10 Facts About Sylvia Plath’s The Bell Jar

The Bell Jar is the only novel written by the poet Sylvia Plath. Published one month before Plath died by suicide at age 30, the story follows a young woman, Esther Greenwood, through a mental breakdown, suicide attempt, and electric shock therapy in a hospital. The novel and the spate of brilliant poems Plath wrote right before her death still reverberate today, more than years later. 

1. Plath wanted to write a best seller like The Snake Pit. 

Plath always called The Bell Jar a “potboiler"—a term used to refer to something created with the popular tastes of the day in mind. Her intention was to write something like the 1946 novel The Snake Pit by Mary Jane Ward. Like The Bell Jar, Ward’s book is about her experiences in a mental hospital. In 1959, Plath wrote in her journal, “Must get out Snake Pit. There is an increasing market for mental-hospital stuff. I am a fool if I don't relive, recreate it.” 

2. The story is based on Plath’s “guest editorship” at Mademoiselle.

The first half of the novel follows Esther though a summer internship at Ladies' Day magazine in New York. Plath won a “guest editorship” at Mademoiselle in 1953. (Other past guest editors included Joan Didion and Ann Beattie.) The experiences in the novel are based on real events and people. For example, the character Philomena Guinea was based on Plath’s literary patron, Olive Higgins Prouty. The scene in which Esther eats an entire bowl of caviar by herself was a real thing Plath did.

3. Like Plath, Esther tries to kill herself and is sent to a hospital.

After returning from New York, Esther discovers that she didn’t get into a short story class, which accelerates her depression. Likewise, Plath was rejected from Frank O’Connor’s short story class at Harvard. Esther’s suicide attempt by taking sleeping pills and hiding in a crawlspace also mirrors Plath’s actions, down to the note she left her mother and the cut on her face. Just like Plath, Esther is found after three days and taken to a mental hospital. Plath was taken to McLean Hospital in Massachusetts, which has also treated Robert Lowell, Anne Sexton, David Foster Wallace, James Taylor, and Ray Charles, among others. 

4. After years of writer’s block, Plath wrote the book very quickly

Plath repeatedly tried to write about her mental breakdown but found that she was hopelessly blocked on the subject. Then, in 1961, when her poetry collection The Colossus and Other Poems was accepted for publication, the block suddenly disappeared. After “a night of inspiration,” she started working on the novel every morning at “a great pace,” according to her husband Ted Hughes. She completed a draft in 70 days. 

5. The book was rejected by American publishers.

When Plath received a $2,080 novel-writing fellowship associated with publishers Harper & Row, she must have thought that publication was a sure thing. But Harper & Row rejected The Bell Jar, calling it "disappointing, juvenile and overwrought." While British publisher William Heinemann accepted the book, Plath still had trouble finding an American publisher. “We didn’t feel that you had managed to use your materials successfully in a novelistic way,” one editor wrote.

6. The Bell Jar was published under the pseudonym Victoria Lucas. 

Plath used a pseudonym for two reasons: one was to protect the people she fictionalized in the book—not only would it embarrass her mother, but her publisher worried about libel suits. She also wanted to separate her serious literary reputation from her “potboiler,” as well as protect the book from being judged as the work of a poet. 

Originally, Esther was also named Victoria Lucas, but Plath was persuaded by her editor to find an alternative. She agreed, and changed the character’s name to Esther Greenwood. 

7. The Bell Jar didn’t get the attention Plath was expecting. 

When The Bell Jar was published in January 1963, it didn’t seem likely to become a literary sensation. Reviews weren't terrible—some were even positive—but they were all, for the most part, indifferent. As Anne Stevenson wrote in the biography Bitter Fame, Victoria Lucas “would be patted on the head for good writing, scolded for weak plotting, and passed over.” This disappointment occurred at the lowest period of Plath's life. She died less than a month later. 

8. Plath’s mother didn’t want the book to come out in the U.S.

The Bell Jar was published under Plath’s name in England in 1966, but it didn’t come out in the United States until 1971. Plath’s mother, Aurelia, didn’t want people she knew to recognize themselves in the book, believing it showed "the basest ingratitude" to Plath’s friends and family. Hughes finally published The Bell Jar in the U.S. because he wanted money to buy a country house—much to Aurelia’s displeasure. 

9. The book was made into a movie in 1979.

For better or worse, here it is.

