13 Times the British Royal Family Broke Official Protocol

Chris Jackson/Getty Images
Chris Jackson/Getty Images

Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's decision to step back from royal duty has sparked countless debates about what this fairly unprecedented break from royal protocol means. While the queen has issued an official statement saying that she and her family "are entirely supportive of Harry and Meghan’s desire to create a new life as a young family," she did add that "we would have preferred them to remain full-time working Members of the Royal Family."

Though the Duke and Duchess's decision to split their time between England and Canada appears to have been settled, it's likely to remain a contentious one—at least as far as the public and media are concerned—for quite some time to come. Of course, Harry and Meghan are far from the first members of the royal family who have chosen to break away from the establishment's age-old rules and conventions.

From the simple laying of a commemorative wreath to the Abdication Crisis of 1936 (not to mention a king who wasn’t even buried in England), Britain’s royal past is full of rule-breakers and convention-changers. Here are just a few of them.

1. Prince Charles represents on Remembrance Sunday // 2017

Prince Charles, Prince of Wales lays a wreath on behalf of Queen Elizabeth II during the annual Remembrance Sunday Service at The Cenotaph on November 12, 2017 in London, England
Prince Charles lays a wreath on behalf of Queen Elizabeth II during London's annual Remembrance Sunday Service on November 12, 2017.
Max Mumby/Indigo/Getty Images

In November 2017, the Queen (as usual) attended the annual Remembrance Day celebrations in London. But in a break from tradition, she opted not to place a poppy wreath at the foot of the Cenotaph Memorial as part of the ceremony, and instead asked Prince Charles to present it instead. Charles has represented the Queen in this way at every Remembrance Day since.

This wasn’t the first time the Queen chose not to take an active role in these Remembrance Day celebrations (royal tours and pregnancies had on occasion prevented her in the past), but her decision not to take part in 2017 was seen as a significant break from usual protocol. There was no ulterior motive, however: At the age of 91, the Queen had reportedly decided that the long and emotional ceremony was an arduous one, and Prince Philip’s decision that year to likewise step back from royal duty also likely affected her decision.

2. Prince George’s non-royal godparents // 2013

Prince William and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge greet Queen Elizabeth II as she arrives at the Chapel Royal in St James's Palace for Prince George's christening in 2013.
Prince William and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge greet Queen Elizabeth II as she arrives at the Chapel Royal in St James's Palace for Prince George's christening in 2013.
John Stillwell - WPA Pool /Getty Images

It’s a longstanding tradition that the godparents of royal babies are selected from within the confines of the royal family itself. But in 2013, Prince William and Kate Middleton broke with that tradition by selecting just one of Prince George’s seven godparents from their royal relatives: Zara Tindall, the eldest daughter of Princess Anne and a cousin of Prince William, was one of the seven names on the list. The other six included friends of the couple, including Oliver Baker, a friend theirs from their time together at St. Andrews University.

3. Catherine's Middleton family Christmas // 2012

Prince William and his pregnant wife Catherine leave King Edward VII hospital in December 2012, where the Duchess was being treated for acute morning sickness.
Prince William and his pregnant wife Catherine leave King Edward VII hospital in December 2012, where the Duchess was being treated for acute morning sickness.
Indigo/Getty Images

Kate Middleton was suffering from such severe morning sickness during her pregnancy in 2012 that Prince William elected to go against centuries of royal traditional and spend Christmas morning with her at the Middleton family home, rather than at Sandringham Palace. The couple then rejoined the rest of the royal family on the Sandringham Estate the following day. 

While the press seemed to sympathize with Catherine's pregnancy plight, and understand why she'd want to spend private time with her family, they weren't quite as kind when Harry and Meghan announced in November 2019 that they planned to make their first Christmas with their son Archie a more private affair and spend extended time with Meghan's mother, Doria Ragland. 

