10 Facts About Crohn’s Disease

iStock.com/Carlo107
iStock.com/Carlo107

Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease in which the immune system attacks the lining of the intestine, usually the ending of the small intestine (called the ileum) or the colon. But it's more than just a case of irritable bowels. Crohn's disease symptoms range from abdominal cramps to ulcers that eat through the intestinal wall, and the complications—including pain, diarrhea, and malnutrition—can be sometimes be fatal. But with a proper diagnosis and the right medical care, managing the condition is possible for patients with Crohn’s. Here are more facts about Crohn's disease, from testing to treatments.

1. Crohn's disease causes are unknown, but genetics may be involved.

The exact causes of Crohn’s disease haven’t been identified, but for many people, family history plays a role. About 15 percent of Crohn’s patients share the diagnosis with a first-degree relative (parent, sibling, or child). Whether the family cluster patterns have more to do with genetics or environment is still unclear, though environmental factors appear to have more of an impact on the development of Crohn's disease symptoms. Scientists have also identified more than 200 gene variants that could influence Crohn's disease risk, mostly affecting genes related to immune system function.

2. Crohn's disease symptoms can come and go.

Crohn’s disease is characterized by inflammation of the digestive tract, and common signs include abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, diarrhea, fatigue, and fever. In severe cases, the inflammation can cause ulcers in the intestinal wall that prevents nutrient absorption, which can lead to weight loss and malnutrition. The intensity of these symptoms can be unpredictable. Flare-ups of gastrointestinal distress can last weeks to months, and there can also be long stretches of time when patients live symptom-free. Anti-inflammatory treatments can encourage the symptoms to go into remission, but the disease can never be cured completely.

3. Your diet can make Crohn's disease symptoms worse.

Doctors used to think of diet as one of the main causes of Crohn’s disease, but now it’s just thought to be a factor that exacerbates the symptoms. Certain foods can aggravate the digestive systems of people with Crohn’s. High-fiber foods, such fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, are some of the worst culprits, though cooked fruits and vegetables are generally gentler on the GI tract than raw ones.

4. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are not the same.

People commonly confuse ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease. The two conditions are both inflammatory bowel diseases (which are different than irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS, which involves intestinal muscle contractions rather than inflammation). Both UC and Crohn's disease share symptoms such as weight loss, rectal bleeding, and diarrhea. But they differ in important ways: UC is limited to the large intestine, while Crohn’s disease can develop anywhere on the gastrointestinal tract between the mouth and anus. UC inflammation is also concentrated on the innermost intestinal lining, whereas can Crohn’s can penetrate the entire bowel wall. If you suspect you have an IBD, a doctor can help you identify the exact condition.

5. Crohn's disease can also affect the joints, eyes, and skin.

Crohn’s disease is known as a gastrointestinal disease, but the symptoms can extend beyond the digestive tract. People experiencing inflammation in the colon can also have inflammation in the joints. Up to 25 percent of patients with Crohn’s or UC also suffer from arthritis. Other complications include inflammation of the skin and eyes. Because eye tissue is so sensitive, ocular symptoms like redness and itchiness often appear before the first gastrointestinal signs.

6. A fecal occult blood test is one way to diagnose Crohn's disease.

There’s no one test for Crohn’s disease. Instead, doctors diagnose the condition by performing a series of tests to rule out other possible ailments. Testing poop samples with a fecal occult blood test can reveal hidden (or occult) blood in a patient’s stool, and testing antibodies can indicate whether symptoms are caused by Crohn’s or UC. Imaging tests—such as an ultrasound, MRI, X-ray, CT scan, or colonoscopy—gives doctors visual clues to the extent of a patient’s condition.

7. Incidence of Crohn's disease is increasing.

Crohn’s affects people of all ages, but symptoms usually appear in younger patients: People in the 15-to-35 age group are most likely to be diagnosed with the condition. Childhood cases of Crohn’s disease can lead to complications like delayed growth. Some studies have shown that the disease is becoming more prevalent, especially in Western countries and in children. Researchers think the "Westernized lifestyle" of poor-quality diet and lack of exercise are contributing factors to the increase.

