11 Facts About Anemia

David Gregory & Debbie Marshall, Wellcome Collection // CC BY 4.0
David Gregory & Debbie Marshall, Wellcome Collection // CC BY 4.0

Anemia is so pervasive that the word anemic has become synonymous with a lack of vitality, substance, or flavor. But anemia symptoms go beyond the common signs of pallor and fatigue. The disorder is characterized by a lack of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the body that arises from a variety of underlying conditions—some that are serious and others that are barely noticeable. Anemia causes can even include pregnancy, poor diet, and cancer in rare cases. Here are some more facts worth knowing about anemia symptoms and treatments.

1. The most common type is iron deficiency anemia.

The body needs iron to produce hemoglobin—the protein that allows red blood cells to transport oxygen throughout the body—and when it doesn’t get enough of it, iron deficiency anemia can develop. Vitamin deficiency anemia works in a similar way. The vitamins B12 and folate are also essential to producing healthy red blood cells, and deficiencies in either vitamin can contribute to anemia. Patients may be lacking iron, B12, or folate because they’re not getting enough of the vitamins or mineral from their diet, or because their body has trouble absorbing them, either due to gastrointestinal surgery, a genetic disorder, or some other issue. In contrast, sickle cell anemia is an inherited condition in which malformed hemoglobin can't carry enough oxygen, causing blood cells to take on a crescent shape and impede blood flow.

2. Even mild anemia symptoms should be taken seriously.

There are roughly 400 different anemia causes. Some are relatively benign, like not including enough leafy greens in your diet, while others are more serious, like blood cancers or aplastic anemia, a condition that develops when bone marrow stops producing red blood cells at a healthy rate. Mild anemia may be one of the first signs of a serious condition that impedes your blood cell production, so even if the symptoms of the anemia itself are manageable, it shouldn’t be brushed off as nothing.

3. Anemia is Greek for lack of blood.

Put simply, someone with anemia doesn’t have a healthy amount of red blood cells or hemoglobin in their bloodstream. The word is a Latinized version of the Greek word anaimia, which means lack of blood (an meaning "without" and haima meaning "blood").

4. The fatigue comes from a lack of oxygen.

Even with a healthy respiratory system, the tissues of people with anemia may not get enough oxygen—a phenomenon known as hypoxia. This can lead to symptoms like headaches, dizziness, shortness of breath, and fatigue. While these symptoms can be debilitating in patients with severe anemia, they may be mild or even nonexistent in people with less severe cases. The signs are also hard to measure and can overlap with those of several chronic conditions, which means mild anemia often goes undiagnosed.

5. Anemia compels some people to chew ice.

Constantly craving an ice cube to chew on may be a sign your blood is at anemic levels. Pica is the medical term for the compulsion to chew substances devoid of nutritional value, like ice, dirt, and paper, and it's one of the more distinctive symptoms of iron deficiency anemia. Doctors still aren't entirely sure why the craving afflicts so many anemic patients. One explanation is that ice calms inflammation in the mouth that sometimes comes with iron deficiencies, while additional research suggests that chewing on ice is one way for fatigued people to stay alert.

6. It’s diagnosed with a simple blood test.

Though the symptoms can be tricky to identify, testing for anemia is simple once a doctor suspects a patient has it. After taking a sample, doctors calculate the complete blood count, or CBC, which measures the percentage of red blood cells (a measurement called the hematocrit) and hemoglobin in a patient’s blood. By looking at red blood cell and hemoglobin percentages specifically, they can determine if the patient’s blood is healthy or anemic. The typical adult man has blood with 40 to 52 percent red blood cells (the rest is plasma), and for the typical adult woman, it’s 35 to 47 percent, according to the Mayo Clinic.

7. Anemia is more common in developing nations.

Approximately 25 percent of the world population—almost 2 billion people—is affected by anemia. In about half of these cases, iron deficiency is the root cause. Anemia is more common in developing parts of the world where malnutrition is also rampant, while in the U.S., just under 6 percent of the population is anemic. In the U.S., the prevalence of anemia varies by group: Women, elderly people, African Americans, and Latino Americans are all more likely to have it, with black women between ages 80 and 85 developing the condition at rates 6.4 times higher than the national average, according to a 2016 study. The majority of anemia cases around the world are moderate or mild, and at those levels the lack of healthy blood cells itself doesn’t pose significant health risks (though an underlying disease that's causing it might).

8. Anemia also has a surprising benefit.

Having a low amount of iron in your body has an unexpected effect: It makes it harder for infections to develop. Most bacteria depends on iron to gain strength and spread throughout a host, and in the bodies of people with iron deficiency anemia, bacteria has a greater chance of dying before it multiplies into a dangerous infection. Studies have shown that people with low iron counts have a smaller risk of contracting malaria, tuberculosis, and certain respiratory conditions. Iron deficiency anemia can also boost survival rates in patients with HIV and lower the risk of cancer (like bacteria, cancer cells need iron to grow). Denying pathogens iron is such an effective way of killing them that our bodies naturally slow iron production when they detect an infection.

9. Pregnant people are more likely to have anemia ...

People who are pregnant have a much higher risk of becoming anemic. According to the World Health Organization, anemia affects over 40 percent of pregnant women worldwide. The bodies of pregnant women naturally produce about 20 to 30 percent more blood to supply oxygen to the baby, but it isn’t always enough for the mother to maintain healthy red blood cell and hemoglobin levels. Anemia is especially common during the second and third trimesters when the baby needs the most blood. Pregnant patients with anemia are usually prescribed iron supplements to prevent birth defects and complications during delivery.

10. … and so are vegetarians.