4. Windsor trumps Buckingham Palace for Harry's christening // 1984

Young Prince William entertains the royal relatives and godparents who gathered at Windsor Castle on December 21, 1984 for the christening of Prince Harry.
Young Prince William entertains the royal relatives and godparents who gathered at Windsor Castle on December 21, 1984 for the christening of Prince Harry.
Lord Snowdon via Anwar Hussein/Getty Images

It’s traditional for royal christenings to take place at Buckingham Palace, but in 2013 the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge again broke from convention by arranging to have Prince George’s christening take place in the little-known Chapel Royal in St. James’s Palace in London instead. They weren’t the first to break the rules, though. Back in December 1984, Prince Charles and Princess Diana had Prince Harry baptized in the chapel of Windsor Castle.

5. Prince William's history-making hospital birth // 1982

Prince Charles and Princess Diana leave the Lindo Wing of Londond's St. Mary's Hospital with baby Prince William on July 22, 1982.
Prince Charles and Princess Diana leave the Lindo Wing of London's St. Mary's Hospital with baby Prince William on July 22, 1982.
Anwar Hussein/Getty Images

Remarkably, when Prince William was born in the private Lindo Wing of St. Mary’s Hospital in London in 1982, he became the first heir-apparent in British royal history to have been born in a hospital. Before then, tradition had long dictated that all royal births take place in a royal residence, and be attended by private physicians.

6. Princess Diana promises to love and honor—but not obey // 1981

Diana, Princess of Wales and Prince Charles ride in a carriage after their wedding at St. Paul's Cathedral July 29, 1981 in London.
Diana, Princess of Wales and Prince Charles ride in a carriage after their wedding at London's St. Paul's Cathedral on July 29, 1981.
David Levenson/Getty Images

When the Queen (then Princess Elizabeth) married the Duke of Edinburgh (then Philip Mountbatten) in 1947, questions were raised over the wording of the Church of England’s marriage vows—and, in particular, how appropriate it was for the future Queen to say that she will “love, cherish, and obey” her husband. After all, surely the Queen shouldn’t have to obey anyone? Regardless of the controversy, the Queen stuck to convention and read the established vows. But when Lady Diana Spencer married Prince Charles in 1981, she chose not to. Obey was omitted from the ceremony wording, and Diana instead declared that she would simply “have, hold, love, and cherish” her husband. The word was likewise omitted from both Prince William and Prince Harry’s marriage ceremonies in 2011 and 2018, respectively.

7. The Queen's State Opening of Parliament day dress // 1974

The British State Opening of Parliament ceremony commencing in the House of Commons with on October 29, 1974.
The British State Opening of Parliament ceremony commencing in the House of Commons with on October 29, 1974.
Evening Standard/Getty Images

It’s customary for the UK Parliament to shut down temporarily at the end of each parliamentary session (usually dictated by the calling of an election), and then be reopened by the monarch, amid much pomp and circumstance, once the new session begins. The State Opening of Parliament, as it’s known, is an elaborate affair involving full royal regalia, the sovereign’s traditional state robes, a parade of royal carriages across London, and no less than two crowns taken from the Royal Collection: The monarch wears the George IV State Diadem on their way to and from the House of Lords, but delivers their customary Speech from the throne wearing the considerably larger and more ostentatious Imperial State Crown. In February 1974, however, a snap general election was called by Prime Minister Edward Heath, and the Queen, who was in New Zealand at the time, was compelled to cut her royal visit short and attend a somewhat hastily-arranged State Opening of Parliament on March 12.

As a result, in a considerable break from tradition, the 1974 Opening was a more dressed-down affair, with the Queen wearing a day dress rather than full royal regalia; arriving at the House of Lords by car, not carriage; and delivering her speech wearing the lighter State Diadem, rather than the Imperial State Crown. She wore the same crown to the 2019 State Opening, too, although that was probably for more pragmatic reasons: the Imperial State Crown weighs more than two pounds, and the 93-year-old Queen appears to be not too keen on wearing it. “You can’t look down to read the speech,” she explained in a 2018 BBC documentary. "You have to take the speech up. Because if you did, your neck would break [and] it would fall off.”

