13 Wild Facts About Rebel Without a Cause

Warner Home Video
Warner Home Video

In 1955, director Nicholas Ray had a vision of a film about juvenile delinquents unlike any other in the subgenre. Rather than focusing on poor kids from an inner city, he envisioned a Romeo and Juliet-style tale about affluent teenagers who couldn’t relate to the lives of their parents, and who were looking for any outlet to release their disillusionment and anger. To achieve this vision, he consulted with experts, pushed for realism at every turn, and found a collaborator in a rising young actor named James Dean.

More than six decades after its release, Rebel Without a Cause remains the quintessential film about juvenile delinquents, fueled by Dean’s intense performance and Ray’s bold direction and given further mystique by the young star’s premature death just weeks before the film was released. Dean’s death made the film a must-see, but the making of the film made it a classic that endures today. So, from real fights among cast members to switchblades that really cut, here are 13 facts about the making of this landmark film.


The story of the making of Rebel Without a Cause actually goes back nearly a decade before it arrived in theaters in 1955, to a book of the same name by Dr. Robert Lindner. Published in 1944, the book was a case study of a young man named Harold who was then an inmate at the Lewisburg Federal Penitentiary in Pennsylvania. Sensing the topical appeal of the story, Warner Bros. purchased the rights to the book in early 1946, and it went through several writers (more on that in a moment) before going dormant. Then, in the 1950s, black and white films about rebellious teens—including The Wild One (1953) and The Blackboard Jungle (1955)—spiked in popularity. Director Nicholas Ray noticed this trend, and became interested in the idea of a film about juvenile delinquents.

In 1954 Ray brought his idea, in the form of a treatment called The Blind Run, to Warner Bros., who bought the idea and ultimately asked Ray to merge it with their existing ownership of the Rebel Without a Cause book. Ray ultimately took plenty of liberties with the story, and veered away from other hit delinquent films of the time, and their stories of teen criminals who only came from lower income areas. Ray wanted to focus on disillusionment and anger among even teens from seemingly comfortable, stable homes. With that goal in mind, work on what would become Rebel Without a Cause began.


Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

In the years before Ray came aboard with his own pitch for The Blind Run, Rebel Without a Cause went through Warner Bros.’ development process, which included several writers taking a crack at adapting Lindner’s nonfiction book into an acceptable screenplay. Shortly after Warner Bros. bought the rights to Lindner’s book, Jacques Le Mareschal produced a treatment, and over the next several years writers Peter Viertel, H.L. Fishel, and Lindner himself would try their hand at producing a script. The most noteworthy name to emerge from these early stages of the writing process, though, comes in the Warner Bros. script archive listing of who did the first draft: Theodor Seuss Geisel, better known today as Dr. Seuss.


Warner Bros. went through several drafts of this early version of Rebel Without a Cause between from 1946 through 1949, and while the film never got off the ground during that period, the studio did at one point feel they were far enough along in the development process to consider a star for the project. In 1947, they took a chance and screen tested a young New York theater actor to play the rebel at the heart of the story, then envisioned as a much more psychopathic criminal than the disillusioned teen that Jim Stark ultimately became in Ray’s film. That actor was Marlon Brando, who was then enjoying Broadway success as Stanley Kowalski in A Streetcar Named Desire. Of course, this version of Rebel never entered production, so Brando would have to wait for his big film break. It would come four years later, in the movie version of Streetcar, which earned him an Oscar nomination and made him into a rising icon. In 1953, he got the chance to play a rebellious young man after all, starring in The Wild One.


