Why Does Wine Only Stain Some People's Teeth?

iStock.com/yula
iStock.com/yula

Maybe getting red wine stains on your teeth would be less embarrassing if it was a universal experience. But as you may have noticed after splitting a bottle of cabernet between friends, wine doesn't have the same tinting effects on everyone. Whether vino leaves your teeth untouched or makes you look like you've been chewing on a purple Sharpie, you can give credit to your genes and hygiene habits.

A mix of components make red wine the perfect drink for staining teeth. It's acidic, which means it degrades your enamel at the microscopic level, making the surface of your teeth less even and more likely to catch pigments. Red wine contains anthocyanins, the pigment that gives wine (and the mouths of some wine-drinkers) a dusky red color, as well as tannins, which encourage those pigments to bind to your teeth. White wine also has acid and tannins (though a much lower level of tannins than reds), but without the dark pigments, drinking white wine alone won't stain your teeth.

Some wine drinkers are better equipped to handle this than others, such as those gifted with healthy, strong enamel. Enamel is the layer of minerals that protects your teeth, and it's the strongest substance in the human body. It's what makes teeth resistant to acidic foods and stains, and how much of it you have is often a product of factors beyond your control, like age and genetics. (Enamel doesn't grow back, so it wears down over a lifetime of use.)

But even if your genes are working against you, that doesn't necessarily mean you have to choose between your favorite drink and a presentable smile. You can prevent wine mouth, or at least make it look less noticeable, by practicing good oral hygiene. Teeth covered in plaque are more likely to stain, and brushing your teeth at least twice a day and flossing daily helps reduce plaque while keeping your enamel strong.

If you plan on ordering red wine at the bar you're heading to, brush your teeth beforehand: This will get rid of a lot of the plaque that would otherwise act as a magnet for pigments. Because brushing can scratch enamel in the same way that acid does, this should only be done about 30 minutes before you have your first sip of wine, and not in between glasses. Eating while you drink can help as well. By munching on a protein, you can create a sort of stain-blocking barrier for your teeth—just in case you needed an excuse to order a cheese plate with your pinot.

What you choose to drink also factors into how stained your teeth may or may not be by the end of the night. Though wines like chardonnay don't stain your teeth, they do make them more vulnerable to dark pigments, so never start off drinking white wine and move on to red. Dark wines tend to leave the darkest stains. If you absolutely must have a glass of red wine with dinner, opt for a pinot noir over a cabernet (or something lighter-bodied, in wine-speak).

Has An Element Ever Been Removed From the Periodic Table?

lucadp/iStock via Getty Images
lucadp/iStock via Getty Images

Barry Gehm:

Yes, didymium, or Di. It was discovered by Carl Mosander in 1841, and he named it didymium from the Greek word didymos, meaning twin, because it was almost identical to lanthanum in its properties. In 1879, a French chemist showed that Mosander’s didymium contained samarium as well as an unknown element. In 1885, Carl von Weisbach showed that the unknown element was actually two elements, which he isolated and named praseodidymium and neodidymium (although the di syllable was soon dropped). Ironically, the twin turned out to be twins.

The term didymium filter is still used to refer to welding glasses colored with a mixture of neodymium and praseodymium oxides.

One might cite as other examples various claims to have created/discovered synthetic elements. Probably the best example of this would be masurium (element 43), which a team of German chemists claimed to have discovered in columbium (now known as niobium) ore in 1925. The claim was controversial and other workers could not replicate it, but some literature from the period does list it among the elements.

In 1936, Emilio Segrè and Carlo Perrier isolated element 43 from molybdenum foil that had been used in a cyclotron; they named it technetium. Even the longest-lived isotopes of technetium have a short half-life by geological standards (millions of years) and it has only ever been found naturally in minute traces as a product of spontaneous uranium fission. For this reason, the original claim of discovery (as masurium) is almost universally regarded as erroneous.

As far as I know, in none of these cases with synthetic elements has anyone actually produced a quantity of the element that one could see and weigh that later turned out not to be an element, in contrast to the case with didymium. (In the case of masurium, for instance, the only evidence of its existence was a faint x-ray signal at a specific wavelength.)

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

Can You Ever Truly Lose Your Accent?

DGLimages, iStock via Getty Images
DGLimages, iStock via Getty Images

You may be able to pull off a Spanish accent when showing off your Antonio Banderas impression, but truly losing your native accent and replacing it with a new one is a lot harder to do. The way you speak now will likely stick with you for life.

According to Smithsonian, our accent develops as early as 6 months old—accents being the pronunciation conventions of a language shaped by factors like region, culture, and class. When a baby is learning the words for nap and dad and play, they're also learning how to pronounce the sounds in those words from the people around them. Newborn brains are wired to recognize and learn languages just from being exposed to them. By the time babies start talking, they know the "right" pronunciations to use for their native language or languages.

As you get older, your innate understanding of foreign accents and languages gets weaker. If you're an English speaker raised in Boston, you may think that the way someone from Dallas speaks English sounds "wrong" without being able to articulate what it is that makes them sound different. This is why pulling off a convincing foreign accent can be so difficult, even if you've heard it many times before.

Around age 18, your ability to learn a second language takes a steep nosedive. The same may be true with your ability to speak in a new accent. If you immerse yourself in a foreign environment for long enough, you may pick up some ticks of the local accent, but totally adopting a non-native accent without making a conscious effort to maintain it is unlikely as an adult.

There is one exception to this rule, and that's Foreign Accent Syndrome. Following a head injury or stroke, some people have reported suddenly speaking in accents they didn't grow up using. The syndrome is incredibly rare, with only 100 people around the world having been diagnosed with it, and medical experts aren't sure why brain injuries cause it. But while patients may be pronouncing their words differently, they aren't exactly using foreign accents in the way most people think of them; the culprit may be subtle changes to muscle movements in the jaw, tongue, lips, and larynx that change the way patients pronounce certain vowels.

[h/t Smithsonian]

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