8. Princes Charles's public school education // 1956

A general view of Hill House School near Knightsbridge in London, England.
A general view of Hill House School near Knightsbridge in London, England.
Peter Macdiarmid/Getty Images

It might seem strange today, but it was once customary for all members of the royal family not to attend any form of public education. Instead, they were taught at home by private tutors, or else in closed-door military and naval academies. Elizabeth II broke with that traditional in 1956, when she sent 8-year-old Prince Charles to Hill House School in Knightsbridge, London. After two years there, he moved to Cheam Preparatory School in Berkshire, and then on to Gordonstoun boarding school in Moray, in the far north of Scotland, in 1962. His time at Gordonstoun was apparently not a happy one, though: Charles later described the school as being like “Colditz in kilts.”

9. Queen Elizabeth II's non-political birth // 1948

The Duke and Duchess of York (later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth) at the christening of their daughter Princess Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth II) in 1926.
The Duke and Duchess of York (later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth) at the christening of their daughter Princess Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth II) in 1926.
The Print Collector/Getty Images

In one of the strangest royal traditions, it was once customary for the British parliament’s home secretary to attend the birth of all new members of the royal family. According to legend, this tradition was started in 1688 when rumors emerged that James II and his Queen Mary of Modena (who had suffered through a tragic series of miscarriages, stillbirths, and children who had died in infancy) tried to cover up the supposed death of their eleventh child, James Stuart, by smuggling a healthy baby into the queen’s bedchamber in a warming pan.

Regardless of how true that story may or may not be, the tradition of having a political representative on hand to ensure that nothing untoward takes place at each royal birth remained in place right through to the mid-1900s, when it was at last quietly scrapped by George VI—just in time for his daughter (now Elizabeth II) to give birth without a political representative in the room. On his birth in 1948, Prince Charles ultimately became the first member of the royal family in 250 years not to be watched over by the home secretary; the last time this tradition was enforced was in 1936.

10. King Edward VIII's abdication crisis // 1936

The Duke of Windsor and Mrs Wallis Simpson on their 1937 wedding day at France's Chateau de Conde, Monts.
The Duke of Windsor and Mrs Wallis Simpson on their 1937 wedding day at France's Chateau de Conde, Monts.
Central Press/Getty Images

When Edward VIII renounced the throne to pursue his relationship with divorcee Wallis Simpson in December 1936, he single-handedly threw the royal family, the Church of England, and the British Empire into crisis—a brief three years before the Second World War. As breaks from royal protocol go, they don’t come much bigger than that. Edward became the third monarch in English history to abdicate, but the first ever to do so voluntarily: Richard II renounced the throne and was deposed in 1399, and upon going into exile in France amid the Glorious Revolution in 1688, James II was held to have abdicated, and parliament jointly handed power over to William III and Mary II in his place.

11. Queen Victoria's royal resting place for two // 1861

The funeral of Queen Victoria, 1901 (1909). The coffin being carried into St George's Chapel, Windsor. From Harmsworth History of the World, Volume 7, by Arthur Mee, J.A. Hammerton, & A.D. Innes, M.A. (Carmelite House, London, 1909)(Photo by The Print Col
The 1901 funeral of Queen Victoria at St. George's Chapel.
The Print Collector/Getty Images

After the sudden death of her beloved Prince Albert in December 1861, Queen Victoria began to make arrangements for an entirely new resting place where both he and eventually she could be interred together. The result was the impressive Royal Mausoleum at Frogmore House in Windsor, which was completed the following year. When Victoria died in 1901 and was interred there alongside Albert, she became the first British monarch in 174 years not to be buried at either Westminster Abbey or Windsor Castle.

12. King Edward VII's archbishop-free birth // 1841

Queen Victoria and her family, circa 1863.
Queen Victoria and her family, circa 1863.
English Heritage/Heritage Images/Getty Images

The royal birthing room was apparently a crowded place: As well as the home secretary, it was also once convention for the Archbishop of Canterbury to attend any royal birth, and provide a blessing for the newborn child the moment he or she appeared. In 1841, however, that tradition was broken when the archbishop and his retinue were held up on their journey to Buckingham Palace, and turned up too late to attend the birth of Queen Victoria’s first son, Albert Edward (later King Edward VII).