Many people get their iron by eating meat like beef, chicken, pork, and shellfish. Without meat in their diet, people have a greater chance of developing iron deficiency anemia: A small Indian study published in the Journal of Nutrition & Food Science found that approximately 60 percent of vegetarian women were anemic. But it is possible to consume healthy amounts of iron while adhering to a meat-free diet. In addition to dietary supplements, legumes, dried fruits, and leafy greens are great sources of the mineral.

11. Anemia treatments range from vitamins to blood transfusions.

Treatments for anemia vary depending on the cause of the condition. For iron deficiency anemia, the most common variety, doctors usually prescribe iron supplements as well as a diet rich in the foods mentioned above. Daily folic acid tablets and B12 shots—starting once every other day and transitioning to once a month—may also be prescribed to patients deficient in either vitamin. In cases when red blood cell and hemoglobin counts dip into dangerous territory, more drastic treatments like blood transfusions and bone marrow transplants may be necessary.

Wayfair’s Fourth of July Clearance Sale Takes Up to 60 Percent Off Grills and Outdoor Furniture

Wayfair/Weber
Wayfair/Weber

This Fourth of July, Wayfair is making sure you can turn your backyard into an oasis while keeping your bank account intact with a clearance sale that features savings of up to 60 percent on essentials like chairs, hammocks, games, and grills. Take a look at some of the highlights below.

Outdoor Furniture

Brisbane bench from Wayfair
Brisbane/Wayfair

- Jericho 9-Foot Market Umbrella $92 (Save 15 percent)
- Woodstock Patio Chairs (Set of Two) $310 (Save 54 percent)
- Brisbane Wooden Storage Bench $243 (Save 62 percent)
- Kordell Nine-Piece Rattan Sectional Seating Group with Cushions $1800 (Save 27 percent)
- Nelsonville 12-Piece Multiple Chairs Seating Group $1860 (Save 56 percent)
- Collingswood Three-Piece Seating Group with Cushions $410 (Save 33 percent)

Grills and Accessories

Dyna-Glo electric smoker.
Dyna-Glo/Wayfair

- Spirit® II E-310 Gas Grill $479 (Save 17 percent)
- Portable Three-Burner Propane Gas Grill $104 (Save 20 percent)
- Digital Bluetooth Electric Smoker $224 (Save 25 percent)
- Cuisinart Grilling Tool Set $38 (Save 5 percent)

Outdoor games

American flag cornhole game.
GoSports

- American Flag Cornhole Board $57 (Save 19 percent)
- Giant Four in a Row Game $30 (Save 6 percent)
- Giant Jenga Game $119 (Save 30 percent)

This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

Coronavirus News Digest

"See you when the pandemic's over!"
"See you when the pandemic's over!"
Blue Planet Studio/iStock via Getty Images

The constant stream of information about the novel coronavirus and COVID-19 can cause a lot of anxiety. Mental Floss created this semiweekly digest so you can peruse the news at your own pace—without feeling overwhelmed.

July 3, 2020

Testing is one of the most important tools public health officials have to beat back the pandemic. NPR looks into how much testing is needed to get a handle on the record outbreaks in numerous U.S. states and finds efforts are falling alarmingly short. At the same time, the supply chain for testing is already struggling to fill orders, which may reduce the number of tests that are available and extend the wait time between having the test and receiving results. The Atlantic has more.

Spanish newspaper El País breaks down three cases studies analyzing superspreader events. In each case, a single person with the coronavirus infected multiple people in an enclosed environment. Researchers who compiled the data pointed to prolonged exposure to infected persons as the main driver of contagion, along with recirculated air from air conditioning systems. 

Walmart sign and sunset
Drive-in movie theaters are coming to a Walmart near you.
Mike Mozart, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

With many traditional movie theaters closed, drive-ins are making a comeback across the country. Walmart announced that it’s turning 160 of its Supercenter parking lots into pop-up drive-ins this summer, the Verge reports. From August to October, audience members can remain in their cars while enjoying a series of films chosen by Tribeca Enterprises, the group behind the Tribeca Film Festival. Here are some traditional drive-ins to check out too.

Finally, it’s almost the Fourth of July. Backyard cookouts and fireworks will feel a lot different this year (if the celebrations are happening at all). The New York Times has a few suggestions for spending the July 4th holiday in a masked and socially-distanced manner, while the Red Cross offers reminders about more typical safety concerns, such as don’t barbecue inside and don’t swim in beach areas without lifeguards.

June 30, 2020

The CDC updated its list of conditions that may increase your risk for severe COVID-19 if you become infected with the coronavirus. Previously identified comorbidities included cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. Now, the list of illnesses with the potential to intensify COVID-19 symptoms include those three, plus chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), any immunosuppressing condition, sickle cell disease, and a history of organ transplants. The agency announced the updates last Thursday, June 25.

Remdesivir is the only antiviral drug that has been shown to reduce COVID-19 patients’ time in the hospital, and now its manufacturer, Gilead, has set a price on it. STAT reports that the company will charge the U.S. government $390 per vial of remdesivir, totaling $2340 for a six-vial, five-day course of treatment. Private insurers will be charged $520 per vial, or $3120 for a five-day course. A recent study showed the drug may shorten the average time of some patients' hospital stays by four days. In contrast, four days in a U.S. hospital costs about $12,000, according to The New York Times.

With coronavirus cases reaching unprecedented daily highs in several states, The Atlantic explains why it’s happening with charts that show the awful toll. In an interview with CNN and reported by Politico, Dr. Anthony Fauci scolded Americans who have abandoned mask-wearing and social distancing, saying “it’s a recipe for disaster.” And NBC has a refresher on the proper way to wear a mask for actually protecting others from your droplets—and it's not the reverse Batman.

