12 Facts About Mandarin Ducks


Recently, the mysterious appearance of a mandarin duck alongside the native mallards in ponds across Central Park has captivated New York City, with large groups lining up to catch a glimpse (and snap a photo) of the brightly colored bird. It's unclear where he came from—though he has a band on his leg, he doesn't belong to any zoos in the area, which has led some to speculate that he was a pet who either escaped or was dumped by his owner in the park—but one thing is clear. This "hot duck" is taking the internet by storm. Curious about where the mandarin duck is from, what it eats, if you can keep one as a pet, and even what it tastes like? Read on.


A close-up image of a brightly colored mandarin duck.

Dubbed Aix galericulata by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, the Aix in the mandarin duck's scientific name is Greek for an unknown diving bird mentioned by Aristotle. The galericulata is something like "wig" or "cap" and references the bright breeding plumage on the male’s head.


A mandarin duck swimming.

The native breeding area of the mandarin duck is eastern Siberia, Japan, China, and parts of North Korea, and they overwinter in southern China and Japan. But according to the citizen science website eBird, mandarin ducks have been spotted in multiple sites on the west coast of America—there's a growing population of the birds in California—and are present in Florida and a few other isolated areas. The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission notes that “Species are present but not confirmed to be breeding. Population persists only with repeated introductions and/or escapes of individuals.”

They’re much more common in Europe, especially southeast England, which has an estimated population of around 7000 individuals. The ducks were mostly released in the early 20th century, although there are records of introductions as early as 1745 [PDF]. They've also been found in other parts of Europe, Israel, and Africa (although, as in Florida, some of these populations are escaped ornamental birds that aren't necessarily breeding on their own [PDF]).


An image of a female and a male mandarin duck.

Sadly, they're threatened by severe habitat loss across their native range and have a global population of around 65,000 individuals. As a result, the European population is often considered important for the species survival. Officially, however, the bird is classed as "Least Concern" by the IUCN.


A male and female mandarin duck touching beaks.

It's thought that the first reference to mandarin ducks was from the time of Confucius, where they were name-dropped in a song. They're also significant in Buddhism, where there are references to their compassion and, most significantly, their marital loyalty. Multiple legends in Japan refer to a male and female mandarin duck getting separated and using supernatural means (such as transforming into humans) to be reunited.


A female and a male American Wood Duck standing on a rock.

Mandarin ducks belong to the genus Aix, alongside the American wood duck. They're both hole-nesting ducks with brightly colored males. But perhaps most surprisingly for ducks, they have claws. The claws allow them to perch on branches, and in the case of baby mandarin ducks, one paper says that when they're as young as one day old, they can dig those claws into wood, then leap half a foot, and then dig in the other claw [PDF].


A male and a female mandarin duck sitting on a rock.

The male mandarin duck is extremely easy to identify. Considered one of the prettiest birds, it has orange, green, white, blue-ish, and black feathers, some of which curl up into a "sail" shape. (However, in eclipse plumage—a set of feathers sported by the ducks when it's not the mating season—the male is a much more standard gray.)

Female mandarin ducks are nowhere near as distinctive, and it can often be difficult to distinguish them from the closely related native female wood ducks (the males look completely different) [PDF]. Female mandarin ducks are gray but have a pale tip at the bill and a stripe behind the eye.


A male mandarin duck with its beak open.

Mandarin duck courtship rituals are, as is probably expected from their plumage, impressive affairs. They mock drink and mock preen, they shake, and emit a sound that one researcher likened to "a half-repressed sneeze." Most of the rest of the time they're rarely vocal, with the occasional "staccato hwick or uib uib" from the male and a "coquette call" from the female.

As for their famous monogamy, it’s thought to derive from observations of their frequent courtship displays and frequent ejection of intruders. In reality, they likely are monogamous for at least several years, although bigamy/polygamy is not unheard of.


A male mandarin duck from above.

The natural nesting habitat of mandarin ducks is in tree holes, which can sometimes be up to 30 feet off the ground. The bird lays nine to 12 white eggs that are incubated for around a month. When the eggs hatch (which occurs within a few hours of each other), the ducklings start to crawl out of the nest. To get out of the tree and—eventually—into the water, the baby bird flings itself out of the hole and free-falls to the ground below (often with a little bounce). According to mandarin duck scholar Christopher Lever, "The female stands at the base of the tree with her head pointing upwards, uttering a soft encouraging call to her offspring."


A male mandarin duck cleaning its feathers.