13. King George I's overseas resting place // 1727

Portrait of George I (1660-1727), the first Hanoverian King of Great Britain and Ireland. He ruled from 1714 until his death.
Portrait of George I (1660-1727), the first Hanoverian King of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Print Collector/Print Collector/Getty Images

When the House of Hanover took control of the British throne in 1714, Britain found itself with a king who had been born in Germany; who spoke German as his first language; and who—after he died suddenly while on a visit to Germany just 13 years later—even ended up being buried there, too. King George I suffered a stroke and died while traveling past Osnabruck in 1727, and was buried in the nearby Leineschloss Palace in Leine, 150 miles west of Berlin. By not having his body repatriated to British soil, George I ultimately became the first (non-exiled) British monarch not to be buried in Britain for a staggering 528 years. Unsurprisingly, he remains to this day the last British monarch not to be buried in the British Isles.

10 Trailblazing Facts About Susan B. Anthony

Scewing, Wikimedia Commons // Public domain
Scewing, Wikimedia Commons // Public domain

When people think of the suffrage movement, Susan B. Anthony is one of the names that immediately comes to mind. Although she didn't live long enough to vote (legally, at least), her contributions to women’s rights were part of a chain of events that culminated in the Nineteenth Amendment. On the occasion of her 200th birthday on February 15, 2020, here are a few facts you might not know about Anthony’s life and legacy.

1. Susan B. Anthony was born into a family of abolitionists.

A large house
Susan B. Anthony's childhood home, photographed in 1897.
Internet Archive Book Images, Wikimedia Commons // No known copyright restrictions

Susan Brownell Anthony was born into a Quaker family in Adams, Massachusetts, on February 15, 1820. She was the second of seven children, and her entire family was full of activists. Anti-slavery meetings were eventually held at their farm every Sunday, and her father became friends with prominent abolitionists such as Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison. These experiences shaped her views on equality, and some of her earliest activist work was in support of the abolitionist movement.

2. Susan B. Anthony was a teacher for 10 years.

Susan B. Anthony in her younger years
Susan B. Anthony in her younger years
Wikimedia/NYPL Digital Gallery // Public Domain

Teaching was one of the few professions open to women of Anthony's era. She taught from 1839 to 1849, eventually becoming principal of the girls' department at Canajoharie Academy in upstate New York. During her decade as a teacher, she spoke publicly about the need for higher pay for female teachers, as well as more professional opportunities for women.

3. Susan B. Anthony was BFFs with Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in 1870

A mutual acquaintance, Amelia Bloomer, introduced Anthony to Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1851. You could say it was friendship at first sight. Stanton later said of her first impression of Anthony, "I liked her thoroughly, and why I did not at once invite her home with me to dinner, I do not know." More than pals, they were also close collaborators with similar views. Together, they would eventually found the National Woman Suffrage Association and also start up a women's rights newspaper called The Revolution. Although their personal lives were very different, they found a way to use it to their advantage. Anthony, who never married or had children, was free to attend rallies and speaking engagements across the country. Stanton had seven children, so she wrote from home as a means of influencing the movement.

4. Susan B. Anthony's first public speech was about the dangers of alcohol.

Susan B. Anthony
Library of Congress/Wikimedia // No known restrictions

Anthony didn’t attend her first women's rights convention until she was in her thirties. Before that, she was active in the temperance movement, which advocated stronger liquor laws and preached the dangers of heavy drinking. She gave her first public speech at a Daughters of Temperance event, but when she was denied the right to speak at a Sons of Temperance convention a few years later, she and Stanton decided to form their own Women's State Temperance Society. They launched a petition to get the state legislature to limit the sale of liquor, but it was revoked because most of the signers were women and children. Anthony and Stanton realized they’d never be taken seriously until women gained the right to vote, so their priorities started to shift around this time.