Finally, United Airlines, Spirit Airlines, and American Airlines announced they will start booking all seats on their planes July 1 and do away with any attempt at social distancing (which, let’s face it, isn’t easy when seats are less than 17 inches wide). The carriers had been keeping the middle seats empty to space passengers out as much as possible. American is allowing passengers to rebook without a fee if their flight is too full for comfort, but they will need to pay the difference in fare, and other restrictions apply. Here are some hacks for carefully planning your next trip.

June 26, 2020

The governor of Texas ordered all bars in the state to close to reduce the staggering rate of new coronavirus cases, especially among younger people. On Wednesday, Texas announced a new daily high in the number of new infections at 6584. Florida reported more 8933 new cases on Thursday [PDF].

The Justice Department issued a warning about fake permits that exempt the bearers from wearing face masks, which have been popping up on social media. One fake card suggests anyone who insists on the bearer wearing a face mask could be fined under the Americans with Disabilities Act, though the law’s name is misspelled on the card.

A Washington Post-Ipsos survey has found that 31 percent of Black Americans know someone who has died of the coronavirus, compared to 17 percent of Hispanic Americans and 9 percent of white Americans. Epidemiologists attribute the disparity to socioeconomic inequality: “This pandemic has really unearthed—shone a real bright light on—the ways these disparities should not be accepted and are not tolerable,” Joseph Betancourt, vice president and chief equity and inclusion officer at Massachusetts General Hospital, told the Post.

This year marks the 50th anniversary of New York City’s first Pride march, but many Pride festivities around the world have been canceled because the pandemic. Much of the LGBTQ community will be celebrating indoors this year, so kick back with these essential LGBTQ movies available to stream now.

June 23, 2020

The U.S. now accounts for 20 percent of new coronavirus infections worldwide, The New York Times reports. New infections in states that reopened without meeting benchmarks for containing the pandemic are continuing to climb. One infectious disease specialist told The Times that the spread is “like a forest fire.” See the data here.

On the other hand, states that imposed strict lockdowns and saw the number of new cases drop are beginning to reopen with mask and social distancing rules in place. New York City, once the country’s COVID-19 hotspot, began phase 2 of its reopening process yesterday. Phase 2 allows city barbershops and hair salons to reopen with precautions, and many were booked solid.

The FDA issued a warning about hand sanitizers manufactured in Mexico. Some products may contain methanol, a potentially fatal substance that causes nausea, vomiting, headaches, vision problems, and nervous system damage, The Washington Post reports.

In coronavirus-adjacent news, 1993’s Jurassic Park topped the boxed office last weekend, 27 years after its debut. Its resurgence is due to many studios’ reluctance to release new films while most U.S. movie theaters remain closed. And another classic blockbuster is having a moment: 1975’s Jaws came in second behind the dinosaur thriller. Here are some more flicks that might reach No. 1 in your living room.

June 19, 2020

Antibodies may give you some immunity against a coronavirus reinfection—but it may only last for a few months, according to The New York Times. A small study of 37 people in Nature Medicine found that those infected with coronavirus but who showed no symptoms may be only temporarily protected from reinfection, but researchers are continuing to investigate.

Across the U.S., local and state lawmakers are fighting ordinances to require residents to wear face coverings in public, and individual resistance to wearing masks has grown—all at a time when coronaviruses cases are skyrocketing in Texas, Arizona, Oklahoma, and other states. We shouldn’t have to say this now, but wear a mask, for crying out loud—it could save your life and the lives of people you love.

Finally: 7-11 canceled its annual 7-11 Day, a Slurpee giveaway that celebrates the chain’s birthday on July 11, due to the pandemic. If you’re craving a summer treat, try some uniquely flavored ice cream instead.

June 16, 2020

The FDA withdrew its emergency-use approval of the malaria drugs hydrochloroquine and chloroquine after studies showed it offered no benefit for COVID-19 patients. Though touted as a promising treatment by some uninformed persons in government, hydrochloroquine’s “potential benefits for such use do not outweigh its known and potential risks,” Denise Hinton, the FDA’s chief scientist, wrote in a letter [PDF] to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services this week.

While the search for COVID-19 treatments continues, the best ways to prevent the spread of the new coronavirus is still wearing masks and social distancing, according to public health officials. Many states that have begun phased reopenings, however, are seeing big spikes in the number of COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations. Some officials are now threatening to lock down their cities and states again if people don’t follow the rules.   

Tonight, the PBS series Frontline will premiere The Virus, a new documentary examining how the new coronavirus emerged and spread rapidly across the world. The filmmakers also look at the inconsistent state and federal response to the pandemic in the U.S. Check your local listings for show times.

Hotel breakfast buffet
So long, spongy golden hotel waffles.
pawopa3336/iStock via Getty Images

Finally, make-your-own waffles and other self-serve treats at hotel breakfast buffets may become things of the past due to coronavirus-related health precautions, the Washington Post reports. Console yourself by reading up on the fascinating history of waffles.

June 12, 2020

Two new studies in the journal Nature estimate how lockdowns prevented millions of coronavirus infections and deaths. In one study, researchers analyzed 1717 quarantine policies in six countries—China, South Korea, Italy, Iran, France, and the U.S.—with models usually used to measure economic growth. They suggest the contagion-fighting measures prevented about 530 million infections. The second study looked at the number of COVID-19 deaths across 11 European countries and estimated an additional 3.1 million people would have died from the coronavirus if quarantine policies had not been implemented.

Meanwhile, coronavirus cases are increasing significantly in some U.S. states. The New York Times’s tracker shows upticks in 14 states as a result of more widespread testing, while The Washington Post reports increases in hospitalizations since Memorial Day, when some states began to loosen stay-at-home restrictions

All this means that face masks are here to stay. Recently, two Swiss research institutes developed a way to make surgical masks less obtrusive for all. Chemists created a transparent, biodegradable polymer for masks that allow patients to see healthcare workers’ facial expressions while preventing the transfer of infectious droplets. They may be on the market for medical professionals by next year.