It's widely said that one of the factors that has allowed mandarin ducks to survive in east Asia is their taste—which is not particularly nice. Christopher Lever quotes an authority as saying, "Mandarin duck in China are rather dirty feeders, often eating snails, small mice, fish spawn, etc., and consequently are well known to have an unpleasant taste."


A male mandarin duck standing on a rock in a pond.

Feng Shui is a traditional Chinese method of balancing energy forces, and a large part of some schools involves placing certain objects to match and harness that energy. Many modern Feng Shui practitioners claim that, because of their association with love and monogamy, having a pair of mandarin duck figurines can attract and enhance love. Practitioners advise placing the figurines so they either face each other or the same direction. Never separate them, and if one breaks, the entire pair should be replaced.


A male mandarin duck sleeping.

Mandarin ducks are very popular pets; in fact, according to one report from the Netherlands, they're "by far the most popular duck kept in private collections" in that region [PDF]. They're considered easy to keep, but just because you can buy one doesn't mean it's legal to have one: In New York, for instance, it's illegal to keep a duck as a pet (alongside bears, cobras, whales, and many other creatures).


A male mandarin duck and a male American wood duck.

Paul Sweet, ornithologist at the American Museum of Natural History, tweeted that it was possible that mandarin ducks could become established and compete with native wood ducks. Little research has been done on mandarin ducks in the United States, but a recent report from the Netherlands suggests that there might be cause for concern [PDF]. There is some evidence that they destroy the eggs of other birds in a lab setting, although the extent of this behavior in the wild is unclear. They're also known to drive other birds away from food—although again, their impact is unknown. As for hybridizing, there’s a myth that they can’t reproduce with other birds. While crosses with other ducks are rare for mandarins, there have been reports in Europe of birds appearing that seem to be mixes of introduced mandarin ducks and introduced American wood ducks.

13 Father's Day Gifts for Geeky Dads


When in doubt, you play the hits. Watches, flasks, and ties are all tried-and-true Father’s Day gifts—useful items bought en masse every June as the paternal holiday draws near. Here’s a list of goodies that put a geeky spin on those can’t-fail gifts. We’re talking Zelda flasks, wizard-shaped party mugs, and a timepiece inspired by BBC’s greatest sci-fi series, Doctor Who. Light the “dad” signal ‘cause it’s about to get nerdy!

1. Lord of the Rings Geeki Tikis (Set of Three); $76

'Lord of The Rings' themed tiki cups.

If your dad’s equally crazy about outdoor shindigs and Tolkien’s Middle-earth, help him throw his own Lothlórien luau with these Tiki-style ceramic mugs shaped like icons from the Lord of the Rings saga. Gollum and Frodo’s drinkware doppelgängers each hold 14 ounces of liquid, while Gandalf the Grey’s holds 18—but a wizard never brags, right? Star Wars editions are also available.

Buy it: Toynk

2. Space Invaders Cufflinks; $9

'Space Invaders' cufflinks on Amazon
Fifty 50/Amazon

Arcade games come and arcade games go, but Space Invaders has withstood the test of time. Now Pops can bring those pixelated aliens to the boardroom—and look darn stylish doing it.

Buy it: Amazon

3. Legend of Zelda Flask; $18

A 'Legend of Zelda' flask

Saving princesses is thirsty work. Shaped like an NES cartridge, this Zelda-themed flask boasts an 8-ounce holding capacity and comes with a reusable straw. Plus, it makes a fun little display item for gamer dads with man caves.

Buy it: Toynk

4. AT-AT Family Vacation Bag Tag; $12

An At-At baggage tag

Widely considered one of the greatest movie sequels ever made, The Empire Strikes Back throws a powerful new threat at Luke Skywalker and the Rebellion: the AT-AT a.k.a. Imperial Walkers. Now your dad can mark his luggage with a personalized tag bearing the war machine’s likeness.

Buy it: ShopDisney

5. Flash Skinny Tie; $17

A skinny Flash-themed tie

We’ll let you know if the Justice League starts selling new memberships, but here’s the next best thing. Available in a rainbow of super-heroic colors, this skinny necktie bears the Flash’s lightning bolt logo. Race on over to Amazon and pick one up today.

Buy it: Amazon

6. Captain America Shield Apron; $20

A Captain America themed apron

Why let DC fans have all the fun? Daddy-o can channel his inner Steve Rogers when he flips burgers at your family’s Fourth of July BBQ. Measuring 31.5 inches long by 27.5 inches wide, this apron’s guaranteed to keep the cookout Hydra-free.