5. Susan B. Anthony cut her hair and dressed differently to prove a point.

Amelia Bloomer in the outfit she designed, with
Amelia Bloomer in the outfit she designed, with "bloomers"
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Many activists and suffragists argued that women should be free to wear less restrictive clothes than the corsets and heavy underskirts that dominated in those days. To prove their point, many women wore trouser-like bloomers (named for Amelia Bloomer, who advocated them) under their skirts. Following in the footsteps of Stanton, Anthony cut her long, brown hair and started wearing bloomers, albeit somewhat reluctantly. She was ridiculed for her new look, and ultimately decided that the negative attention detracted from the message she wanted to convey. She reverted to her old ways after a year.

6. Susan B. Anthony believed that riding bicycles was one of the best ways to fight the patriarchy.

Women cyclists
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Bicycles were kind of a big deal for women in the 19th century. The machines gave women a sense of independence and mobility that they hadn't enjoyed before, allowing them to leave their houses without having to ask their husbands for a ride. As Anthony once put it, "I think [bicycling] has done more to emancipate women than any one thing in the world. I rejoice every time I see a woman ride by on a wheel. It gives her a feeling of self-reliance and independence the moment she takes her seat; and away she goes, the picture of untrammeled womanhood."

7. Susan B. Anthony opposed the Fifteenth amendment.

Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony circa 1890
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

One of the biggest criticisms lobbed against Anthony and Stanton is that they didn’t support the Fifteenth Amendment, which gave black men the right to vote. The pair were upset that the amendment didn't include women, so they splintered from other suffragist groups and formed their own National Woman Suffrage Association. "There was a battle among abolitionists … between having a Fifteenth Amendment that gave black men the vote or holding out for a suffrage amendment that granted the vote to all adult Americans," Lori D. Ginzberg, author of a biography about Stanton, told NPR. Anthony and Stanton opted for the latter, and their decision has been the subject of controversy ever since.

8. Susan B. Anthony was jailed for voting.

A monument at the site where Anthony voted, illegally, in the 1872 election
A monument at the site where Anthony voted, illegally, in the 1872 election

Anthony and 15 other women showed up at the polls to vote in the presidential election of 1872, which pitted Horace Greeley against the incumbent, Ulysses S. Grant. Considering that women were barred from voting at the time, this was a symbolic gesture as well as an act of civil disobedience. (But for what it's worth, Anthony voted for President Grant.) When Anthony was later politely asked by an officer to come down to the precinct to face arrest, she demanded that she be "arrested properly" in the same way a man would be arrested. This request was granted, but her trial wasn’t exactly fair. She wasn't permitted to testify, and the judge instructed the jury to find her guilty. Anthony was ultimately handed a fine of $100, which she refused to pay. Although her actions greatly influenced the suffrage movement, she never did have the chance to vote legally. The Nineteenth Amendment passed 13 years after her death.

9. Susan B. Anthony's face was almost carved into Mount Rushmore.

Workers construct George Washington's image on Mount Rushmore
Rise Studio, Rapid City, S. Dak, Wikimedia Commons // Public domain

In 1937 Congress considered adding Anthony's face to the famed mountain after the Washington and Jefferson portions were completed. However, that idea was scrapped after the House Appropriations Committee said the funds must only be used to complete the sculptures that were already underway (which, at that time, included the Lincoln and Roosevelt sections).

10. Susan B. Anthony was the first woman to appear on circulating U.S. currency.

Susan B. Anthony on the one-dollar coin
Alex Bergin, Flickr // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

The U.S. Treasury Department decided to set a new precedent by putting Anthony's face on a one-dollar coin starting in 1979. However, it looked a little too much like a quarter and cash registers didn’t have a designated space for them, so the coin wasn't widely circulated. Anthony may get a second chance, though, when she appears on the back of the redesigned $10 bill. (The timeline for the redesign, announced in 2016, is currently unclear.) Other influential women expected to appear on the redesigned $10 include Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Sojourner Truth, and Alice Paul.

