The Reason Why Daylight Saving Time Begins at 2 a.m.

Daylight saving time has been erasing 2 a.m. on and off since 1918.
Daylight saving time has been erasing 2 a.m. on and off since 1918.
Rawf8/iStock via Getty Images

If you happen to be awake and staring at your smartphone in the very early hours of the morning on Sunday, March 8, you’ll have the small pleasure of watching the time jump right from 1:59 a.m. to 3:00 a.m. Daylight saving time (DST), of course, is the reason you’re losing an hour of sleep—but why that hour, specifically?

As TIME explains, the United States first adopted DST in 1918 as a way to conserve energy during World War I, following the lead of both England and Germany. When choosing exactly when to make the switch, officials were looking for an hour that could easily disappear without wreaking havoc on people’s schedules across the nation. Since no Amtrak trains departed New York City on Sundays at 2 a.m., losing that hour seemed a little less consequential than any other.

“Sunday morning at 2 a.m. was when [a time change] would interrupt the least amount of train travel around the country,” Michael Downing, author of Spring Forward: The Annual Madness of Daylight Saving Time, told TIME.

The United States didn’t stick with daylight saving time after 1918—partially because so many farmers opposed it—but it did resurrect the tradition during World War II, and Congress formalized the practice in 1966 with the Uniform Time Act (which also created the time zones we use today).

The reason DST’s 2 a.m. start time has remained standard through the years isn’t just because it prevents confusion among late-night train passengers. Considering that most bars and restaurants are closed by then, and early shift-workers won’t be awake yet, it’s a pretty quiet hour across the board.

Wondering how daylight saving time will affect sunrise and sunset times in your area? Here’s a map for that.

[h/t TIME]

Is St. Corona Really the Patron Saint of Pandemics, Epidemics, or Plagues?

Stained-glass windows showing Saints Victor and Corona in Redeemer Church in Trentino, Italy.
Stained-glass windows showing Saints Victor and Corona in Redeemer Church in Trentino, Italy.

Last week, Germany’s Aachen Cathedral announced it was polishing a gold, bronze, and ivory shrine of St. Corona to go on display when the public is once again allowed to congregate in the church. According to Reuters, the 16-year-old martyr doesn’t just share her name with the well-known coronavirus currently wreaking havoc across the continent—she also happens to be the patron saint of resisting epidemics.

While the uncanny coincidence has been echoed across the internet—with some linking her to pandemics, the plague, or infectious diseases in general—and corroborated by Catholic sites like Aleteia and Gloria.tv, other sources have refuted it. “Saint Corona has not been known as the patron saint of pandemics, at least not until someone (but who?) recently named her thus,” Catherine M. Mooney, president of Boston College’s Hagiography Society and associate professor of church history, told Snopes. University of Birmingham theology professor Candida Moss took to Twitter to express a similar message, explaining that St. Edmund is the actual patron saint of infectious diseases, and St. Corona’s name derives from a vision she once had of a crown.

As Snopes reports, accounts of St. Corona’s life and death vary, but none of them mention an affiliation with plagues, epidemics, or anything similar. She’s thought to have lived around 170 CE in Roman Syria during Marcus Aurelius’s reign. As the (possible) legend goes, after a Roman soldier named Victor was tortured at length for refusing to denounce his Christian faith, Corona—either his wife or the wife of a fellow soldier—prayed by his side. To punish her, she was bound to two palm trees that were tied to the ground; when the trees were untied, they sprang apart, wrenching Corona’s body in half. Victor was beheaded.

According to Catholic.org, St. Corona is sometimes “invoked in connection with superstitions involving money, such as gambling or treasure hunting.” Gregory the Great, Roch, and Sebastian are all listed in Catholic.org’s index as patron saints of plagues, Robert Bellarmine is the patron saint of contagious disease (along with Sebastian, again), and Godeberta is the patron saint of epidemics. That said, just because Corona hasn’t historically been considered a patron saint of disease doesn’t mean that she can’t be now. Unlike the highly formal process of becoming a saint in the first place, there’s no official protocol for being named a patron saint of any given subject.