Buy it: Toynk

7. Doctor Who Vortex Manipulator LCD Leather Wristwatch; $35

A Doctor Who-themed watch

At once classy and geeky, this digital timepiece lovingly recreates one of Doctor Who’s signature props. Unlike some of the gadgets worn on the long-running sci-fi series, it won’t require any fancy chronoplasm fuel.

Buy it: Toynk

8. Wonder Woman 3-Piece Grill Set; $21

Wonder Woman three-piece gill set

At one point in her decades-long comic book career, this Amazon Princess found herself working at a fast food restaurant called Taco Whiz. Now grill cooks can pay tribute to the heroine with these high-quality, stainless steel utensils. The set’s comprised of wide-tipped tongs, a BBQ fork, and a spatula, with the latter boasting Wonder Woman’s insignia.

Buy it: Toynk

9. Harry Potter Toon Tumbler; $10

Glassware that's Harry Potter themed
Entertainment Earth

You can never have too many pint glasses—and this Father’s Day, dad can knock one back for the boy who lived. This piece of Potter glassware from PopFun has whimsy to spare. Now who’s up for some butterbeer?

Buy it: EntertainmentEarth

10. House Stark Men’s Wallet; $16

A Game of Thrones themed watch

Winter’s no longer coming, but the Stark family's propensity for bold fashion choices can never die. Manufactured with both inside and outside pockets, this direwolf-inspired wallet is the perfect place to store your cards, cash, and ID.

Buy it: Toynk

11. Mr. Incredible “Incredible Dad” Mug, $15

An Incredibles themed mug

Cue the brass music. Grabbing some coffee with a Pixar superhero sounds like an awesome—or dare we say, incredible?—way for your dad to start his day. Mom can join in the fun, too: Disney also sells a Mrs. Incredible version of the mug.

Buy it: ShopDisney

12. Star Wars phone cases from Otterbox; $46-$56

Star Wars phone cases from OtterBox.

If your dad’s looking for a phone case to show off his love of all things Star Wars, head to Otterbox. Whether he’s into the Dark Side with Darth Vader and Kylo Ren, the droids, Chewbacca, or Boba Fett, you’ll be able to find a phone case to fit his preference. The designs are available for both Samsung and Apple products, and you can check them all out here.

Buy it: Otterbox

13. 3D Puzzles; $50

3D Harry Potter puzzle from Amazon.
Wrebbit 3D

Help dad recreate some of his favorite fictional locations with these 3D puzzles from Wrebbit 3D. The real standouts are the 850-piece model of Hogwarts's Great Hall and the 910-piece version of Winterfell from Game of Thrones. If dad's tastes are more in line with public broadcasting, you could also pick him up an 890-piece Downton Abbey puzzle to bring a little upper-crust elegance to the homestead.

Buy it: Hogwarts (Amazon), Winterfell (Amazon), Downton Abbey (Amazon)

At Mental Floss, we only write about the products we love and want to share with our readers, so all products are chosen independently by our editors. Mental Floss has affiliate relationships with certain retailers and may receive a percentage of any sale made from the links on this page. Prices and availability are accurate as of the time of publication.

How to Watch the Great Smoky Mountains' Synchronous Fireflies From Home

QEYES/iStock via Getty Images
QEYES/iStock via Getty Images

Each June, thousands of synchronous fireflies put on a stunning light show in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. People won't be able to view the spectacle in person this year due to the COVID-19 crisis, but for the fireflies, it will be business as usual. As CarolinaCoastOnline reports, the nonprofit Discover Life in America found a safe way to share the event with as many people as possible by streaming it online.

The fireflies of Tennessee's Great Smoky Mountains are the only fireflies in the Western Hemisphere that flash in sync. For two weeks in June, the males above ground blink for the females on the forest floor below, creating a rhythmic, hypnotic display.

In a typical year, thousands of people would gather to witness the phenomenon, but in April 2020, Great Smoky Mountains National Park canceled the event after determining that social distancing would be impossible. The synchronous fireflies are so popular that the park has to distribute tickets for shuttle access by lottery. Whether you had plans to see the show this year or you're hearing about it for the first time, it's now easy to view it from home.

Discover Life in America, a nonprofit dedicated to protecting biological diversity, streamed its virtual firefly-watching event to YouTube on Monday, June 1. After an introduction explaining the science behind the insect's behavior, the feed cuts to footage of the Great Smoky Mountains at night. The fireflies can be seen flashing over a stream, a hiking trail, and an open field in the park. There's even a clip that shows the insects performing the mating ritual as a thunderstorm brews in the background. You can watch the full video below.

If you're looking to relax with more wildlife content, check out these animal webcams you can watch right now.

[h/t CarolinaCoastOnline]