8 Facts About Lupercalia—the Ancient Festival Full of Whippings and Ritual Sacrifice

Sex, violence, and drunkenness: For centuries, Lupercalia was a major Roman party, surviving well into the rise of Christianity. And pretty soon, someone on your Facebook feed is probably going to claim that this holiday gave rise to our modern Valentine’s Day. So what’s the true story behind the ancient Roman festival and its relation to candy hearts?

1. Lupercalia featured odd sacrifices.

Every year on February 15, the festival began by going to the Lupercal (the legendary site where Romulus and Remus were suckled) and sacrificing a dog and a goat. According to scholar Keith Hopkins, this was unusual in and of itself, because pigs, sheep, and bulls were most commonly used as sacrificial animals. The Oxford Classical Dictionary explains that next, the blood of these animals "was smeared with a knife on the foreheads of two youths (who were obliged to laugh), and wiped with wool dipped in milk."

2. Whippings were also on the menu.

After the blood/wool excitement, Lupercalia's main attraction was the runners. The sacrificed goat’s skin was cut into thongs and (possibly—see below) girdles to be worn by the athletes. Then two sets of runners (a third set would be added later) would make their way through the streets of the city, whipping whomever they met on their way. According to some accounts, women would volunteer to be whipped because it was believed to bring fertility and make the birthing process easier for them. But as the years passed, things changed; by the 3rd century, the voluntary nature of this ritual seemed to be less voluntary. Hopkins claims that a mosaic featuring a Lupercalia celebration features “two men forcibly holding a naked woman face upwards, while a third man, half naked, whips her thighs ... The men’s drunken hilarity is matched by the beaten woman’s obvious pain."

3. People may have been naked—or maybe not.

One long-standing debate about Lupercalia is the degree of nudity. There are definite references to nudus, but that doesn’t necessarily mean naked. It could just mean “having one’s main garment removed,” possibly in reference to the runners wearing goat skin loincloths. But other writers were explicit in mentioning nudity as part of the festivities. It remains an open question whether the festival was PG-, R-, or X-rated.

4. It’s not quite clear who or what the Lupercalia festival was celebrating.

Circle of Adam Elsheimer The Lupercalian Festival in Rome
Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

According to the 1st century BCE scholar Marcus Terentius Varro, "the Luperci [are so called] because at the Lupercalia they sacrifice at the Lupercal … the Lupercalia are so called because [that is when] the Luperci sacrifice at the Lupercal." This incredibly unhelpful circular definition has led to centuries of debate about who, or what, the festival was actually celebrating.

Ovid suggested that it was for Faunus (a Roman pastoral god); Livy said it was Inuus (the god of fertility); and Varro said it was a wolf goddess named Luperca. Traditionally, the two sets of runners are related to the mythological founders of Rome—Romulus and Remus—who were suckled by a wolf. But confusingly, Livy says that the twins were ambushed by bandits while celebrating the Lupercalia, leading some scholars to suggest the festival predates Romulus and Remus.

As South African scholar P.M.W. Tennant observed while discussing Romulus and Remus and the Lupercalia, “most of the ideas put forward here are obviously highly conjectural—as all theories concerning the Lupercalia are bound to be."

5. Lupercalia is when Julius Caesar was offered the crown.

Today, Lupercalia is probably most famous for what happened on February 15, 44 BCE. That day a “ naked, perfumed, drunk ” Mark Antony was one of the runners while Julius Caesar watched the proceedings from a throne. Antony went up to Julius Caesar with a diadem (a type of crown or headband) and—in what later historians have said was almost certainly scripted—attempted to give it to Caesar and proclaim him king.

The crowd's initial response to this action was tepid, but when Caesar refused the crown they cheered. Antony tried again, Caesar refused again, and the crowd exploded. Caesar ordered the crown taken to the Temple of Jupiter because Jupiter was Rome’s one king. The purpose of this exercise has been debated. Some propose Antony did it on his own to either flatter Caesar or embarrass him, while at the time it was thought that Caesar orchestrated the stunt as a way to test the waters for whether the people would accept a king. Either way, it didn't really work out for Caesar; he was assassinated one month later.