“Recently, the popes have named patron saints, but patron saints can be chosen by other individuals or groups as well,” Catholic.org states. “Patron saints are often chosen today because an interest, talent, or event in their lives overlaps with the special area.”

There’s no time limit on choosing a new patronage for a saint, there’s no minimum number of people who need to agree on it, and there’s no statute against picking a subject that didn’t even exist while the saint was alive (for example, Pope Pius XII declared St. Clare the patron saint of television in 1958, even though Clare, born in 1194, would’ve been completely baffled by the word television alone).

In short, if you want to consider St. Corona the patron saint of epidemics or anything else, you’re not breaking any rules.

[h/t Snopes]

15 Frequently Asked Questions About Coronavirus and COVID-19

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIH, Flickr // Public Domain
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIH, Flickr // Public Domain

The new coronavirus and the disease it causes, COVID-19, is officially a pandemic. People in every U.S. state and more than 160 countries are infected. And although it’s highly contagious, it’s also possible to recover from its respiratory symptoms—in fact, recovery numbers are steadily increasing around the globe.

As we wait for the new coronavirus to run its course, it’s good to stay informed. This no-nonsense, panic-free FAQ answers some of your most pressing questions.

1. What is the new coronavirus?

The new coronavirus is the same type of virus that causes the common cold and flu, as well as more serious illnesses like SARS and MERS, and this new one is extremely serious. It causes a respiratory disease called COVID-19 (which is an abbreviation of Corona Virus Disease 2019). The virus emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. It has since spread throughout the world. People who get the virus can be asymptomatic, feel like they have a cold or flu, or have complications causing pneumonia and possible death. It spreads from person to person through infected droplets when a person coughs, sneezes, or exhales. You can catch it by touching a surface that an infected person touched, or being in the direct path of their droplets.

2. Can my pets be infected with the new coronavirus, or can I catch it from my pets?

Although a dog in Hong Kong tested positive for the new coronavirus, the possibility of transmission between pets and their owners is still relatively unknown. Aside from this infected dog—which was never actively sick, even though the dog’s owner was—there have been no other reports and no evidence of transmission from person to pet, or vice versa.

Remember, though, that your pet's toys or food bowl “could potentially have the virus on it,” Monya De, an internist in Los Angeles, tells Mental Floss. “Can they go lick the neighbor kid, and the neighbor kid has disease, and they then transmit it to you? I’d be more worried about surfaces.”

3. How long does the new coronavirus stay on various surfaces?

We don't know for sure, but the World Health Organization (WHO) does note that it can stay on certain surfaces for a few hours up to a few days, similar to previous coronaviruses. A recent study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine on March 17, found that the virus is detectable on these materials for these durations:

Aerosols: three hours
Copper: four hours
Cardboard: up to 24 hours
Plastic: two to three days
Stainless steel: two to three days

The CDC recommends cleaning frequently-touched surfaces often—including doorknobs, phones, faucets, and light switches—with a regular household cleaner or wipe. It probably wouldn't hurt to blast your Amazon deliveries with a disinfectant spray before opening them, too.

4. Does drinking alcohol kill the new coronavirus?

No, not even a little. Alcohol may kill the virus on surfaces when it’s in sanitizer, but it won’t work for your own body. “When you consume alcohol, it immediately starts to break down in your GI tract,” De says. “It has much more chance of causing liver damage and damage to your mucous membranes over time. The alcohol is broken down before it has the chance to sterilize your body in any way.”

5. Do I need to wash all my food?

Probably not, unless you saw someone sneeze on, breathe on, cough on, or manhandle your groceries. Coronaviruses are spread from person to person through infected respiratory droplets. There’s no evidence of the food itself transmitting the disease. But it doesn’t hurt to be sanitary: Wash your hands before handling food, wash your fruits and vegetables as you normally do, and cook everything to the right temperature.

