Why Does Wine Only Stain Some People's Teeth?

iStock.com/yula
iStock.com/yula

Maybe getting red wine stains on your teeth would be less embarrassing if it was a universal experience. But as you may have noticed after splitting a bottle of cabernet between friends, wine doesn't have the same tinting effects on everyone. Whether vino leaves your teeth untouched or makes you look like you've been chewing on a purple Sharpie, you can give credit to your genes and hygiene habits.

A mix of components make red wine the perfect drink for staining teeth. It's acidic, which means it degrades your enamel at the microscopic level, making the surface of your teeth less even and more likely to catch pigments. Red wine contains anthocyanins, the pigment that gives wine (and the mouths of some wine-drinkers) a dusky red color, as well as tannins, which encourage those pigments to bind to your teeth. White wine also has acid and tannins (though a much lower level of tannins than reds), but without the dark pigments, drinking white wine alone won't stain your teeth.

Some wine drinkers are better equipped to handle this than others, such as those gifted with healthy, strong enamel. Enamel is the layer of minerals that protects your teeth, and it's the strongest substance in the human body. It's what makes teeth resistant to acidic foods and stains, and how much of it you have is often a product of factors beyond your control, like age and genetics. (Enamel doesn't grow back, so it wears down over a lifetime of use.)

But even if your genes are working against you, that doesn't necessarily mean you have to choose between your favorite drink and a presentable smile. You can prevent wine mouth, or at least make it look less noticeable, by practicing good oral hygiene. Teeth covered in plaque are more likely to stain, and brushing your teeth at least twice a day and flossing daily helps reduce plaque while keeping your enamel strong.

If you plan on ordering red wine at the bar you're heading to, brush your teeth beforehand: This will get rid of a lot of the plaque that would otherwise act as a magnet for pigments. Because brushing can scratch enamel in the same way that acid does, this should only be done about 30 minutes before you have your first sip of wine, and not in between glasses. Eating while you drink can help as well. By munching on a protein, you can create a sort of stain-blocking barrier for your teeth—just in case you needed an excuse to order a cheese plate with your pinot.

What you choose to drink also factors into how stained your teeth may or may not be by the end of the night. Though wines like chardonnay don't stain your teeth, they do make them more vulnerable to dark pigments, so never start off drinking white wine and move on to red. Dark wines tend to leave the darkest stains. If you absolutely must have a glass of red wine with dinner, opt for a pinot noir over a cabernet (or something lighter-bodied, in wine-speak).

Kodak’s New Cameras Don't Just Take Photos—They Also Print Them

Your Instagram account wishes it had this clout.
Your Instagram account wishes it had this clout.
Kodak

Snapping a photo and immediately sharing it on social media is definitely convenient, but there’s still something so satisfying about having the printed photo—like you’re actually holding the memory in your hands. Kodak’s new STEP cameras now offer the best of both worlds.

As its name implies, the Kodak STEP Instant Print Digital Camera, available for $70 on Amazon, lets you take a picture and print it out on that very same device. Not only do you get to skip the irksome process of uploading photos to your computer and printing them on your bulky, non-portable printer (or worse yet, having to wait for your local pharmacy to print them for you), but you never need to bother with ink cartridges or toner, either. The Kodak STEP comes with special 2-inch-by-3-inch printing paper inlaid with color crystals that bring your image to life. There’s also an adhesive layer on the back, so you can easily stick your photos to laptop covers, scrapbooks, or whatever else could use a little adornment.

There's a 10-second self-timer, so you don't have to ask strangers to take your group photos.Kodak

For those of you who want to give your photos some added flair, you might like the Kodak STEP Touch, available for $130 from Amazon. It’s similar to the regular Kodak STEP, but the LCD touch screen allows you to edit your photos before you print them; you can also shoot short videos and even share your content straight to social media.

If you want to print photos from your smartphone gallery, there's the Kodak STEP Instant Mobile Photo Printer. This portable $80 printer connects to any iOS or Android device with Bluetooth capabilities and can print whatever photos you send to it.

The Kodak STEP Instant Mobile Photo Printer connects to an app that allows you to add filters and other effects to your photos. Kodak

All three Kodak STEP devices come with some of that magical printer paper, but you can order additional refills, too—a 20-sheet set costs $8 on Amazon.

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What Is the Citizenship of a Baby Born on an International Flight?

Nadezhda1906/iStock via Getty Images
Nadezhda1906/iStock via Getty Images

It's pretty standard medical advice: a pregnant woman shouldn’t travel via airplane 36 weeks or later into her pregnancy. Despite that precaution, an occasional bundle of joy may still add an unexpected passenger to the flight manifest. As if giving birth at 40,000 feet wasn't already a stressful experience for a new mom, things can get even more hectic upon landing: Depending on the details surrounding the birth, her newborn’s citizenship could be up for debate.

There is no universal rule for how a country determines the citizenship of a newborn. Some countries just follow the jus sanguinis (right of blood) law, which means a baby’s nationality is determined by that of one or both parents. Others observe that rule and jus soli (right of the soil), where a country grants citizenship to a baby that’s simply born on its soil, regardless of the parents’ origin. These countries are mostly in the Americas and include the United States and Canada. And with the expansion of air travel, these laws had to extend to the heavens as well.

If a baby is born over United States airspace, the jus soli rule means the child would be granted U.S. citizenship, according to the Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual. Depending on the circumstances, the child may also be a candidate for dual citizenship if its parents are from a country that grants citizenship based on blood—though that would depend on the countries involved.

This same simplicity doesn’t extend to a jus sanguinis country, though. This means that an American mother can’t attain French citizenship for her baby just because she gave birth over French airspace. The baby would simply revert to the parent's U.S. citizenship, since the United States also generally follows jus sanguinis when a baby is born to U.S. citizens in a foreign country. Since jus sanguinis is the far more common rule around the globe, most babies born on a flight over international waters or foreign airspace will likely wind up taking the citizenship of its parents.

If there’s a case where the child could potentially be stateless—such as when a mother herself has no official citizenship and the baby is born in international airspace—the baby would likely take the citizenship of whatever country the plane itself is registered in, according to the United Nations’s Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness agreement.

Despite all these complex laws, mid-flight births are exceedingly rare—so rare, in fact, that most airlines don’t even keep track of the number of babies born in the air. An expecting mother likely wouldn't even be able to get onto a flight in the first place, since many airlines have rules that prohibit women from flying after they've reached a certain point in their pregnancy.

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