As the writing process for the Rebel Without a Cause screenplay (the studio ultimately insisted on that title instead of Ray’s preferred The Blind Run) got underway, Ray and Warner Bros. butted heads over who should collaborate with him on the project. Ray wanted Clifford Odets to work on the script, but he was unavailable, and the studio instead hired Leon Uris, whose take on the project never quite meshed with what Ray was hoping for. Irving Shulman, who received a credit for the adaptation on the film, stepped into replace Uris, adding the Southern California setting, the first scene at the planetarium, and the “chickie run” car sequence based on real incidents he and Ray had read about. Then Stewart Stern came in, and though he may have initially been hired to collaborate with Shulman, later drafts became Stern’s alone as his sensibility and Ray’s merged.

With Stern on board, the film’s key influences emerged. Ray, hoping for a classic, timeless tone to his story, claimed Romeo and Juliet—“the best play written about juvenile delinquents”—as an inspiration, while Stern would later recall that he considered the film to be in some ways a new take on Peter Pan, with the crumbling mansion standing in for Neverland, Jim standing in for Peter, Judy for Wendy, and Plato for The Lost Boys. Perhaps most importantly, though, both Ray and Stern drew on their own lives, and Stern in particular took inspiration from his own relationship with his parents.

“[Ray] had terrible pangs of conscience about himself as a father, and I had terrible fury about myself as a son, and we both knew that that was a stream that was both shared in different ways,” Stern recalled.


Natalie Wood and James Dean in 'Rebel Without a Cause' (1955)
Warner Home Video

When it came to begin casting, Ray struggled to find an actress to play Judy, the girlfriend of a gang member who finds Jim and his disillusionment alluring and relatable. Among the top contenders at the time were Debbie Reynolds, Carroll Baker, Lois Smith (one of the studio’s choices), and Jayne Mansfield, who Ray reportedly actively resisted casting. One actress who was not a contender at first was Natalie Wood, who Ray was hesitant to consider because of her early career, and thus public reputation, as an innocent child star.

Wood finally won the role after she was involved in a car crash that also included future Rebel Without a Cause co-star Dennis Hopper, with whom she was romantically involved. When she was in the police station after the crash, Wood called Ray to pick her up, and when he arrived she informed him that one of the officers had referred to her as a juvenile delinquent.

"Now do I get the part?" Wood asked.

Ray relented, and Wood was ultimately nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance.


Though the studio apparently considered Tab Hunter for the role of Jim at one point, Ray was intrigued by James Dean, who had yet to make his mark on Hollywood but had already shot his role as Caleb in East of Eden, which Ray saw early screenings of. Impressed with Dean, Ray wanted to cast him as the lead in Rebel, but another of Dean’s soon-to-be-legendary films was standing in the way: Giant, which was all set to start shooting at a time that would conflict with Rebel’s production. Then, a fortuitous development in the life of another of Giant’s stars changed everything: Elizabeth Taylor was pregnant, which meant the film had to be delayed until June of 1955. That freed Dean up to take another iconic role, the one that would define his legend more than any other.


The pursuit of realism continued to the supporting cast, which was chosen from somewhere between 300 and 500 young actors who came to the Warner Bros. backlot with their own cars in an attempt to earn a spot in the film. Eventually, once that number was whittled down to a few dozen, Ray pushed the authenticity even further, and asked the actors to start a fight as if they were really in a gang.

“So we fought and some cars were smashed, some people were really hurt, and then Nick said cut, and that was that,” Jack Grinnage, who played Moose, recalled.

Later during production, Grinnage remarked to a co-star that he’d really love to see the footage Ray had gotten of the fight that day, and his co-star replied that there had never been any film in the camera.


A poster from 'Rebel Without a Cause' (1955)
Warner Bros.

It’s hard to imagine Rebel Without a Cause in anything but color now, in part because it’s hard to imagine seeing Dean without that striking red jacket he’s wearing on the film’s posters, but that wasn’t always the plan. Ray and Stern both believed that the film should be shot like a B movie, with a grittier style that was perfectly suited to black-and-white, and Ray even began production by shooting this way. Rebel Without a Cause was also being shot in the widescreen format CinemaScope, though (which frustrated Ray, who couldn’t figure out how to fill the frame), and it turned out there was a clause in the CinemaScope licensing agreement which said all CinemaScope films must also be color films. That, plus Warner Bros.'s desire to invest more in the film as juvenile delinquent pictures became even trendier, led to the switch.


