Experimental Brain Implant Lets Paralyzed People Communicate by Turning Thoughts Into Text

BrainGate Collaboration
BrainGate Collaboration

People with paralysis could someday use a brain implant to help them communicate their thoughts and carry out everyday tasks. As Engadget reports, a brain-computer interface (BCI) called the BrainGate2 Neural Interface System has enabled three paralyzed people to send texts, buy groceries online, stream music, and even play a virtual piano on a tablet.

The interface was developed by the BrainGate consortium, a team of neuroscientists, engineers, and computer scientists that creates new technologies for people who are paralyzed, have lost a limb, or have a neurologic disease that limits their motor function or speaking ability. Their findings were published in the journal PLOS One.

The three participants in the clinical study are paralyzed and lack the use of their arms. An implant about the size of a baby aspirin pill containing an array of microelectrodes was placed in their motor cortex—the part of the brain responsible for movement. A small sensor was used to record any neural signals associated with moving a limb, which were then decoded and sent to a virtual mouse paired to a tablet via Bluetooth.

In other words, the participants just had to think about moving a cursor on a screen, and the interface did the heavy lifting for them. They were able to type 30 characters per minute and make 22 point-and-click selections per minute.

Similar technologies have been developed in the past, but this one lets people use an off-the-shelf tablet without having to make any modifications, according to Engadget.

A participant plays a virtual piano
BrainGate Collaboration

Although the brain implant technology is still in the experimental stage and is not yet ready for commercial development, several of the study’s authors said the results are promising and could vastly improve the quality of life for people with paralysis.

Stanford University bioengineer and lead author Paul Nuyujukian said in a statement, "One of the participants told us at the beginning of the trial that one of the things she really wanted to do was play music again. So, to see her play on a digital keyboard was fantastic."

[h/t Engadget]

Wayfair’s Fourth of July Clearance Sale Takes Up to 60 Percent Off Grills and Outdoor Furniture

Wayfair/Weber
Wayfair/Weber

This Fourth of July, Wayfair is making sure you can turn your backyard into an oasis while keeping your bank account intact with a clearance sale that features savings of up to 60 percent on essentials like chairs, hammocks, games, and grills. Take a look at some of the highlights below.

Outdoor Furniture

Brisbane bench from Wayfair
Brisbane/Wayfair

- Jericho 9-Foot Market Umbrella $92 (Save 15 percent)
- Woodstock Patio Chairs (Set of Two) $310 (Save 54 percent)
- Brisbane Wooden Storage Bench $243 (Save 62 percent)
- Kordell Nine-Piece Rattan Sectional Seating Group with Cushions $1800 (Save 27 percent)
- Nelsonville 12-Piece Multiple Chairs Seating Group $1860 (Save 56 percent)
- Collingswood Three-Piece Seating Group with Cushions $410 (Save 33 percent)

Grills and Accessories

Dyna-Glo electric smoker.
Dyna-Glo/Wayfair

- Spirit® II E-310 Gas Grill $479 (Save 17 percent)
- Portable Three-Burner Propane Gas Grill $104 (Save 20 percent)
- Digital Bluetooth Electric Smoker $224 (Save 25 percent)
- Cuisinart Grilling Tool Set $38 (Save 5 percent)

Outdoor games

American flag cornhole game.
GoSports

- American Flag Cornhole Board $57 (Save 19 percent)
- Giant Four in a Row Game $30 (Save 6 percent)
- Giant Jenga Game $119 (Save 30 percent)

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Map Shows How Everyone Blamed Syphilis on Everyone Else

Portrait of Gerard de Lairesse by Rembrandt van Rijn. De Lairesse, a painter and art theorist, had congenital syphilis that deformed his face and eventually blinded him.
Portrait of Gerard de Lairesse by Rembrandt van Rijn. De Lairesse, a painter and art theorist, had congenital syphilis that deformed his face and eventually blinded him.
Gerard de Lairesse, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

The origins of syphilis may be one of the greatest (and grossest) health mysteries of our time. Some historians claim that Christopher Columbus and his sailors contracted the sexually transmitted disease in the New World and brought it back to Europe. Other experts believe that the disease, which is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum, existed in various forms around the globe but was simply misclassified as other conditions. (European writers, including Italian historian Niccolo Squillaci, first described syphilis in the late 15th century.) And in 2015, researchers announced that they had identified signs of congenital syphilis in 14th-century skeletons from St. Polten, Austria, adding new evidence to an ages-old debate.

One thing's for sure: As the map below illustrates, nobody wanted to take credit for originating the virulent condition. Created by Redditor masiakasaurus (and spotted by The A.V. Club), the map illustrates the various nicknames Europeans gave the disease before the name syphilis caught on. (Italian physician and poet Hieronymus Fracastorius coined the word in 1530 with his poem "Syphilis Sive Morbus Gallicus" ("Syphilis or the French Disease"). Not surprisingly, nearly every single moniker used for the disease places blame on another group for giving birth to what by then had become a continental scourge.

“Most physicians felt that this was a new disease, that it hadn’t been seen before in Europe, and that view tended to prevail for quite some time,” medical historian John Parascandola told The Atlantic in 2016. “There were certain tempting reasons for people to accept that—blame it on the others, blame it on the outsiders. Before that, the French were blaming it on the Italians, the Italians were blaming it on the French, et cetera.”

Masiakasaurus sourced the syphilis nicknames from nine scholarly books/journals, including The Early History of Syphilis: A Reappraisal,The rise and fall of sexually transmitted diseases in Sweden, and A Medical History of Persia and the Eastern Caliphate: From the Earliest Times Until the Year A.D. 1932. You can view the full list on Reddit—after giving silent thanks to Alexander Fleming for discovering penicillin, found to be an effective cure for syphilis in 1943.

[h/t The A.V. Club]