To Apostrophe or Not to Apostrophe: How to Pluralize Your Last Name

iStock.com/katerinasergeevna
iStock.com/katerinasergeevna

Let's suppose your last name is Jones, and you and your family want to send out holiday greeting cards or wedding invitations. How would you make your last name plural—Jones'? Jones's? Or Joneses?

Although it may seem complicated at first, the rules of pluralizing last names are actually pretty simple, as Slate has pointed out. Unless you want to make your last name possessive, there aren't any circumstances where you would need to add an apostrophe.

The rule goes like this: If your name ends in s, x, z, ch, or sh, add -es to the end. Walsh becomes Walshes, and Malkovich becomes Malkoviches. For all other endings, simply add -s to the end (as in Smiths, Whites, Johnsons, etc).

Of course, things get a little trickier when you want to make a last name plural and possessive. "Errors involving plural proper names are so common that I almost never see them written correctly," June Casagrande writes for the Los Angeles Times.

Let's say you want to notify friends and family that a party will be held at the Jones household. You could take the easy way out and write just that, or you could opt for, "The party will be held at the Joneses' house." Simply tack an apostrophe onto the end of a plural name to make it possessive. Plural first, then possessive.

The LA Times provided a few other examples of plural possessives:

"Unlike singular possessives, which take an apostrophe followed by an S, plural possessives take an apostrophe alone. So if you're going to the home of the Smiths, you're going to the Smiths' house. If you're going to visit the Williamses, that would be at the Williamses' house. Mr. and Mrs. Mendez, known collectively as the Mendezes, live in the Mendezes' house. And Mr. and Mrs. Berry, whom we call the Berrys, live in the Berrys' house."

On the other hand, if Mr. Jones lived alone and was having a party at his place, you would write "Mr. Jones' house" or "Mr. Jones's house." Both are acceptable—it's merely a difference of style and personal preference. Names that end in s are the exception to the singular possessive rule, though. You'd normally just add 's to make a singular name possessive, such as Mr. Berry's house or Mrs. Mendez's house.

Now that you know exactly when and where to add an apostrophe, your holiday greetings will not only be jolly but also grammatically correct.

[h/t Slate]

The New Apple Watch SE Is Now Available on Amazon

Apple/Amazon
Apple/Amazon

Apple products are notorious for their high price tags. From AirPods to iPads to MacBooks, it can be difficult to find the perfect piece of tech on sale when you are ready to buy. Luckily, for those who have had their eye on a new Apple Watch, the Apple Watch SE is designed with all the features users want but at a lower starting price of $279— and they're available on Amazon right now.

The SE exists as a more affordable option when compared to Apple's new Series 6 line of watches. This less expensive version has many of the same functions of its pricier brethren, except for certain features like the blood oxygen sensor and electrical heart sensor. To make up for the truncated bells and whistles, the SE comes in at least $120 cheaper than the Series 6, which starts at $400 and goes up to $800. The SE comes with technical improvements on previous models as well, such as the fall detection, a faster processor, a larger screen, water resistance, and more.

Now available in 40mm ($279) and 44mm ($309), both SE models offer a variety of colors to choose from, such as sliver, space gray, and pink. If you want cellular connection, you’ll have to pay a bit more for the 40mm ($329) and the 44mm ($359).

For more, head to Amazon to see the full list of offerings from Apple.

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100 of the Most Commonly Misspelled Words in the English Language

She's having a dilemma about how to spell dilemma.
She's having a dilemma about how to spell dilemma.
franckreporter/iStock via Getty Images

Since many apps and programs now come with built-in spellcheckers to catch pesky errors—and even correct them automatically—you’re less likely to be embarrassed if you always forget how to spell embarrass.

You’re also not alone. Lexico used data from the Oxford English Corpus, which monitors the usage of more than 2 billion English words, to compile a list of 100 most commonly misspelled words. Embarrass is one of them; people have trouble remembering that it has two r’s, writing it as embarass instead.