Ray and Dean’s drive for realism led them to various places, including police and psychiatric professionals, for consulting assistance on the film, but perhaps their most valuable resources came in the form of Frank Mazzola, who played the gang member Crunch. Mazzola, a graduate of Hollywood High School, was also a member of The Athenians, a gang that Mazzola himself referred to as a “social club” that was nonetheless very tough and territorial. After he joined the cast, Mazzola began remarking upon various “phony” elements of the script, as well as the wardrobe, the cars used, and more. Ray asked him if he could provide an example of real gang life, and Mazzola knew just where to look.

“So what I did is I called an Athenian meeting,” Mazzola recalled.

Mazzola gathered his friends and had them actually hassle Ray and Dean (who was not yet famous) as if they were really making a move on Athenian turf. Ray got the point rather quickly, and gave Mazzola an office next to his during production. From then on, Mazzola consulted on the script, the wardrobe, the cars (Dean’s 1949 Mercury was his idea), and the lingo. He even helped choreograph the knife fight based on a real encounter he had with another gang member.


By the time filming on Rebel Without a Cause began, Ray and Dean had more than a typical director/star relationship. Ray worked hard to get to know his young lead, hanging out with Dean in New York, getting drunk and smoking pot together, and then ultimately holding lengthy rehearsal sessions at Ray’s Chateau Marmont bungalow. As production began, Dean’s passion for Method acting led Ray to give him an extremely large share of creative control over each scene, to the point that it was often Dean who would dictate that pace and tone of a scene to the other actors.

"Jimmy did most of the directing. He gave us our lines; he dominated the entire thing,” Ann Doran, who played Jim’s mother, later recalled.


Ray and Dean both placed a lot of emphasis on the realism of each moment in Rebel Without a Cause, and Dean’s Method acting meant he wanted to place himself in the most authentic situations possible. Because the film is sometimes violent, that meant Dean often engaged in real physical violence for the part, and sometimes didn’t make it out unscathed. For the scene in which Jim drunkenly pounds on the desk in the police station, Dean apparently actually got drunk and then pounded the desk as hard as he could, breaking bones in his hand and leaving Ray forced to shoot around the bandages.

Then there was the switchblade fight between Jim and Buzz (Corey Allen), which was done with real blades, though certain precautions were taken (Dean can be seen in production stills placing padding under his shirt). At one point while shooting the fight, Allen reached out and actually cut Dean. Ray, alarmed that his star had been injured, called cut, and Dean was furious.

“Jimmy gets furious and grabs Nick and says ‘Don’t ever, ever say cut. Don’t ever, ever say cut to me. I’ll say cut if something’s wrong. Don’t you ever cut the scene,’” co-star Dennis Hopper later recalled, and noted that Dean wanted to preserve the realism of his injury for the camera. Dean was apparently so angry over Ray’s decision to stop the scene that he walked off the set in a rage and had to be coaxed back to filming.


At the time she was cast in Rebel Without a Cause, Wood was romantically involved with Hopper, who was also set to co-star in the film. During the production, though, Wood also struck up an affair with Ray, and one day Hopper apparently discovered them together. The young actor challenged the director to a fist fight, and Ray’s preference was to simply fire Hopper and keep him away from the set. Warner Bros. wanted the young star to stick around, though, and so Ray settled for giving Hopper a smaller role, with no lines. That, the story goes, is why Hopper played Goon instead of Crunch (Mazzola’s eventual role) in the film.


Thanks to East of Eden’s success that spring and early screenings of Rebel Without a Cause, by September of 1955 James Dean was on the verge of mega-stardom. The former film earned him an Oscar nomination for Best Actor, and the latter was good enough to convince Warner Bros. to offer him a long-term contract to lock his star power down. Then, on September 30, Dean tragically died in a car crash at the age of 24, less than a month before Rebel Without a Cause arrived in theaters.