Finally, Google Maps has introduced an update that shows coronavirus-related restrictions on public transportation and some destinations. Perhaps most helpful is the app’s ability to tell you in real time if trains or stations are too crowded to safely social-distance. Take a look here

June 9, 2020

The World Health Organization announced that transmission of the coronavirus by asymptomatic carriers may be “very rare.” Then, health journalists and scientists took to Twitter to temper expectations: it turns out that pre-symptomatic carriers, who may show symptoms at a later time, are still believed to transmit the virus in about half of COVID-19 cases. Researchers continue to investigate the size of the roles pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic people play in the pandemic. Disease ecologist A. Marm Kilpatrick, biology professor Carl T. Bergstrom, and physician Eric Topol posted Twitter threads breaking down the latest info.

Here’s some good news: Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern said New Zealand has no known coronavirus cases, Axios reports. The country went into strict lockdown since February 28, and eventually saw 1154 cases with 22 deaths. Nearly 300,000 tests were performed, and no new cases have been reported for the past 18 days.

For many, one of the toughest parts of the pandemic has been not being able to hug loved ones who aren’t members of your immediate household. The New York Times has an adorable illustrated guide for when we’re able to hug friends and family again.

Finally, you’ve heard of maskne—the unpleasant skin reaction to the moisture and heat generated by wearing face masks all day. But you may not realize that the backs of your ears might be suffering, too. The elastic bands on some face masks can cause chafing where they loop around your ears, so here are some easy tips for soothing back-of-ear-irritation.

June 5, 2020

A study that found COVID-19 patients who took hydrochloroquine had an increased risk of death has been retracted, NPR reports. Originally published in The Lancet, the study prompted the World Heath Organization to halt its own study of the malaria drug for treating COVID-19. But researchers raised questions about the accuracy of the study’s patient data, which came from a private company called Surgisphere and whose founder is listed as one of the study’s authors. More from NPR here.

Speaking of studies, science journalist Carl Zimmer dives into the history of scientific journals and how new research gets published—an important primer for the current flood of breaking coronavirus news. 

People in Zambia speak more than 70 languages, and most speak a Bantu dialect. But public health alerts about preventing the spread of coronavirus were delivered in English, the country’s official language, causing many to miss the message. Sister Astridah Banda, a Catholic nun, had a solution: she started a radio program to broadcast health advice in multiple languages, and it became a hit. NPR’s Goats and Soda has more.

Finally, summer is almost here, though that may be hard to believe. Here are a few practical tips for wearing masks—which can trap heat and sweat on your face—more comfortably in warm weather.

June 2, 2020

Researchers around the world are still trying to figure out what makes the new coronavirus so contagious and so lethal. Early on, physicians thought the virus was primarily a respiratory virus affecting the lungs. But with other symptoms beginning to emerge—blood clots, “Covid toes,” and a syndrome in children resembling Kawasaki disease—some researchers are beginning to think that COVID-19 is a disease of the blood vessels instead. Medium explains.

If you’ve had COVID-19 and present antibodies, does that mean you’re immune from another infection? How long does immunity last? What is immunity, exactly? Katherine J. Wu, who has a Ph.D. in microbiology and immunobiology from Harvard, breaks down the complicated ways our immune system protects us from pathogens.

Pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly has started the first human trial of a COVID-19 treatment based on antibodies. According to CNN, the Phase 1 trial will test the safety of a lab-engineered monoclonal antibody therapy that was based on antibodies sampled from COVID-19 survivors. Results of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will be known later this month.

Finally, Dr. Anthony Fauci talks with STAT's Helen Branswell about the state of “warp speed” coronavirus vaccine research and other hot topics in a characteristically forthright interview.

May 29, 2020

Japan declared a national emergency in early April to combat the spread of coronavirus. Now, a few days before the order was set to expire, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is lifting the state of emergency in all but eight of Japan’s 47 prefectures. See how public health efforts to root out “clusters” of COVID-19 contained the disease in this Science article.

Many Americans are still waiting to receive their stimulus payments from the government, and a few who have received the stimulus funds have mistaken the letters for scams or junk mail. The Washington Post describes the anonymous envelopes and debit cards linked to the “Money Network Cardholder Services of Omaha, Nebraska” arriving in mailboxes with little indication they’re actually from the U.S. Treasury. The IRS has posted a FAQ with info about the stimulus payment debit cards, and if you’ve received one, here are some answers about activating and using it.

Businesses and offices around the world are beginning to reopen, which necessitates creative solutions for maintaining social distancing among employees and customers. The CDC has just issued guidelines for redesigning office spaces in the pandemic, some of which seem doable (such as adding clear dividers between closely-spaced desks) and some that seem well-nigh impossible (keeping people six feet apart in elevators and getting rid of communal coffee makers). And in France, a designer has come up with a similar tool for restaurant patrons: these giant Plexiglass “lampshades” that shield wearers from other people’s droplets.

Finally, it’s Friday, and most of us are still stuck at home. Now would be a great time to adopt the Swedish tradition of Fredagsmys, loosely translated as “Taco Friday.” Swedes gather together on Friday nights to eat tacos and watch movies with their families, and really, is that so different from what we may already be doing? Here are a few recommendations for awesome heist flicks to start your own Taco Friday.

May 26, 2020

Coronavirus travel restrictions have trapped a Bolivian orchestra at a German palace since mid-March, CNN reports. When the Orquesta Experimental de Instrumentos Nativos left South America, Bolivia had registered no cases of COVID-19 and Germany was still accepting international flights. But days after their arrival, the musicians failed to get on one of the last flights out of Germany before Bolivia closed its borders. Since then, they’ve been staying in the guesthouse at Rheinsberg Palace, a rococo-style castle surrounded by picturesque grounds in northeastern Germany. We can think of worse places to be quarantined.