6. How is COVID-19 different from the flu or a cold?

COVID-19 symptoms are frustratingly similar to the common cold and flu. Here’s what symptoms you should expect, depending on what virus you have.

COVID-19: Slowly developing fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath
Cold: Sneezing, aches and pains, runny or stuffy nose, sore throat
Flu: Rapid-onset fever, cough, fatigue, aches and pains, headache

7. If I’m unlikely to become seriously ill, is it OK to go outside?

Nope. People of any age are able to catch the virus, and you may be asymptomatic and have the disease without knowing it. Staying inside and away from other people is the only way to stop the spread at this point. Even if you don’t think you’ll get sick, someone you come in contact with could, and they could be immunocompromised—meaning it would do far worse harm to them than to you. If you absolutely must go out, keep a distance of about 6 feet between you and anyone else.

8. Are most serious cases of COVID-19 in the elderly?

Most serious cases are in people who have compromised immune systems. That means the elderly, plus anyone with an underlying health condition like asthma, diabetes, heart disease, or lung disease—regardless of their age.

9. What are the best protection measures against the new coronavirus?

Wash your hands regularly with soap and water. If you can’t do that, use antibacterial hand sanitizer. Keep 6 feet between you and other people. Don’t touch your eyes, nose, or mouth. Cover your mouth with a tissue or your elbow when you cough or sneeze. If you feel sick, stay home.

10. Can I take antibiotics or a vaccine for COVID-19?

There is currently no treatment or vaccine for the virus. Antibiotics won’t work because they treat bacterial infections, not viral infections. Possible treatments and vaccines are in clinical trials, but it will still be a while before they’re available to the general public.

11. Should I wear a mask?

Only if you’re actively sick with COVID-19 symptoms or treating someone who is. Masks are most important for sick people to wear so they lower the chances of spreading the disease by stopping any infected particles from getting into the air. There’s a worldwide shortage of masks right now, and you shouldn’t use one unless you absolutely have to. Plus, most medical masks available to the general public are single-use and don’t effectively stop the virus from spreading.

12. What should I do if I think I’m sick with COVID-19 symptoms?

If you have symptoms or have been in contact with an infected person, call your doctor. They’ll determine if you need to go to the doctor's office or get tested for the new coronavirus. Plan to isolate yourself until you’re feeling better. Do not go to an emergency room unless you have severe symptoms; you may infect other people there.

13. What’s the proper way to self-quarantine or self-isolate?

If you've been traveling or have had contact with a potentially infected person, experts recommend quarantining yourself to slow the spread of illness. That means staying home, avoiding visitors, washing your hands frequently, and thoroughly cleaning surfaces during the quarantine period.

If you need to self-isolate because you’ve tested positive or are otherwise sick, you should follow strict guidelines. Stay home, put on a face mask, and limit your contact with other people in your household. Do not go out or get on public transportation. Restrict the amount of time you spend with pets, just in case. Continue to cover your mouth with a tissue or your elbow when you cough or sneeze, and regularly wash your hands. Don’t share household items, and clean common surfaces every day. You’ll want to monitor your symptoms, too. If they change or get worse, be sure to call your doctor.

14. Is coronavirus some sort of deep-state conspiracy?

No.

15. How can I maintain a sense of sanity during this pandemic?

Overall, De says, the biggest thing right now is to be nice to yourself. There’s a lot of lingering anxiety right now, and it’s only made worse with social distancing measures and the constant flow of news. She suggests adding daily meditation to your routine, and uninstalling news apps, even if just for a day. Read a book instead of watching TV or playing on your phone. Have a virtual dinner party or movie night, or play board game over Skype.

“There are a lot of ways you can relieve stress and still maintain that personal connection without visiting anyone right now,” she says. “This is really a time to treat yourself to a little escapism.”

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