Sadly, Dean was not the only member of the film’s cast to suffer a tragic early death. On February 12, 1976, Sal Mineo was murdered outside his Los Angeles apartment at the age of 37, and Natalie Wood famously and mysteriously drowned in the waters off Santa Catalina Island on November 29, 1981, at the age of 43.

Additional Sources:
Rebel Without a Cause: Defiant Innocents (2005)

7 Things We Know (So Far) About Baby Yoda, the Breakout Star of The Mandalorian

© Lucasfilm
© Lucasfilm

From the moment he appeared onscreen in the closing moments of the premiere episode of the new Disney+ series The Mandalorian on November 12, the creature referred to as Baby Yoda has become an internet sensation not seen since the likes of the IKEA monkey. The Rock has displayed his affection for the cooing green infant on Instagram; a man purportedly got a tattoo of Baby Yoda holding a White Claw seltzer and insists it’s permanent; and a Change.org petition is underway demanding a Baby Yoda emoji.

That Baby Yoda has gripped the imagination of the country is no small feat, as precious little has been revealed about his origins other than that he appears to be a member of the same unnamed species as Jedi master Yoda, which has traditionally been shrouded in secrecy. More will be revealed as The Mandalorian continues its weekly run through December 27. In the meantime, here’s what we know so far about the alarmingly adorable creature canonically known as “The Child.”

1. Baby Yoda is 50 years old, but he still seems a bit behind developmentally.

Owing to the long lifespan of Yoda’s species—Yoda himself lived to be roughly 900 years old before expiring in 1983’s Return of the Jedi, set five years prior to the events of the Disney+ series—it makes sense that the “baby” in the show is the human equivalent of someone about to subscribe to AARP: The Magazine. We learn Baby Yoda’s age in the first episode, where Mando is told he’s being tasked with finding a target that age. It’s a clever bit of misdirection that sets up the climactic reveal that the bounty hunter is after an infant.

And though his habits—tasting space frogs and playing with spaceship knobs—seem developmentally accurate, child experts told Popular Mechanics that such curiosity is more in line with a 1-year-old, not the 5-year-old Baby Yoda might be analogous to in human years. He’s also not terribly verbose, putting him behind what one might expect of a person his relative age.

2. Baby Yoda is male.

After rescuing Baby Yoda from an untimely demise at the hands of bounty hunter IG-11 in the debut episode, the titular Mandalorian takes off with his young bounty to deliver him to his Imperial employer known as the Client (Werner Herzog). In episode 3, the Client receives the baby; his underling, Doctor Pershing, (Omid Abtahi) refers to the character as “him.” A pre-order page for a Mattel plush Baby Yoda also refers to the character as a "he." We have, however, seen a female member of Yoda’s species before. In 1999’s Star Wars: Episode I: The Phantom Menace, a green-skinned Yaddle sits wordlessly on the Jedi Council.

3. Baby Yoda’s genetics are of great interest to what’s left of the Empire.

Why was Mando sent to fetch Baby Yoda? From what we could gather in episode three, the Client was desperate to gather knowledge from the creature, with Doctor Pershing told to extract something from his tiny body. That motive has yet to be revealed, but thanks to The Phantom Menace, we know Force-sensitive individuals can carry a large number of Midi-chlorians, or cells that can attenuate themselves to the Force. One fan theory speculates that these cells can be harvested, creating people with greater capabilities to wield Jedi powers.

4. Using the Force really tires Baby Yoda out.

In episode 2, a battle-weary Mando is in real danger of being trampled by a Mudhorn, a savage beast. Channeling his (presumed) Force abilities, Baby Yoda is able to dispatch of the threat, but the effort seems to exhaust him, and he spends most of the rest of the episode sound asleep.