More cities and states are allowing certain business to reopen during the continuing coronavirus pandemic. The New York Times has a frequently updated, state-by-state guide to the new rules.

Just FYI, rats are becoming more aggressive in their search for food. The Washington Post reports that the urban rodents are having a hard time with bars and restaurants closed, since they’re not producing the garbage and food scraps the rats would normally feast upon. In extreme cases, rats are even turning to cannibalism. Here are the CDC’s new guidelines for keeping them away from your trash cans.

Speaking of nature, a new article in Scientific American looks into how the environment will record the coronavirus pandemic. In a recent example, scientists examining Alpine ice cores discovered that the amount of lead pollution in the atmosphere decreased suddenly only once in 2000 years: between 1349 and 1353, when the Black Death engulfed Europe. In the future, tree rings and ice cores might show a remarkable decrease in greenhouse gas emissions in early 2020.

May 22, 2020

In two new studies published in the journal Science, researchers at Boston’s Beth Israel Deaconness Medical Center report promising results in battling the new coronavirus. For the first experiment, nine rhesus macaques were exposed to the new coronavirus and came down with COVID-19. After they recovered, researchers again exposed them to the virus, and the monkeys did not get sick—suggesting that they developed antibodies that protected them from reinfection. In the second study, researchers gave six experimental vaccines to 25 monkeys, then exposed those animals and 10 control monkeys to the virus. The vaccinated subjects showed “a substantial degree of protection,” one of the researchers told Reuters. Larger studies and human subjects will be the likely next step.

“Oh sh*t,” tweeted one virologist when she saw this study confirming the presence of infectious coronavirus particles in human poop. It gets worse: The study authors suggest that more research into “fecal-oral or fecal-respiratory transmission” of the coronavirus is warranted. And in a possibly related development, fatbergs may present another problem for treating coronavirus-contaminated sewage.

Road trip in Arizona
Have mask, will travel.
Fabiomichelecapelli/iStock via Getty Images

Memorial Day Weekend is here, though it still seems like mid-March because time and space are meaningless now. If you happen to be planning a summer road trip for 2020, follow these tips from The Washington Post, which suggest that vacations will be masked and sanitized for the foreseeable future. Here are a few more ideas.

Finally, if your summer vacation is going to be spent at home, check out these goods for a fun backyard movie night.

May 19, 2020

Remember the plight of the USS Theodore Roosevelt, the naval aircraft carrier whose captain pleaded with authorities to rescue his coronavirus-infected crew? (And then the captain was fired, and then the guy who fired him was fired, and then the captain was rehired in a different role?) It’s finally leaving port and heading back out to sea.

Speaking of aircraft, are planes safer than a car for travel these days? Medium talks to experts and finds that it really comes down to how tightly the vehicle is packed with non-related people.

And now that airlines and many other entities are requiring people to wear masks in public, you’ll need these tips for properly laundering your fabric face coverings.

Finally, a potential coronavirus vaccine from the pharmaceutical company Moderna has shown some positive results in a preliminary test. The Phase 1 trial in eight volunteers showed the vaccine at low doses was safe for use, but did not gauge its effectiveness or final dosage. The New York Times reports that the participants had a strong immune reaction to the vaccine and produced antibodies. Much larger Phase 2 and 3 trials scheduled to begin the summer will evaluate the vaccine’s efficacy.

May 15, 2020

A French dairy trade group is urging cheese lovers in France to fromagissons—basically, “let us act for cheese!”—to help farmers during the coronavirus pandemic. Citizens can do their part by scarfing down cheese from the regions of Saint-Nectaire, Reblochon, Cantal, and Camembert that would otherwise go to waste. BRB, moving to France …

Quarantine fatigue is sweeping the nation. Inverse talks to three experts about what this special type of fatigue looks like and offers some options for getting through it.

One way to battle quar exhaustion that seems to be working for us: Looking at these adorable baby animals born during the pandemic. CNN has the scoop on a newborn zebra at Disney’s Animal Kingdom theme park in Florida, two blue penguin chicks at the Bronx Zoo, and baby bison at Custer State Park in South Dakota. Personally, I’m in love with Sami the porcupette and her mom, Samantha, who were rescued by workers at Newhouse Wildlife Rescue in April.

Apparently, a segment of the male population is not OK with wearing face masks, despite numerous cities and states mandating masks in public to slow the spread of COVID-19 and statistics showing men are more susceptible to the disease. According to a non-peer-reviewed paper on PsyArXiv, men more than women were likely to view wearing a mask as “shameful, not cool, a sign of weakness, and a stigma.” You know what’s also a sign of weakness? Not being able to breathe because your lungs are filled with fluid!

And one more cautionary tale to take you into the weekend: a woman in Italy found out the hard way that drinking hand sanitizer does not protect you from coronavirus infection. The unnamed woman sipped two teaspoons of alcohol-based sanitizer every day for more than three weeks, then had to go to the emergency room for extreme abdominal pain. Doctors found “corrosive injury” to her digestive system. A better idea: wash your hands.

May 12, 2020

A new, free online course from Johns Hopkins University teaches the basics of contact tracing—which involves interviewing COVID-19 patients and determining whom they’ve been around. It’s one of the most important tools for stopping the spread of the new coronavirus. Once they’ve earned their certificate of course completion, students will be primed to apply for one of the thousands of contact tracer jobs in U.S. cities. The Washington Post reports that up to 100,000 contact tracers will be required to fight the pandemic, with as many as 10,000 needed in New York City (and there, the gig pays $57,000 a year [PDF]).  