8. Crohn's disease complications can be deadly.

If left untreated, Crohn’s disease can lead to some life-threatening complications. Inflammation can permanently damage the intestines, scarring parts the GI tract and causing tissue to thicken. In some cases, the damage is so severe that the bowel becomes blocked and surgery is required to remove the obstruction. Another possible complication is a fistula: an ulcer that has penetrated the intestinal wall and connected into a different part of the body, such as another organ or skin. An infected fistula is potentially fatal if ignored. Crohn's disease also increases a patient's risk of developing colorectal cancer. Inflammatory bowel disease is the third highest risk factor for colorectal cancer cases, though IBD-related cancer incidence is decreasing in some countries.

9. Surgery is a last resort for Crohn's disease.

Though Crohn’s disease can’t be cured, it can be managed. Most patients are initially put on anti-inflammatory medications. Other drugs, like pain relievers, nutritional supplements, and anti-diarrheal medications, are prescribed to treat the symptoms of the disease. If the condition doesn't improve, patients may require surgery to remove damaged portions of the bowel, close fistulas, and drain abscesses. Doctors may also recommend specific dietary changes to avoid flare-ups.

10. Crohn's disease was identified in the 1930s.

In 1932, gastroenterologist Burrill B. Crohn and his colleagues Leon Ginzburg and Gordon D. Oppenheimer identified the condition now known as Crohn’s disease, which Crohn called ileitis (meaning inflammation of the ileum). Prior to the report, the condition was thought to be type of a tuberculosis and not an inflammatory bowel disease. In addition to helping define the disease that bears his name, Crohn was one of the first medical professionals to link gastrointestinal distress to anxiety. He also published a book with the charming title Affections of the Stomach in 1927 and commented in media reports when President Dwight D. Eisenhower came down with ileitis symptoms in 1956.

Looking to Downsize? You Can Buy a 5-Room DIY Cabin on Amazon for Less Than $33,000

Five rooms of one's own.
Five rooms of one's own.
Allwood/Amazon

If you’ve already mastered DIY houses for birds and dogs, maybe it’s time you built one for yourself.

As Simplemost reports, there are a number of house kits that you can order on Amazon, and the Allwood Avalon Cabin Kit is one of the quaintest—and, at $32,990, most affordable—options. The 540-square-foot structure has enough space for a kitchen, a bathroom, a bedroom, and a sitting room—and there’s an additional 218-square-foot loft with the potential to be the coziest reading nook of all time.

You can opt for three larger rooms if you're willing to skip the kitchen and bathroom.Allwood/Amazon

The construction process might not be a great idea for someone who’s never picked up a hammer, but you don’t need an architectural degree to tackle it. Step-by-step instructions and all materials are included, so it’s a little like a high-level IKEA project. According to the Amazon listing, it takes two adults about a week to complete. Since the Nordic wood walls are reinforced with steel rods, the house can withstand winds up to 120 mph, and you can pay an extra $1000 to upgrade from double-glass windows and doors to triple-glass for added fortification.

Sadly, the cool ceiling lamp is not included.Allwood/Amazon

Though everything you need for the shell of the house comes in the kit, you will need to purchase whatever goes inside it: toilet, shower, sink, stove, insulation, and all other furnishings. You can also customize the blueprint to fit your own plans for the space; maybe, for example, you’re going to use the house as a small event venue, and you’d rather have two or three large, airy rooms and no kitchen or bedroom.

Intrigued? Find out more here.

[h/t Simplemost]

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The 12 Best TV Shows on Amazon Prime Right Now

Stephan James and Janelle Monáe in Homecoming.
Stephan James and Janelle Monáe in Homecoming.
Ali Goldstein/Amazon Studios

If you’re an Amazon Prime member, you’re entitled to free expedited shipping, free Kindle downloads, and lots of other perks. But some customers are perfectly content to relegate their use of the service to the company’s considerable streaming video options. Check out our picks for the best TV shows on Amazon Prime right now.

1. Undone (2020-)

Rosa Salazar and Bob Odenkirk star in this trippy tale of a young woman named Alma who's struggling with her sister, mother, and boyfriend—and then her dead father begins appearing to her with a request to master time travel. Filmed with actors and then beautifully rotoscoped to lend it an air of animated surrealism, Undone will take you for a spin.