6. A Pope criticized the festival.

One of Lupercalia's most remarkable features is how long it survived. We know this because circa 494 CE, Pope Gelasius wrote a letter criticizing Christian participation in it. He commented on how in the olden days nobles would run as Lupercali and strike naked matrons, and modern participants should be willing to similarly run naked. By Gelasius’s time this had become heavily altered, leading him to proclaim “your own bashfulness ought itself to teach you that the Lupercalia is a public crime, not salvation and the cult of the Divinity, regarding which no wise man would blush. Rather the Lupercalia is an instrument of depravity, which your mind, bearing testimony against itself, blushes to fulfill.”

The letter is interesting to historians for many reasons. First, because Gelasius flat-out describes many of the less seemly rites, and it also allows historians to analyze how Lupercalia changed with time and changed with the perception of the author. For instance, Gelasius indicated that by the 5th century lower classes were the runners, whereas important figures like Mark Antony participated in earlier events.

7. Despite what you've heard, Lupercalia probably has nothing to do with Valentine’s Day.

Many pop culture websites and books declare that Pope Gelasius replaced Lupercalia with a festival dedicated to St. Valentine of Rome (or possibly of Terni—the figure is mysterious) who had his feast day on February 14. But as British author Mark Forsyth once observed, "It is vitally important when writing about traditions to remember that there are only 365 days in the year ... Overlap is not significance."

Most medieval historians agree there’s no evidence that Pope Gelasius replaced Lupercalia with any festival whatsoever (a similar claim that Candlemas replaced Lupercalia is also without merit) with scholar Jack Oruch proclaiming “at no point does Gelasius speak of compromise or of adapting any pagan customs” and another professor telling History.com: "It just drives me crazy that the Roman story keeps circulating and circulating." Meanwhile, popular legends that Lupercalia featured girls writing their names on paper that would be drawn from a box by boys are likely an 18th-century invention.

Most mainstream historians instead propose that Valentine’s Day and romance became associated with each other only in the late 14th century, and specifically because of a Geoffrey Chaucer poem called "Parliament of Fowls" (or "Parlement of Foules").

8. Valentine’s Day might not even be on February 14.

In Chaucer’s poem, he proclaimed (in modern spelling) “For this was on Saint Valentine’s day / When every bird came there to choose his mate.” But some historians have noted that February 14 is still very cold in England and is unlikely to be a good bird mating season. In the 1980s some historians, led by Andy Kelly of UCLA, began proposing that the "Valentine" Chaucer was referring to was St. Valentine of Genoa, whose feast day occurred on May 2 or May 3 (sources differ), instead of Valentine of Rome. This is especially relevant because King Richard II and Anne of Bohemia concluded their marriage treaty on May 2, meaning Chaucer may have chosen Valentine by just picking out a random saint whose day fell on the correct day in May. Over the years, the association with May weakened and the day migrated to the more famous Valentine of Rome.

Other scholars objected, pointing out that there are many references to fertility rites and festivals in February—such as Lupercalia—and that Chaucer may have been discussing the more famous Valentine of Rome and February 14.

"In medieval studies there is neither consensus nor continuing debate on the question which St. Valentine Chaucer had in mind," Professor Steven Justice of the University of California, Berkeley, tells Mental Floss. "The evidence just hasn't supported any conclusive arguments one way or the other, and unless one is (a) convinced that the feast, whichever it is, identifies the historical occasion of the poem, if it had one, and (b) interested in that historical occasion, the question does not seem very consequential. One would like an answer just because one doesn't like unanswered questions, but it's not clear that much hangs on it."

One thing is clear: Today, whether you celebrate Lupercalia or St. Valentine of Rome’s day in February or St. Valentine of Genoa in May, it's best leave out the goat sacrifices and running naked through the streets.

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