10. It’s Plath’s only novel … or is it?

When Plath died, she was writing another novel titled, at different points, Double Exposure or Doubletake, about the breakdown of her marriage to Hughes. Plath told friends it was “better than The Bell Jar” and made her “laugh and laugh, and if I can laugh now it must be hellishly funny stuff.” Whether she finished the novel is unclear. Originally Hughes said the book was 130 pages, but he later revised that number to 60 or 70 pages. In any case, Hughes claims the novel disappeared in 1970. Here’s hoping it someday resurfaces. 

6 Protective Mask Bundles You Can Get On Sale

pinkomelet/iStock via Getty Images Plus
pinkomelet/iStock via Getty Images Plus

Daily life has changed immeasurably since the onset of COVID-19, and one of the ways people have had to adjust is by wearing protective masks out in public places, including in parks and supermarkets. These are an essential part of fighting the spread of the virus, and there are plenty of options for you depending on what you need, whether your situation calls for disposable masks to run quick errands or the more long-lasting KN95 model if you're going to work. Check out some options you can pick up on sale right now.

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6 Things We Know About the Game of Thrones Prequel Series, House of the Dragon

HBO
HBO

By the time Game of Thrones wrapped up its record-breaking eight-season run in 2019, it was a no-brainer that HBO would be producing another GoT series to keep the success going. The first announced show in the works, which was reportedly picked from a few prequel ideas, was going to chronicle a time thousands of years before the start of GoT, and was set to star actress Naomi Watts. Unfortunately, that project was eventually scrapped after the pilot was shot—but a new prequel series, House of the Dragon, was announced in October 2019. Here's what we know about it so far.

1. House of the Dragon will be based on George R.R. Martin's book Fire & Blood.

George R.R. Martin's novel Fire & Blood, which tells the story of House Targaryen, will serve as the source of inspiration for the plot of House of the Dragon. The first of two volumes was published in 2018, and takes place 300 years before Game of Thrones.

2. House of the Dragon will likely chronicle the Targaryen family's tumultuous past.

Game of Thrones showed that the Targaryen family has a long-standing history of inbreeding, secrets, betrayal, war, and insanity. Fire & Blood covers topics like the first Aegon Targaryen's conquest of the Seven Kingdoms and his subsequent reign, as well as the lives of his sons. Seems like we'll probably be meeting Dany's ancestors, and Martin confirmed there will definitely be dragons present—maybe even Balerion the Black Dread, the biggest dragon in all of Westerosi history.

3. George R.R. Martin and Ryan Condal are co-creators of House of the Dragon.

Co-Executive Producer George R.R. Martin arrives at the premiere of HBO's 'Game Of Thrones' Season 3 at TCL Chinese Theatre on March 18, 2013 in Hollywood, California
George R.R. Martin
Kevin Winter, Getty Images

Martin shared on his blog that he's been working with writer and producer Ryan Condal (Rampage, Colony), on the show. "Ryan Condal is new to Westeros, but not to me," the acclaimed author wrote. "I first met Ryan when he came to New Mexico to shoot a pilot for a fantasy western that was not picked up. I visited his set and we became friendly ... He’s a terrific writer … and a fan of my books since well before we met." In another blog post, Martin said that the show's script and bible were "terrific, first-rate, exciting." Sounds like we'll be in good hands.

5. A Game of Thrones director is returning for House of the Dragon.

Per a tweet from the Game of Thrones Twitter account announcing the show, Miguel Sapochnik, who directed many of the original HBO series' biggest episodes, such as "Battle of the Bastards" and "Hardhome," will be returning for House of the Dragon as showrunner alongside Condal. Sapochnik is also known for directing a handful of other notable shows, such as True Detective, Masters of Sex, and Altered Carbon.

6. House of the Dragon could be coming in 2022.

HBO ordered 10 episodes of House of the Dragon, and HBO president of programming Casey Bloys said he thought that the show would debut "sometime in 2022." However, with the film industry facing major delays due to safety concerns surrounding the coronavirus pandemic, there's no word on when the show will begin filming.

Meanwhile, Martin revealed that he won't be writing any scripts for House of the Dragon until he finishes The Winds of Winter, which has been in the works since A Dance With Dragons, his most recent book in the A Song of Ice and Fire series, debuted in 2011. The good news, however, is that Martin says he has been "writing every day" while keeping indoors and social distancing, leaving fans with the hope that The Winds of Winter will come soon.