What's the Difference Between Moths and Butterflies?

iStock/Serg_Velusceac
iStock/Serg_Velusceac

Butterflies and moths share a lot in common. Both species are insects, they both start life as caterpillars, and they both sport large, lustrous wings. But there are also clear scientific differences that separate the two—and you don't need to be an entomologist to recognize them.

Moths and butterflies look and behave so similarly because they comprise the same order of insects. Organisms in the order Lepidoptera are defined by their scaled wings and the straw-like mouthparts they use to sip fluids. They are born as larvae with segmented bodies and chewing mouthparts and undergo metamorphosis to reach their mature forms.

When a Lepidoptera caterpillar has entered its pupa stage, it will emerge as a creature that falls under one of two umbrellas: moth or butterfly. Moths can generally be recognized by their antennae. Unlike butterflies, which have long, skinny antennae that get wider at the tips, moth antennae have rows of hair-like bristles like feathers.

If you can't see the antennae of the insect you're looking at, check its wings. They're both large and shiny, but the wings of moths and butterflies bear some key differences. Moth wings have a structure that butterflies lack called a frenulum, which connects the front and back sections of the wings together. When butterflies close their wings, they bring them together above their backs like the pages of a book, and when moths close them, they fold them straight back like a paper fan. Color can be a distinguishing factor—butterflies like monarchs and swallowtails have brightly colored wings, while moths tend to be colored with duller shades like browns and creams—but that doesn’t always confirm whether a creature is a moth or a butterfly. Some moth species, like the luna and rosy maple moth, display strikingly vibrant color patterns.

A fox moth with its wings pulled back.iStock/Ian_Redding

Their differences don't end with appearances. The time of day these critters can be seen out and about indicates which type of lepidopteran they are. While most butterflies are diurnal, meaning they're active during the day, moths tend to be nocturnal. Without bright sunlight to fly by, moths evolved to use the moon to navigate, which is why the insects are attracted to bright light sources like porch lights and campfires.

In summary: If you can't tell if the thing flapping its wings in front of you is a moth or butterfly, check its wings, antennae, and the time of day. And if you want to know if it's a bug, an insect, or both, there's an entirely different elimination process you need to go through.

Amazon's Under-the-Radar Coupon Page Features Deals on Home Goods, Electronics, and Groceries

Stock Catalog, Flickr // CC BY 2.0
Stock Catalog, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

Now that Prime Day is over, and with Black Friday and Cyber Monday still a few weeks away, online deals may seem harder to come by. And while it can be a hassle to scour the internet for promo codes, buy-one-get-one deals, and flash sales, Amazon actually has an extensive coupon page you might not know about that features deals to look through every day.

As pointed out by People, the coupon page breaks deals down by categories, like electronics, home & kitchen, and groceries (the coupons even work with SNAP benefits). Since most of the deals revolve around the essentials, it's easy to stock up on items like Cottonelle toilet paper, Tide Pods, Cascade dishwasher detergent, and a 50 pack of surgical masks whenever you're running low.

But the low prices don't just stop at necessities. If you’re looking for the best deal on headphones, all you have to do is go to the electronics coupon page and it will bring up a deal on these COWIN E7 PRO noise-canceling headphones, which are now $80, thanks to a $10 coupon you could have missed.

Alternatively, if you are looking for deals on specific brands, you can search for their coupons from the page. So if you've had your eye on the Homall S-Racer gaming chair, you’ll find there's currently a coupon that saves you 5 percent, thanks to a simple search.

To discover all the deals you have been missing out on, head over to the Amazon Coupons page.

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Why Do We Have Daylight Saving Time?

Patrick Daxenbichler/iStock via Getty Images
Patrick Daxenbichler/iStock via Getty Images

As you drag your time-confused body out of bed at what seems like a shockingly late hour next week, you might find yourself wondering why on Earth we even have Daylight Saving Time.

Though Benjamin Franklin was mostly joking when he suggested it as a money-saving tactic in a satirical essay from 1784, others who later proposed the idea were totally serious. In 1895, entomologist George Vernon Hudson pitched it to the Royal Society in New Zealand as a way to prolong daylight for bug-hunting purposes, and William Willett spent the early 1900s lobbying British Parliament to adopt an 80-minute time jump in April; neither man was successful.

During World War I, however, the need to conserve energy—which, at the time, chiefly came from coal—increased, and Germany was the first to give Daylight Saving Time the green light in 1916. Britain and other European countries quickly followed suit, and the U.S. entered the game in 1918. The practice was dropped almost everywhere after the war, but it was widely resurrected just a few decades later during World War II.

After that war ended, the U.S. abandoned DST yet again—sort of. Without any official legislation, the country devolved into a jumble of conflicting practices. According to History.com, Iowa had 23 different pairs of start and end dates for DST in 1965, while other areas of the country didn’t observe DST at all.

In 1966, Congress put an end to the chaos by passing the Uniform Time Act, which specified that DST would begin at 2:00 a.m. on the last Sunday in April, and end at the same time on the last Sunday in October. (The Energy Policy Act of 2005 extended DST by shifting these dates to the second Sunday in March and the first Sunday in November.) It didn’t require that all states and territories actually observe DST, and some of them didn’t—Arizona and Hawaii still don’t.

Throughout its long, lurching history, the supposed merits of Daylight Saving Time have always been about cutting down on electricity usage and conserving energy in general. But, as Live Science reports, experts disagree on whether this actually works. Some studies suggest that while the extra daylight hour might decrease lighting-related electricity use, it also means people could be keeping their air conditioners running for long enough that it increases the overall usage of electricity.

If your extended night’s sleep seems to have left you with a little extra time on your hands, see how DST affects your part of the country here.

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