Of all the words on the list, more than two dozen have common misspellings related to double letters. For some of those entries, people seem to know there’s a double letter somewhere in the word, but they often choose the wrong letter to repeat—Caribbean, for example, is often spelled Carribean, and bizarre becomes bizzare. Others have multiple double letters, and people accidentally omit one, like missing the second t in committee or the second n in millennium.

Double letters aren’t the only recurring issue on this list. The old “i before e except after c” mnemonic rhyme hasn’t stuck for everyone; the two vowels are often mistakenly swapped in achieve, believe, friend, piece, receive, and siege. As a testament to how frustrating the English language can be, the words weird and foreign, two of the (many) exceptions to the “i before e” rule, are often misspelled as wierd and foriegn.

Another common vocalic blunder involves a’s and e’s in suffixes. It’s appearance, not appearence; calendar, not calender; and tendency, not tendancy. There aren’t always obvious mnemonic devices to help you keep these straight, but Reader’s Digest suggests exclaiming “Eeek!” whenever you need to remember that cemetery has three e’s and no a’s.

See all 100 words—with the correct spelling listed first, and the common misspelling listed after it—below. And if you’re not the greatest speller, don’t worry; neither were Jane Austen, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and these 9 other historical figures.

  1. accommodate // accomodate
  1. achieve // acheive
  1. across // accross
  1. aggressive // agressive
  1. apparently // apparantly
  1. appearance // appearence
  1. argument // arguement
  1. assassination // assasination
  1. basically // basicly
  1. beginning // begining
  1. believe // beleive, belive
  1. bizarre // bizzare
  1. business // buisness
  1. calendar // calender
  1. Caribbean // Carribean
  1. cemetery // cemetary
  1. chauffeur // chauffer
  1. colleague // collegue
  1. coming // comming
  1. committee // commitee
  1. completely // completly
  1. conscious // concious
  1. curiosity // curiousity
  1. definitely // definately
  1. dilemma // dilemna
  1. disappear // dissapear
  1. disappoint // dissapoint
  1. ecstasy // ecstacy
  1. embarrass // embarass
  1. environment // enviroment
  1. existence // existance
  1. Fahrenheit // Farenheit
  1. familiar // familar
  1. finally // finaly
  1. fluorescent // florescent
  1. foreign // foriegn
  1. foreseeable // forseeable
  1. forty // fourty
  1. forward // foward
  1. friend // freind
  1. further // futher
  1. gist // jist
  1. glamorous // glamourous
  1. government // goverment
  1. guard // gaurd
  1. happened // happend
  1. harass // harrass
  1. honorary // honourary
  1. humorous // humourous
  1. idiosyncrasy // idiosyncracy
  1. immediately // immediatly
  1. incidentally // incidently
  1. independent // independant
  1. interrupt // interupt
  1. irresistible // irresistable
  1. knowledge // knowlege
  1. liaise // liase
  1. lollipop // lollypop
  1. millennium // millenium
  1. Neanderthal // Neandertal
  1. necessary // neccessary
  1. noticeable // noticable
  1. occasion // ocassion
  1. occurred // occured
  1. occurrence // occurance, occurence
  1. pavilion // pavillion
  1. persistent // persistant
  1. pharaoh // pharoah
  1. piece // peice
  1. politician // politican
  1. Portuguese // Portugese
  1. possession // posession
  1. preferred // prefered
  1. propaganda // propoganda
  1. publicly // publically
  1. really // realy
  1. receive // recieve
  1. referred // refered
  1. religious // religous
  1. remember // rember, remeber
  1. resistance // resistence
  1. sense // sence
  1. separate // seperate
  1. siege // seige
  1. successful // succesful
  1. supersede // supercede
  1. surprise // suprise
  1. tattoo // tatoo
  1. tendency // tendancy
  1. therefore // therefor
  1. threshold // threshhold
  1. tomorrow // tommorow, tommorrow
  1. tongue // tounge
  1. truly // truely
  1. unforeseen // unforseen
  1. unfortunately // unfortunatly
  1. until // untill
  1. weird // wierd
  1. wherever // whereever
  1. which // wich

[h/t Lexico]