If you live in New York, Maryland, or another state that has required people to wear face coverings in public, perhaps you’ve noticed the extreme variety in mask styles—from surgical masks to bandanas to homemade masks to hazmat respirators. NBC has some tips for choosing and buying a face mask, but the main thing to remember is that they won’t keep you completely safe from the new coronavirus. You still have wash your hands and practice social distancing if you need to leave home.

Healthcare workers hold orchids outside of a hospital
Maksim Axelrod, The Sill

Last week, houseplant boutique The Sill teamed up with Frontline Strong Relief and the orchid brand Just Add Ice to donate 10,000 orchids to healthcare workers in New York City’s Mount Sinai Hospital Network. Noting the mood-boosting power of plants, The Sill founder and CEO Eliza Blank said the gift is their way of thanking the city’s essential workers as well as celebrating Mother’s Day in the midst of a global crisis.

Certain segments of the internet have been swooning over Dr. Anthony Fauci’s no-nonsense handling of the coronavirus crisis, but a steamy 1991 romance novel called Happy Endings was there first. Famed D.C. hostess and author Sally Quinn based her handsome NIH scientist who has an affair with the widowed first lady on Fauci, just as Fauci was at the NIH developing treatments for AIDS. Washingtonian has the details.

Finally, as if it didn’t already feel like we’re living in a science fiction dystopia, check out the best sci-fi movies on Netflix right now.

May 8, 2020

The FDA gave emergency-use approval to a new CRISPR-based test that can diagnose COVID-19 in one hour, much faster than the six to eight hours of some current tests, Emily Mullin reports in Medium. CRISPR is a gene-editing technology that uses a molecular “guide” to find and target DNA and remove it from its sequence. In the new test, developed by Sherlock Biosciences, the molecular guide is sent to find the novel coronavirus’s genetic signature in a nose or throat swab. If it locates the signature, the guide releases a signal indicating a positive result. Its developers say the test can be run using standard lab equipment. 

Last week, several news outlets reported some younger COVID-19 patients developing serious blood clots or even having strokes while being otherwise healthy. It turns out that blood clots may not be such an unusual symptom of infectious disease, Roxanne Khamsi writes in WIRED. As far back as 1903, physicians noted the presence of clogged blood vessels in people with typhoid fever or bacterial diseases. So why is it so surprising now in COVID-19 patients? “It may be on account of our success at treating such [bacterial] infections,” Khamsi says.   

The military is temporarily banning recruits who have been hospitalized with COVID-19 from joining any of the armed forces, according to a Pentagon memo reported by The New York Times. Military officials may reconsider the guidance in the future, once more facts are known about the virus’s long-term effects in patients.

Let’s end on a positive note, shall we? The World Naked Bike Ride will go on, despite the pandemic—at least in Portland, Oregon. While other cities have canceled the event, Portland’s organizers are encouraging nude cyclists to participate on June 27 while maintaining proper social distancing.

May 5, 2020

With so many families unable to visit loved ones in hospitals and nursing homes, some folks are getting creative with their means of connection. When his mother couldn’t visit her 95-year-old father in a Toronto hospital, Avi Minkowitz asked his friend to drive his cherry-picker truck to the facility. His mom got into the bucket and was hoisted up three stories so she could see her beloved dad outside his third-floor window. Read more in this heartwarming essay.

New York City officials began distributing 7.5 million free masks to residents last weekend after the mayor said hospitals and health care workers were adequately supplied with PPE. People can pick up the masks in parks, schools, and food distribution centers (check here for a map of giveaway points in parks). All New Yorkers are required to wear a face covering in public, especially in scenarios where social distancing is difficult.

Tracy Wilk wanted to help out on the front lines of the coronavirus pandemic, but she’s a chef, not a doctor. So she launched a campaign, Bake It Forward, while furloughed from her job as an instructor at the Institute of Culinary Education. Wilk creates batches of delicious cookies and gives them to nurses, physicians, and hospital staff who need a little pick-me-up. “A lot of those health care workers have been working overtime. I’ve done those days before in the kitchen,” Wilk told Good Morning America. “A cookie isn’t going to change it, but it’s going to help workers on the front lines, and those little bits of joy are what makes the day better.”

As we learn more about the novel coronavirus, “COVID toes” is emerging as a possible new symptom. Some people have exhibited reddish lesions on their toes and then tested positive for COVID-19 without showing the typical signs of infection, such as a fever or dry cough. According to the Cleveland Clinic, those with “COVID toes” or unexplained rashes should contact their doctor and seek a coronavirus test.

Finally, are you feeling cooped up? Commiserate with the casts of these single-location movies (like my favorite on the list, Alfred Hitchcock’s Rope). 

May 1, 2020

People quarantining at home are feeding their sweet tooths (or is it teeth?). Sales of Kellogg’s breakfast cereals, which include Special K, Frosted Mini-Wheats, Pop Tarts Cereal, and many more, increased 3 percent in its latest earnings report thanks to the pandemic, the company said. Frozen food sales jumped 9 percent.

Stressed-out, home-bound parents are turning to Zoom babysitters when they need a break from working, teaching, and childcare. One sitter told The Washington Post that the most difficult part of the job was getting kids back in front of the screen when they wander off.

An NIH study of more than 1000 COVID-19 patients showed that the antiviral drug remdesivir reduced hospital stays to average of 11 days compared to 15 days for patients who received a placebo. The death rate was not reduced significantly. While the results of the study were modest, Dr. Anthony Fauci told reporters that “it is a very important proof of concept, because what it has proven is that a drug can block this virus.”

Drive-in movie theater sign
Coming soon: outdoor movie revival?
John Margolies, Library of Congress // No Known Restrictions on Publication

Could drive-in movie theaters make a comeback? With traditional cinemas closed across the country, drive-ins offer the thrill of a summer blockbuster in the sanitized safety of your vehicle, with a dash of mid-century nostalgia thrown in. About 300 still exist, including the Family Drive-In Theatre near Winchester, Virginia, which has recently sold out its weekend shows of Sonic the Hedgehog.

