Fans of Game of Thrones are probably more familiar with some Dothraki words and phrases than they are with High Valyrian words beyond dracarys. But those who are looking to brush up on the language ahead of Game of Thrones's final season just need to visit language website Duolingo, which features a High Valyrian course put together by Game of Thrones language guru David J. Peterson.
Ahead of the show's season 8 premiere on April 14, 2019, Peterson outlined a few High Valyrian phrases that anyone hoping to visit Westeros should master.
1. Skorverdon dekuroti Dōros hen kesīr ilza?
It probably isn’t a place you’d want to visit now that it has been breached by the Night King, Zombie Viserion, and the Army of the Dead, but if the Wall is still on your Westerosi bucket list, memorize the phrase “Skorverdon dekuroti Dōros hen kesīr ilza?” which means, “How much farther is the Wall?”
2. Skoriot dīnāzmot geron ilza?
Weddings are rarely joyous affairs in Westeros (just ask Robb Stark and King Joffrey), but if you’re planning to attend one regardless, this is the phrase for you: It means “which way to the wedding?”
3. Sparos Āegenkon Dēmalion dēmassis?
This question—which means “Who holds the Iron Throne?”—is probably best asked outside of King’s Landing, where Cersei will have you beheaded for daring to be so stupid.
4. Kesy Dornīhor averilla issa?
Or: “Is this Dornish wine?” As a visitor to Westeros, it’s important to know that there are two types of Dornish wine: sour and strongwine. They’re both reds, and probably both enjoyed by Cersei and Tyrion Lannister. (It should be noted: You don’t have to go to Westeros to drink Game of Thrones wine.)
5. Kaerīnvesse Dāroti Viliniot mazōreksi?
Some of us can’t travel without crafting a detailed itinerary. “Kaerīnvesse Dāroti Viliniot mazōreksi?”—“Does Kings Landing take reservations?”—is a phrase for all the planners out there.
6. Sōnarurlio gōviliria rēbagon rakegon kostan?
This translates to “Can I book a tour at the Crypt of Winterfell?” Because what trip to Westeros would be complete without paying your respects to Ned, Lyanna, and all the other dearly departed Starks?
7. Āegenkor Tistālior ATM ēza?
The answer to this question—which translates to, “Does the Iron Bank have an ATM?”—is only yes if you’re Cersei Lannister. Another High Valyrian phase you could consider memorizing is “Skorverdon kesy issa,” or “How much is this?”
8. Zaldrīzome arrikson kostan?
Or, “Can I take a picture with a dragon?” (Something tells us Drogon wouldn’t be open to selfies, though …)
9. Bosī Bāno Lōtinto bāngiot umbas?
This translates to “How long is the line for Hot Pie’s bakery?” The answer is probably: Pretty long. The guy makes the best bread in Westeros! (Fun fact: Ben Hawkey, the actor who plays Hot Pie, opened a pop-up bakery in London back in 2017 as part of a Game of Thronespromotion.)
10. Riña dōre brōzi ēza.
To be used if you’re Arya Stark, or just if someone asks for your name and don't feel like giving it: It translates to, “a girl has no name.”
You can learn more High Valyrian by visiting Duolingo.
As convenient as smartphones and tablets are, they don’t necessarily offer the best sound quality. But a well-built portable speaker can fill that need. And whether you’re looking for a speaker to use in the shower or a device to take on a long camping trip, these bestselling models from Amazon have you covered.
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4. Bose SoundLink Color Bluetooth Speaker; $129 (4.4 stars)
Bose is well-known for building user-friendly products that offer excellent sound quality. This portable speaker lets you connect to the Bose app, which makes it easier to switch between devices and personalize your settings. It’s also water-resistant, making it durable enough to handle a day at the pool or beach.
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By 1976, Harrison Ford had been acting for over a decade, most prominently as Bob Falfa in George Lucas’s American Graffiti (1973), and Martin Stett in Francis Ford Coppola’s The Conversation (1974). Unfortunately for Ford, he was still as well known for his carpentry as he was his filmography, and Lucas was against using the same actor in more than one of his movies. Still, there was hope: Lucas hired Ford to read lines as Han Solo during auditions with prospective actors, and Lucas was eventually convinced that the Chicago-born actor was the man to play the incorrigible Millennium Falcon captain with the heart of gold. Now, let's look back at some films that almost featured Harrison Ford.
1. The Graduate (1967)
Director Mike Nichols rejected the then 25-year-old Ford for The Graduate's Benjamin Braddock, who ended up being played by Dustin Hoffman. Nichols and Ford finally worked together in Working Girl (1988) and Regarding Henry (1991), the latter of which was written by The Force Awakens' writer-director J.J. Abrams.
2. Midnight Cowboy (1969)
Jon Voight and Dustin Hoffman in Midnight Cowboy (1969)
20th Century Fox Home Entertainment
Ford flew 3000 miles to New York City—on his own dime—to audition for the role of Midnight Cowboy's Joe Buck. John Schlesinger went with Jon Voight.
