproof case for protection in less-than-ideal conditions.

Buy it: Amazon

This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

The Meteoric Rise—and Tragic Fall—of NASA's Skylab

NASA // Public Domain
NASA // Public Domain

On May 14, 1973, NASA launched Skylab, the first American space station. It fell to earth six years later, burning up in the atmosphere on July 11, 1979.

Skylab itself was a heavily modified third stage of a Saturn V rocket—the same system we used to send Apollo missions to the moon. The station was huge, measuring more than 80 feet in length, with a 21-foot diameter. During launch, Skylab 1 suffered major damage to its solar array, which delayed the launch of the Skylab 2 crew (originally intended to launch the day after Skylab itself reached orbit). The Skylab 2 mission was modified to include repair work to the solar power system and installation of a solar heat shield, as the original one was lost during launch. The Skylab 2 crew launched on May 25, 1973.

The Skylab missions resulted in new information about long-term space habitation (including an awesome space shower). The first crew spent 28 days in space; the second crew more than doubled that at 59 days; and the final crew (Skylab 4) spent 84 days up there. That last record was not broken by an American for two decades. Skylab also focused on solar science, Earth science, and microgravity experiments.

Skylab was something of a bridge between the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. Indeed, Skylab was supposed to be serviced (and its orbit boosted) by the first Shuttle, but it wasn't ready in time. Skylab's orbit decayed, eventually causing it to disintegrate and fall to Earth over the Indian Ocean on July 11, 1979. Chunks of the station made a bit of a fireworks display streaking through the atmosphere, and ultimately littered a swath of Australia. No injuries were reported from the falling debris, though media coverage of the reentry was intense.

Here's a short NASA documentary on Skylab, explaining the story of the station. Have a look:

If you'd like to relive the launch, here's live TV coverage from that day:

And if you'd like to learn more about its crash, and what it taught NASA moving forward, watch this:

This story has been updated for 2020.