Finally, if you’re bored with your cereal-based isolation diet, plug in your Instant Pot and try making these nine concoctions.

April 28, 2020

The CDC added six symptoms to its list of common signs of possible COVID-19 infection. Along with fever, cough, and shortness of breath, the new list includes chills, repeated shaking with chills, muscle pain, headache, sore throat, and loss of smell or taste. NPR reports that the expanded list of symptoms might allow more people to qualify for coronavirus testing, since people generally need to show signs of infection to be tested. One scary potential symptom is not yet included: blood clots that are leading to strokes in younger, otherwise mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients. The Washington Post has that story.

Preliminary results from an Oxford University-based effort to develop a vaccine against the new coronavirus are promising, The New York Times reveals. Six rhesus macaque monkeys were given an experimental vaccine, exposed to copious amounts of the virus, and remained healthy. Human trials are next.

N95 masks have been in short supply since the pandemic began, so a group of Boston-based researchers set about finding a simple way to decontaminate masks for reuse. In a not-yet-peer-reviewed paper appearing on the preprint server medRxiv, they suggest that steaming a mask in the microwave over a dish of hydrogen peroxide effectively removed viral particles. While the method hasn’t been tested on a large scale, it could present a way for individual healthcare workers to reuse previously worn masks.

n95 mask
An n95 mask

If your wedding has been scaled back or canceled due to the coronavirus pandemic—and if you really, really love Miller High Life—have we got a contest for you. The beer brand is giving away “doorstep” weddings to three couples, which include the services of an officiant and photographer and $10,000 for a sometime-in-the-future honeymoon. See the company’s website for details about entering.

We’re still anticipating the return of toilet paper to store shelves. Now, Business Insider reports that the supply of disinfectant wipes and other cleaning products might not come back to pre-pandemic levels until late summer. Brush up on these tips for disinfecting your home while you wait.

Finally, if you’re running out of ways to entertain—I mean educate—your kids at home, try these fun and informative science experiments.

April 24, 2020

Doctors and nurses have self-isolated in RVs and hotel rooms to avoid bringing the new coronavirus into their own families. But one doctor in Texas may be having a slightly more fun time that most in quarantine: He’s camping out in his sons’ treehouse, conveniently located within shouting distance of his actual home. ER doctor Jason Barnes told the Corpus Christie Caller Times that his wife cooks meals for him and leaves them on a table outside, where he “[grabs] it before the dogs can get it.” 

You might be wearing your mask wrong. If your mask only covers your mouth or hangs around your neck while you talk on the phone, you’re not using it properly. The Huffington Post has some tips to get the most out of your cloth face covering—and also offers hints about the best fabrics for making your own. And, NPR reports on a not-yet-peer-reviewed study that suggests wearing a nylon stocking over your cloth mask keeps the mask tighter on your face and more effective at restraining your spittle.

Walmart and grocery stores are putting one-way traffic signs in their aisles to help shoppers move in a single direction throughout the stores, which is meant to encourage social distancing. At least two Mental Floss editors have recently witnessed very little adherence to the rules, though. Maybe the stores need to hire crossing guards.

A study highlighted last week in this digest found that cats were more susceptible to the virus than other mammals and birds. Now, the USDA is reporting that two pet kitties in different areas of New York State have tested positive for the coronavirus after visiting their vets with respiratory symptoms. There is still no evidence that people can contract COVID-19 from their pets. Fortunately, the two cats are expected to make a full recovery.

Finally, you may be sitting on a hoard on quarantine-related nonperishables right now, but those canned goods won’t last forever. Just look at what happened to this one

April 21, 2020

You may be feeling stir-crazy after a few weeks of home quarantine, but you have probably had it easier than six tourists in India who were found self-isolating in a cave. The visitors—from France, Turkey, Nepal, Ukraine, and the U.S.—had run out of money for their hotel rooms. Officials took them to a nearby ashram and told them to quarantine for another two weeks. 

Schoolkids in Britain can take a virtual geography class with naturalist extraordinaire Sir David Attenborough. The dulcet-voiced narrator of Blue Planet II and Seven Worlds, One Planet will teach pupils about mapping, animal behavior, and oceanography on the BBC’s Bitesize Daily.

Should you disinfect your deliveries? The New York Times offers useful tips on when or if to treat common surfaces, like cardboard boxes, your shoes, and your hair, with antiviral solutions. Bonus: The Times’s how-to guide for washing your clothes at home.

There are many things we still don’t know about the novel coronavirus, including how well it is spread by different methods. Words like airborne and aerosol get thrown around a lot, but their meanings aren’t always clear. Check out this explainer on some coronavirus terminology you should know

Finally, a Colorado indie bookstore is helping readers discover new novels and authors during lockdown. For $50, Trident Booksellers and Cafe in Boulder will deliver a mystery bag of four to six books (plus a packet of tea or coffee beans) based on the customer’s preferred literary genre. Here are some more ways to help local bookstores stay afloat.

April 17, 2020

A 99-year-old World War II veteran in Britain vowed to raise money for the UK’s National Health Service (NHS) by walking 100 laps around his garden. On April 16, Captain Tom Moore completed his mission and raised a whopping £13 million ($16 million) for the public health service. Moore had started out on April 8 with a goal to raise £1000—but when supporters donated £70,000 in the first 24 hours, he upped his objective to £1 million. As The Guardian reports, Moore completed the last 25 laps on live television accompanied by a guard of honor from the 1st Battalion of the Yorkshire Regiment, Moore’s own regiment in the war. Now, his supporters are asking Queen Elizabeth II to give him a special commendation. And he turns 100 on April 30!