3. Alien (1979)
Two years after Star Wars, Ford was turning down parts. He declined playing Captain Dallas in Alien, letting Tom Skerritt handle that.
4. E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982)
Ford was cut from E.T. He played Elliott’s school principal. His face was not visible, because other than Elliott’s mother, Steven Spielberg tried to not show the faces of the adults.
5. Making Love (1982)
The then-controversial film was about Zach (Michael Ontkean), a doctor who is married to Claire (Kate Jackson), but starts a relationship with Bart (Harry Hamlin), a novelist. Ford, Michael Douglas, and Richard Gere all turned down playing the male leads. Making Love ended up being a commercial and critical failure.
Ford admitted he was offered the lead after Sylvester Stallone dropped out, and before it was turned into a comedy starring Eddie Murphy. He said he saw the movie and had no regrets on declining. It helps that he starred in Witness (1985) instead, which landed him his first (and so far only) Oscar nomination.
8. Big (1988)
Off of Anne Spielberg (Steven’s sister) and Gary Ross’ script, producer/director James L. Brooks spent six months waiting for Ford to play Josh Baskin. But Ford wasn't pleased with the choice of director. Eventually, Tom Hanks ended up playing the lead, with Penny Marshall directing.
Martin Scorsese asked Robert De Niro to ask Ford to play the lawyer Sam Bowden in the remake of the 1962 thriller Cape Fear. Ford told De Niro he would only do it if he could play Max Cady and De Niro would play Bowden. De Niro did not want to do that, so Nick Nolte ended up in the role.
15. JFK (1991)
Ford was Oliver Stone’s first choice to play district attorney Jim Garrison in JFK, but he was unavailable, on a long vacation. Kevin Costner played the part instead.
16. Jurassic Park (1993)
Sam Neill in Jurassic Park (1993).
Ford could have been Dr. Alan Grant (Sam Neill). Spielberg claimed he offered the role to the actor at the 30th anniversary screening of Raiders of the Lost Ark after Ford said Spielberg only hired him for the Indiana Jones movies.
17. Outbreak (1995)
Producer Arnold Kopelson asked Ford to play Sam Daniels, but he said no. Dustin Hoffman, who became famous 10 years before Ford after he beat him out to play Benjamin Braddock in The Graduate, said yes.
Tom Hanks, Tom Sizemore, Paschal Friel, Rolf Saxon, and Adam Shaw in Saving Private Ryan (1998).
Paramount Home Entertainment
Spielberg considered both Mel Gibson and Ford before tapping Tom Hanks to play Captain Miller, in an Oscar nominated performance.
20. The Thin Red Line (1998)
Sean Penn, on behalf of director Terrence Malick, called Ford and asked him to appear in the war epic alongside him, Adrien Brody, George Clooney, John Cusack, Woody Harrelson, John C. Reilly, and John Travolta.
21. Runaway Bride (1999)
Ford, Mel Gibson, Michael Douglas, and Ben Affleck were set to play Ike Graham during the 10-year development process. Richard Gere got the role as part of a Pretty Woman reunion with Julia Roberts and director Garry Marshall.
22. The Patriot (2000)
Ford believed the movie would be too violent. Mel Gibson was okay with that.
23. The Perfect Storm (2000)
William Fichtner, John C. Reilly, Mark Wahlberg, George Clooney, Allen Payne, and John Hawkes in The Perfect Storm (2000).
Warner Home Video
Air Force One director Wolfgang Petersen wanted to work with Ford again, but he turned the lead role of Captain BIlly Tyne down. After Mel Gibson wanted too much money, George Clooney got the role.
24. Proof of Life (2000)
Ford and, once again, Mel Gibson could have played Terry Thorne in the action movie. Instead, director Taylor Hackford told the studio he preferred Russell Crowe for the role, and won the argument.
25. Traffic (2000)
20th Century Fox decided they only wanted the Steven Soderbergh-directed project if Harrison Ford agreed to star. Ford became interested before backing out, and the major studio did, too. The movie ended up being produced by USA Films, and won four Oscars.
26. The Sum of All Fears (2002)
Ben Affleck became the third actor to play Jack Ryan when Ford and director Phillip Noyce couldn’t agree on how to fix the script.
27. Insomnia (2002)
Ford and director Jonathan Demme worked on getting an American remake of the Norwegian thriller made. Ford was to play police detective Will Dormer but Christopher Nolan ended up directing, and Al Pacino took over the lead.
28. Syriana (2005)
Ford had questions over the validity of some of the geopolitical story involving petroleum products and the oil industry, only later finding that the parts he found untruthful were taken out. He said he wished he took the role of Rob Barnes after seeing the movie. George Clooney ended up playing Barnes, and won a Best Supporting Actor for his work.
29. A History of Violence (2005)
Ford turned down playing small-town diner owner/mobster-in-hiding Tom Stall in David Cronenberg's crime thriller. Viggo Mortensen got the gig.