5. Baby Yoda might become a Jedi Master in a hurry.

Despite his infantile status, it seems like it won’t be long, relatively speaking, before Baby Yoda achieves the Zen-like mindset and formidable skills of a Jedi Master. It’s been pointed out that Yoda achieved that rank at the age of 100, at which point he began training Jedis. That would mean Yoda’s species is capable of some pretty rapid development between the ages of 50 and 100.

6. Werner Herzog has a soft spot for Baby Yoda.

Herzog, the famously irascible director of such films as 2005’s documentary Grizzly Man and 1972's Aguirre: The Wrath of God, portrays the man known as the Client, out to capture Baby Yoda. Interacting with the puppet on set was apparently a source of amusement for the part-time actor, who sometimes addressed Baby Yoda as though he were not made of rubber. "One of the weirdest moments I had on set, in my life, was trying to direct Werner with the baby,” series director Deborah Chow told The New York Times. “How did I end up with Werner Herzog and Baby Yoda? That was amazing. Werner had absolutely fallen in love with the puppet. He, at some point, had literally forgotten that it wasn’t a real being and was talking to the child as though it was a real, existing creature.”

Herzog was so emotionally invested in Baby Yoda that he reacted harshly when The Mandalorian creator Jon Favreau and producer and director Dave Filoni spoke of wanting to shoot some scenes without the puppet so they could add him as a computer-generated effect later in case the live-action creature wasn’t convincing. “You are cowards,” Herzog told them. “Leave it.”

7. Baby Yoda bootleg merchandise has become a force.

When Favreau decided to keep Baby Yoda under tight wraps before the premiere of The Mandalorian, it forced Disney to postpone plans for tie-in merchandising, which can often leak plot points from film and television projects in retailer solicitations months in advance. As a result, precious little Baby Yoda merchandise is available, save for some hastily-assembled shirts and mugs on the Disney Store website. That leaves craftspeople on Etsy and other outlets to fabricate bootleg Baby Yoda plush dolls and other items.

The shortage runs parallel to the predicament faced by toy maker Kenner upon the release of the original Star Wars in 1977. Faced with a huge and unexpected holiday demand for action figures, the company was forced to sell consumers an empty box with a voucher for the toys redeemable the following year.

Stranger Things Star David Harbour Claims He Still Doesn't Know if Hopper Is Dead or Alive

Jason Mendez/Getty Images
Jason Mendez/Getty Images

With the fourth season of Stranger Things in the works, fans are holding out hope that Jim Hopper, played by David Harbour, is still alive and will be returning to the series. It turns out that we aren’t the only ones.

ComicBook.com reports that the Black Widow star recently made an appearance at German Comic Con Dortmund and, naturally, was asked if he would be returning to the Netflix series. The 44-year-old actor replied:

“Oh my Lord! I don’t know. Should we call the Duffer brothers? We don’t know yet, we don’t know. They won’t tell me anything, so we’ll have to see. I think you’ll find out at some point, we’ll find out at some point. Let’s hope he’s alive.”

The Hellboy actor then asked the crowd if they wanted Hopper to still be alive. When he was met with an explosion of cheers, he joked, “Guess what? Me too. Because I like working.”

Though many are still in mourning over Hopper’s presumed death at the gate of the Upside Down, Harbour stated that it was integral to the character that he died to release the guilt around his daughter’s death. He explained:

“I think Hopper—from the very beginning I’ve said this—he’s very lovable in a certain way, but also, he’s kind of a rough guy. Certainly in the beginning of Season 1 he’s kind of dark, and he’s drinking, and he’s trying to kill himself, and he hates himself for what happened to his daughter. I feel like, in a sense, that character needed to die. He needed to make some sacrifice to make up for the way he’s been living for the past like 10 years, the resentments that he’s had. So he needed to die.”

Though his death might have been necessary to rid him of his demons, we hope to see Hopper return.