What You Should Know About Necrotizing Fasciitis, the 'Flesh-Eating' Infection

DragonImages/iStock via Getty Images
DragonImages/iStock via Getty Images

You’ve likely stumbled across one of several recent news stories describing cases of necrotizing fasciitis, or “flesh-eating bacteria.” The condition can follow exposure to certain bacteria in public beaches, pools, or rivers. This July, a man in Okaloosa County, Florida with a compromised immune system died after going into local waters. Just two weeks before, a 12-year-old girl was diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis after scraping her foot in Pompano Beach, Florida. The stories and their disturbing imagery spread on social media, inviting questions over the condition and how it can be avoided.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, necrotizing fasciitis can be caused by different strains of bacteria, with group A Streptococcus (strep) being the most common. When group A strep enters the body through a break in the skin like a cut or burn, a serious and rapidly spreading infection can develop. People will have a high fever, severe pain at the site of exposure, and eventual tissue destruction, which gives the condition its name. Necrotizing is to cause the death of tissue, while fasciitis is inflammation of the fascia, or tissue under the skin.

Because necrotizing fasciitis spreads so quickly, it’s crucial for people to seek medical attention immediately if they see early symptoms: rapid swelling and redness that spreads from a cut or burn, fever, and severe pain. Doctors can diagnose the infection using tissue biopsies, blood work, or imaging of the infected site, though they’ll almost always initiate treatment immediately. IV antibiotics, surgery to excise dead tissue, and blood transfusions are all used in an attempt to resolve the infection.

Even with care, necrotizing fasciitis can lead to complications like organ failure or sepsis. An estimated one in three people who are diagnosed with the condition die.

Fortunately, the condition is extremely rare in the United States, with an estimated 700 to 1200 cases confirmed each year. The CDC acknowledges, however, that the number is likely an low estimate.

Because group A strep can be found in water, the CDC advises people to avoid going into public waters with any kind of open wound. This applies to both public beaches and rivers as well as swimming pools or hot tubs. Chlorination is no guarantee against group A strep. Any cut or other wound should always be cleaned with soap and water. It’s especially important that people with compromised immune systems from illness, diabetes, cancer, or another conditions be exceedingly careful.

Rising ocean temperatures may make necrotizing fasciitis more common, unfortunately. A recent study in the Annals of Internal Medicine suggested that warmer water temperatures in Delaware Bay has allowed another kind of bacteria, Vibrio vulnificus, to flourish, resulting in five cases of necrotizing fasciitis in 2017 and 2018. Previously, only one case had been confirmed since 2008. Florida is also known to harbor group A strep in seawater.

But, owing to its rarity, necrotizing fasciitis should not overly concern people with healthy immune systems and unbroken skin. If you suffer a cut with a reddened area accompanied by severe pain and fever, however, seek medical evaluation right away.

This $49 Video Game Design Course Will Teach You Everything From Coding to Digital Art Skills

EvgeniyShkolenko/iStock via Getty Images
EvgeniyShkolenko/iStock via Getty Images

If you spend the bulk of your free time playing video games and want to elevate your hobby into a career, you can take advantage of the School of Game Design’s lifetime membership, which is currently on sale for just $49. You can jump into your education as a beginner, or at any other skill level, to learn what you need to know about game development, design, coding, and artistry skills.

Gaming is a competitive industry, and understanding just programming or just artistry isn’t enough to land a job. The School of Game Design’s lifetime membership is set up to educate you in both fields so your resume and work can stand out.

The lifetime membership that’s currently discounted is intended to allow you to learn at your own pace so you don’t burn out, which would be pretty difficult to do because the lessons have you building advanced games in just your first few hours of learning. The remote classes will train you with step-by-step, hands-on projects that more than 50,000 other students around the world can vouch for.

Once you’ve nailed the basics, the lifetime membership provides unlimited access to thousands of dollars' worth of royalty-free game art and textures to use in your 2D or 3D designs. Support from instructors and professionals with over 16 years of game industry experience will guide you from start to finish, where you’ll be equipped to land a job doing something you truly love.

Earn money doing what you love with an education from the School of Game Design’s lifetime membership, currently discounted at $49.

 

School of Game Design: Lifetime Membership - $49

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The Right Way to Clean Your Face Mask

Properly cleaning your face mask is important to keep it free of infectious material.
Properly cleaning your face mask is important to keep it free of infectious material.
mikography/iStock via Getty Images

In an effort to slow the transmission of coronavirus in public settings, health officials are advising that people unable to practice social distancing wear a cloth face mask. While not as effective at filtering respiratory droplets as medical-grade masks, cloth masks are still recommended as a practical preventative step.

Like all apparel, masks get dirty. They absorb sweat and germs, and they need to be cleaned. But how?

According to National Geographic, the best way to clean a cloth face mask is to take the same approach as the rest of your laundry—toss it in the washer. Laundry detergent is effective against coronavirus because the pathogen is encased in a layer of oily lipids and proteins. Detergents and hand soaps contain surfactants, which reduce the surface tension of the fatty layer. The surfactant molecule is attracted to oil and grease on one end and water on the other. The end that disrupts the oil bursts the coronavirus envelope apart. Tiny pods of surfactant called micelles trap and wash the remnants away. It’s this activity, not the water temperature, that kills the virus, though using a higher dryer temperature can destroy most microorganisms that might be lingering.

Bear in mind there’s a recommended way to take off your mask. Make sure your hands are clean, then pull it off using the straps behind your ears. This avoids contaminating the mask—and your face—with any pathogens that might be on your hands.

Medical-grade masks are trickier, as they’re intended to be used only once and can’t stand up to a wash cycle. If you have an N95 or paper mask, you can set it aside for several days, at which point the virus is likely to become inactive. But keep in mind that health officials still aren’t entirely sure how long coronavirus can persist on surfaces, and it’s possible for a mask to collect particles over time, increasing the viral load.

But what about the rest of your clothes? Experts say not to worry so much about disrobing the minute you get home. The coronavirus likes moisture and dries out quickly on fabrics. You need to be careful with the material covering your face, but the rest of your outfit can wait until your regularly scheduled laundry appointment.

[h/t National Geographic]