2. The Boys (2019-)

If you've had your fill of both superheroes and superhero meta-analysis, you'll still want to check out The Boys. Supernatural creator Eric Kripke's adaptation of the Garth Ennis comics imagines a world in which heroes are corporate tools, social media icons, and very, very morally bankrupt. The head of the vaunted Seven (think an ethically destitute Avengers) is Homelander, played with red-eyed menace by Antony Starr. When mortal Billy Butcher (Karl Urban) targets Homelander, the full scope of the hero industrial complex is revealed. The first three episodes of season 2 hit Prime on September 4, with new episodes being released weekly.

3. Fleabag (2016-2019)

Phoebe Waller-Bridge created and stars as the title character, a downtrodden Londoner with a too-perfect sister, a wicked soon-to-be stepmother (played by The Crown's Olivia Colman), and a lust for hedonism that masks the fallout of an unresolved emotional crisis. Like Ferris Bueller, Waller-Bridge interrupts the action to address the viewer directly, offering a biting running commentary on her own increasingly complicated state of affairs, including having the hots for a priest (Andrew Scott).

4. Hanna (2019-)

Based on the 2011 film, Hanna follows a 15-year-old girl (Esme Creed-Miles), who possesses combat skills and other traits that make her a person of interest to the CIA. To figure out where she's going, Hanna will first need to discover where she comes from.

5. Homecoming (2018-)

Julia Roberts stars in the first season of this critically-acclaimed drama, which sees her working at a facility that helps soldiers reacclimate to civilian life. Years later, an investigation into the program reveals some startling truths. Janelle Monáe headlines season two, which pushes the story in new directions.

6. Forever (2018)

The less you know going into this half-hour series, the better. Don't let anyone tell you anything beyond the fact that Fred Armisen and Maya Rudolph portray a couple in a floundering marriage. Where it goes from there is best left to discover on your own.

7. Goliath (2016-)

David E. Kelley (The Practice) heads up this series about a downtrodden lawyer (Billy Bob Thornton) who brushes up against his former law firm when he tackles an accidental death case that turns into a sprawling conspiracy. Thornton won a Golden Globe for his performance; William Hurt should've won something for his portrayal as the diabolical firm co-founder who keeps pulling Thornton's strings from afar. Seasons two and three up the ante, with the latter co-starring Dennis Quaid as evil California farmer Wade Blackwood. A fourth and final season is expected.

8. Bosch (2015-)

The laconic detective of the Michael Connelly novels gets a winning adaptation on Amazon, with Titus Welliver scouring the seedy side of Los Angeles as the titular homicide detective. Don't expect frills or explosions: Bosch is content to be a police procedural in the Dragnet mold, and it succeeds. The sixth season premiered in April.

9. The Americans (2013-2018)

If Stranger Things stimulated your appetite for 1980s paranoia, FX’s The Americans—about two Soviet spies (Matthew Rhys and Keri Russell) embedding themselves in suburban America—is bound to satisfy. As Russell and Rhys navigate a complex marriage that may be as phony as their birth certificates, their allegiance to Russia is constantly tested.

10. The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel (2017-)

Critically-acclaimed and showered with praise by Amazon viewers, this dramedy stars Rachel Brosnahan as Miriam "Midge" Maisel, a 1950s housewife who takes the bold (for that decade) step of getting into stand-up comedy. Brosnahan practically vibrates with energy, and so does the show, which captures period New York's burgeoning feminism. In Midge's orbit, Don Draper would have a heck of a time getting a word in.

11. Hannibal (2013-2015)

At first glance, Bryan Fuller’s (Pushing Daisies) take on the Thomas Harris novels featuring the gastronomic perversions of Hannibal Lecter seems like a can’t-win: How does anyone improve on The Silence of the Lambs and Anthony Hopkins’s portrayal of the diabolical psychiatrist? By not trying. Mads Mikkelsen’s Lecter is a study in composure; FBI agent Will Graham (Hugh Dancy) is the one who seems to be coming unhinged. While Fuller has time to explore the finer details of Harris’s novels, he also has the temerity to diverge from them. Hannibal’s brief three-season run is a tragedy, but what’s here is appetizing.

12. Luther (2010-)

Idris Elba stars in this BBC drama as DCI cop John Luther, a temperamental but dogged investigator who runs afoul of some of the UK's most wanted criminals. Ruth Wilson co-stars as Alice Morgan, a charmingly psychotic foil-turned-friend. Amazon has all five seasons, including the most recent season that premiered in 2019.

This story has been updated.