Another enterprising senior, quarantined 93-year-old Pennsylvania resident Olive Veronesi, put a plea in her window: “I need more beer!” Coors Light answered the call and promptly delivered 150 cans. “I was on my last 12 cans, I have a beer every night, you know what, beer has vitamins in it, it’s good for you, as long as you don’t overdo it,” Veronesi told KDKA. Similarly, 82-year-old Ontarian Annette Muller implored her daughter to run to the store with a sign in her window reading “need more wine.”

In more feel-good news, a Michelin-starred Copenhagen restaurant that usually features a $700 tasting menu is feeding the city’s homeless population instead.  

An anonymous donor bought each of the 549 households in Earlham, Iowa, $150 in gift cards to spend at local businesses—a present totaling more than $82,000. “I don’t believe ‘thank you’ is a big enough word,” Mayor Jeff Lillie told The Washington Post.

Finally, Facebook is directing users who have interacted with posts containing coronavirus misinformation to websites with facts from the World Health Organization. A Facebook official said in a blog post that 2 billion users have been directed and 350 million have clicked through to the factual sites. Here are some other companies doing their part during the crisis.

April 14, 2020

The coronavirus pandemic has hit the U.S. economy hard, but some small business owners are devising creative ways to help their staff. The owner of a Tybee Island, Georgia, bar spent three days un-stapling dollar bills—totaling more than $3000—from the walls and ceiling to give to her workers.

Speaking of workers: Some newly unemployed and furloughed folks are creating online communities to help their peers get through the labyrinth of state labor websites and unemployment benefits.

Cardboard box of toilet paper rolls
Precious, precious toilet paper
NataliaDeriabina/iStock via Getty Images

The Great Toilet Paper Shortage continues, but apparently some people are finding it at Walmart. The company’s CEO, Doug McMillon, told NBC’s Savannah Guthrie on April 10 that Walmart consumers bought enough toilet paper in five days to give every American a roll. (That’s about 328 million rolls, or 328 billion individual squares if every roll had 1000 sheets.)

Cats can catch coronavirus. A Chinese study in the journal Science found that the novel coronavirus replicates easily in cats and ferrets (which often stand in for humans in respiratory studies), but not as well in dogs, pigs, chickens, or ducks. More research is needed, though.

By now you’ve probably heard your city’s or state’s recommendations for using a face covering or mask when you’re outside—and glasses wearers have surely discovered their lenses fogging up while wearing one. Here are a few tips for wearing a mask and glasses at the same time.

April 10, 2020

The toilet paper shortage is real—but your credit card company might be able to help you squeeze the Charmin. Finder.com reports that high-end credit cards like the Chase Sapphire Reserve and the MasterCard Gold Card offer concierge services to help cardmembers make dinner reservations, travel arrangements, and other transactions. In a small experiment, three Finder.com staffers asked their card company’s concierge to find the nearest store with toilet paper on the shelves. Two concierges were able to call around and unearth the white gold.

A Marine veteran didn’t let the coronavirus pandemic interrupt her 104th birthday celebration, according to WMC Action News 5 in Memphis, Tennessee. Ruth Gallivan, believed to be one of the oldest female Marines, served in World War II. The veterans’ organization Honor Flight surprised her by putting together a drive-by car parade and wished her many happy returns.

Wondering how you can help essential workers during the pandemic, besides just staying home? Buy a meal for a medical professional during the pandemic through Feed the Frontlines, founded by a New York City restaurateur to make and deliver meals to hard-working doctors, nurses, and hospital staff (and to keep restaurants in business). You can also donate directly to NYC Health + Hospitals, where so many COVID-19 patients receive treatment.

Finally, your pantry staples might be running a little low after a month on lockdown. If you’re planning a run to the grocery store, follow these simple precautions to reduce the chance of bringing home the coronavirus along with your bread and dry beans.

April 7, 2020

Almost 24 million people watched Queen Elizabeth II deliver a personal televised message about the coronavirus pandemic on Sunday, April 5. The queen thanked healthcare workers and those staying at home for their continued efforts in battling the outbreak, and said this address reminded her of her very first TV broadcast in 1940, when she offered a message to children who had been sent overseas for their own safety at the beginning of World War II. "We should take comfort that while we may have more still to endure, better days will return," the queen said. "We will be with our friends again. We will be with our families again. We will meet again." The queen rarely gives televised speeches apart from her annual Christmas message—this broadcast was only her fifth in her 68-year reign.

A tiger at the Bronx Zoo in New York City tested positive for COVID-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus. The zoo's chief vet Paul Calle tweeted that Nadia, a 4-year-old Malayan tiger, had tests confirmed at the USDA's National Veterinary Services Laboratory after showing respiratory symptoms. Three other tigers exhibited the same symptoms, and zoo officials believe the big cats were exposed to the virus by an asymptomatic zoo employee. The Wildlife Conservation Society, which operates the Bronx Zoo, expects all the cats to fully recover. In a press release, the USDA said it's unlikely that your pet cat could transmit the virus to you, but if you feel sick, it's best to stay away from Fluffy as long as you have symptoms.

Oscar-winning actor and University of Texas at Austin professor Matthew McConaughey hosted bingo night (via Zoom) for a group of residents at The Enclave at Round Rock, a senior living community in a suburb of Austin. Along with his wife, mom, and kids, McConaughey called out the numbers while the quarantined seniors played along at home.

Should you be wearing a mask when you go outside? The answer is complicated, but New York City's mayor has begun urging residents to wear a fabric face covering to reduce the chance the virus could spread through breathing or talking. Recent research suggests presymptomatic people could transmit the coronavirus more easily through aerosols than previously thought.

And finally, you may have a hard time finding hand sanitizer in stores these days, but if you do, check its expiration date.