6 Facts About William Faulkner's As I Lay Dying

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Released in 1930, author William Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying appeared to be an impossibly ambitious undertaking. The story of the death of a Mississippi matriarch named Addie Bundren and her family's struggles to give her a proper burial, the novel is comprised of 15 first-person narratives, with Faulkner alternating perspectives in each of the 59 chapters. It’s since become regarded as an American classic—and a bit of an endurance test for some readers. Here, some facts about the book and Faulkner’s very deliberate undertaking of writing a “classic.”

1. FAULKNER CLAIMED HE WROTE IT IN SIX WEEKS.

It can sometimes be difficult to sort William Faulkner’s own personal mythology from facts. The novelist, who was a high school and college dropout and taught himself to write, claimed he wrote As I Lay Dying while working at a Mississippi power plant. (His earlier novels, while well-regarded, did not provide much in the way of royalties.) For six weeks, he wrote from midnight until four in the morning while at the plant. And, allegedly, drunk. The book was composed on a wheelbarrow that he turned into a table.

2. FAULKNER SAID HE DELIBERATELY SET OUT TO WRITE A CLASSIC.

Faulkner was one of the more blunt novelists of his era, having little time or regard for self-promotion or any examination of his process. In discussing As I Lay Dying, he was fond of saying that he was very conscious of the novel’s potential to be embraced as a sprawling American classic. "I set out deliberately to write a tour-de-force,” he said.” Before I ever put pen to paper and set down the first word I knew what the last word would be and almost where the last period would fall.”

3. ONE CHAPTER IS COMPRISED OF JUST ONE SENTENCE.

In a contender for the world’s shortest book chapter, Faulkner composed chapter 19 of the book with just one sentence: “My mother is a fish.” The perspective is that of Vardaman Bundren, the son of the recently-deceased Addie Bundren, whom he compares to a sea creature due to her coffin floating on a river.

4. HE USED THE SAME FICTIONAL SETTING IN SEVERAL OF HIS BOOKS.

And it’s very hard to pronounce. Faulkner set many of his novels, including As I Lay Dying, in the fictional Yoknapatawpha County, a spell-check-threatening word that came from a Chickasaw term for water running through flatlands. While visiting students at the University of Virginia, he instructed students on its proper pronunciation:  YOK-na-pa-TAW-pha.

5. THE POWER PLANT HE WROTE IT IN WAS TORN DOWN.

The University of Mississippi power plant where Faulkner wrote the book stood as a monument to the late writer for several decades following his death in 1962. In 2015, the school announced it would be torn down to make room for a $135 million science building.

6. JAMES FRANCO TURNED IT INTO A MOVIE.


Alissa Whelan - © 2013 - RabbitBandini Productions

By the nature of its multiple perspectives and stream-of-consciousness narrative, As I Lay Dying was never seen as ideal movie material. Faulkner himself was a screenwriter (The Big Sleep, To Have and Have Not), but may have thought the odds of the book ever seeing the screen were slim. In 2013, actor/director James Franco released an adaptation that utilized split-screens, voiceover, and other techniques to try and maintain the spirit of the splintered story. Franco later adapted The Sound and the Fury, another Faulkner novel.

"I love Faulkner," Franco told The Hollywood Reporter in 2015. "I have loved Faulkner since I was a teenager, and I have just been drawn to his characters and his worlds. I think his experimental style and his very unusual structuring in his novels is the thing that actually attracted me. I knew it would be very difficult but I also knew from adapting his other book [As I Lay Dying] that if I tried to take on that writing style and structure in the movie that it would push me to find filmmaking solutions that I wouldn't have otherwise."

First Editions of Pride and Prejudice, Emma, and Other Jane Austen Novels Can Be Yours

GeorgiosArt, iStock via Getty Images
GeorgiosArt, iStock via Getty Images

Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen hasn't been out of print since its initial publication in 1813. Now, fans of the British classic have a chance to own an original copy. On February 20, first editions of all of Austen's beloved books—including Pride and Prejudice, Emma, and Persuasion—are hitting the auction block.

Born in England in 1775, Austen is one of the most influential British writers of all time. Her stories are famous for their witty commentary of English society, and they've been adapted into everything from modern rom-coms to an apocalyptic zombie novel.

First editions of her books from the early 19th century will go up for bid at an auction organized by Swann Auction Galleries in New York. A three-volume print of Pride and Prejudice from 1813 is expected to fetch between $20,000 and $30,000. The copy of Emma, which was printed in 1816, has an estimated value of $15,000 to $20,000, while Sense and Sensibility from 1816 is projected to earn $30,000 to $40,000. The first edition of Sense of Sensibility (published as "By a Lady") comes from a run of no more than 1000 copies that sold out in less than two years. The two other novels up for bid are Northanger Abbey and Mansfield Park.

The Austen works for sale are part of Swann's upcoming auction of fine books and manuscripts. A signed limited-edition copy of the Virginia Woolf short story "Kew Gardens" will be sold at the same event. You can view the items here before the auction goes live on Thursday.

First-edition of Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen.
Swann Auction Galleries

First-edition of Sense and Sensibility by Jane Austen.
Swann Auction Galleries

The Scottish Play: Why Actors Won’t Call Macbeth by Its Title

Macbeth and the three witches in Shakespeare's possibly cursed play.
Macbeth and the three witches in Shakespeare's possibly cursed play.
Photos.com/iStock via Getty Images

If you see someone burst from the doors of a theater, spin around three times, spit over their left shoulder, and shout out a Shakespearean phrase or curse word, it’s likely they just uttered “Macbeth” inside the building and are trying to keep a very famous curse at bay.

As the story goes, saying “Macbeth” in a theater when you’re not rehearsing or performing the play can cause disaster to befall the production. Instead, actors commonly refer to it as “the Bard’s play” or “the Scottish play.”

According to History.com, the curse of Macbeth originated after a string of freak accidents occurred during early performances of Shakespeare’s 1606 play. In the very first show, the actor portraying Lady Macbeth unexpectedly died, and Shakespeare himself had to take over the role. In a later one, an actor stabbed King Duncan with an actual dagger rather than a prop knife, killing him on stage.

Macbeth has continued to cause calamity after calamity throughout its four centuries of existence. Harold Norman died from stab wounds sustained during a fight scene while playing Macbeth in 1947, and there have been several high-profile audience riots at various performances, too—the worst was at New York’s Astor Place Opera House in 1849, when fans of British actor William Charles Macready clashed with those of American actor Edwin Forrest. Twenty-two people died, and more than 100 others were injured.

Since Macbeth has been around for so long and performed so often, it’s not exactly surprising its history contains some tragic moments. But many believe these accidents are the result of a curse actual witches cast on the play when Shakespeare first debuted it.

As the Royal Shakespeare Company explains, Shakespeare really did his research when creating the three witches in Macbeth: “Fillet of a fenny snake,” “eye of newt and toe of frog,” and other lines from the “Song of the Witches” were supposedly taken from “real” witches’ spells from the time. According to legend, a coven of witches decided to punish him for using their magic by cursing his play.

For skeptics, Christopher Eccleston—who played Macbeth in a Royal Shakespeare Company production in 2018—offers a slightly more believable theory about the origin of the curse. In the interview below, he explains how theater companies that were struggling financially would stage Macbeth, a crowd favorite, to guarantee ticket sales. Therefore, saying “Macbeth” in a theater was an admission that things weren’t going well for your company.

[h/t History.com]

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