11 Untranslatable Words for Happiness From Around the World

CarlosDavid.org/iStock via Getty Images
CarlosDavid.org/iStock via Getty Images

You know that feeling you get when you listen to your favorite song? Or the feeling you get when somebody cancels a meeting? You’d probably categorize both as happiness, but they’re not exactly the same emotion. And, while there are plenty of English synonyms for happiness—such as joy, pleasure, cheer, glee, contentment—none of them really capture either feeling with much precision.

In his new book, Happiness—Found in Translation, psychologist Tim Lomas creates a road map for identifying various types of happiness, filled with words from other languages that don’t necessarily have English equivalents. In addition to expanding your mental lexicon with beautiful vocabulary, Lomas argues that learning words to describe different feelings can actually magnify the feelings themselves. “Generally, the more awareness and understanding we have of our emotional lives, the greater our well-being,” he writes.

Happiness Found in Translation by Tim Lomas book cover image
Amazon

Expand your emotional literacy with 11 of our favorite happiness terms below, complemented by illustrations from Annika Huett.

1. Shinrin-yoku (Japanese)

Happiness Found in Translation - Shinrin-yoku
Annika Huett

“Forest-bathing.”

Going for a walk in the woods can sometimes clear your mind just as well as a good meditation session. There’s no English term to capture the restorative effect of immersing yourself in nature, but the Japanese call it shinrin-yoku.

2. Charmolypi (Greek)

“Sweet, joy-making sorrow.”

The best word we have to describe how you feel while celebrating the life of a loved one who recently died or waving goodbye to your toddler on their first day of school is probably bittersweet, but that doesn’t convey the depth of that peculiar happy-sad emotion quite like charmolypi does.

3. Fjaka (Croatian)

Happiness Found in Translation - Fjaka
Annika Huett

“The sweetness of doing nothing.”

In a society that champions the ability to multitask above all else, not trying to check the next item off your to-do list can seem overindulgent or even counterproductive. But if you do manage to surrender your whole mind and body to not doing anything at all, it can feel almost euphoric. Croatians call this all-encompassing relaxation fjaka.

4. Pretoogjes (Dutch)

“Fun eyes.”

Have you ever met someone whose expression made you feel like you were in on a joke, without even knowing what the joke was? You might say they had a twinkle in their eye, which the Dutch call pretoogjes, or “fun eyes.”

5. Sólarfrí (Icelandic)

Happiness Found in Translation - Solarfri
Annika Huett

“Sun holiday.”

In Iceland, employees are sometimes granted an unexpected day off to enjoy a warm, sunny day. Though sun holidays might be uncommon in the U.S., we’re well-acquainted with the nameless joy of unexpected freedom—many people experience it when their social plans get canceled.

6. Tarab (Arabic)

Happiness Found in Translation - Tarab
Annika Huett

“Musically induced ecstasy or enchantment.”

Though the specific songs, emotional reactions, and reasons behind those reactions may vary from person to person, being moved by music is a universal experience—even babies sometimes cry when they hear certain songs. In Arabic, this sense of losing yourself in the music is called tarab.

7. Sprezzatura (Italian)

“Nonchalant effortlessness.”

Often, as in the case of a ballerina’s grand jeté or Johnny Depp’s unruly lock of hair in 1990’s Cry-Baby, seemingly effortless grace is only achieved by years of practice (or gobs of hair gel). The ability to make something look so beautifully careless through careful study is known as sprezzatura in Italy.

8. Mamihlapinatapai (Yagán)

Happiness Found in Translation - Mamihlapinatapai
Annika Huett

“A look between people that expresses unspoken but mutual desire.”

A glance exchanged between two people who share a desire but are each hoping the other will make the first move is so full of nuance and complexity that we unsurprisingly haven’t come up with an English word to describe it. The Yagán people of Tierra del Fuego in Argentina and Chile did not have a similar issue—they named it mamihlapinatapai.

9. Etterpåklokskap (Norwegian)

“After wisdom.”

Mistakes, however dumb they may make us feel in the moment, are one of the best ways to learn and grow. Etterpåklokskap perfectly describes the grounded, enlightened feeling you get when you know exactly how to handle a situation because you’ve seen it (and screwed it up) before.

10. Engelengeduld (Dutch)

Happiness Found in Translation - Engelengeduld
Annika Huett

“Angelic patience.”

The saint-like grace with which mothers react to just about everything that their kids do, from spitting up on their new blouses to throwing tornado-level temper tantrums in supermarkets, definitely deserves a special term. The Dutch call it engelengeduld.

11. Orka (Swedish)

Happiness Found in Translation - Orka
Annika Huett

“Requisite energy for a task.”

Completing a task isn’t always just about having enough physical energy for it—you also have to care enough to actually expend that energy. You might have orka to throw a surprise birthday party for your best friend, but you might not have orka to study for a quiz that probably won’t affect your final grade.

Reprinted with permission from TarcherPerigee. Get a copy of Happiness—Lost in Translation for $13 from Amazon.

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Can You Guess the Element From the Meaning Behind Its Name?

The 100 Most Popular Baby Names of the Decade

Silk-stocking/iStock via Getty Images
Silk-stocking/iStock via Getty Images

Every decade has its own baby name trends. Thanks to recent data from the Social Security Administration, we now know the most popular baby names of the 2010s (or at least from 2010 to 2018, the latest year analyzed).

The 2010s saw a rise in the number of babies with gender-neutral names (like Cameron, Jordan, and Avery). That trend could be due in part to rising awareness of gender fluidity, although some parents state other reasons for choosing unisex names.

“Whether we like it or not, names that skew a little masculine, or less feminine, are perceived as stronger, and I wanted that for my girls,” San Francisco resident Kirsten Hammann told the Associated Press.

Parents are also newly into vowels, possibly because names with roughly one vowel per consonant (like Emma, Noah, and Elijah) are more “liquid sounding,” baby-naming expert Laura Wattenberg told The Atlantic. Baby names are also trending shorter than they were in the 1990s and 2000s.

One trend that’s been consistent throughout the 21st century as a whole: Parents are resistant to following conventional naming trends. Modern parents are far more likely to opt for unique baby names than for traditionally popular names. In the 1950s, more than 30 percent of boys born in the United States received a top 10 name, San Diego State University psychologist Jean Twenge and colleagues wrote in 2010. In 2007, less than 10 percent of boys had a top 10 name. Girls are even less likely to have a common name—25 percent of girls born in the 1950s had a top 10 name, while less than 8 percent of girls born in 2007 had a highly popular name.

That trend seems to have been even more pronounced this decade. According to the Social Security Administration’s data, more than 163,000 baby boys born between 2010 and 2018 were given the name Noah (the most popular male name of the decade). In the 2000s, about 274,000 boys were named Jacob, and more than 462,000 boys born in the 1990s were named Michael.

“The most compelling explanation left is this idea that parents are much more focused on their children standing out,” Dr. Twenge told Live Science in 2010. “There’s been this cultural shift toward focusing on the individual, toward standing out and being unique as opposed to fitting in with the group and following the rules.”

Below, you’ll find the list of the 100 most popular baby names of the decade. Want to get a head start on figuring out what names will be popular in the 2020s? Check out this list.

  1. Emma
  1. Sophia
  1. Olivia
  1. Noah
  1. Isabella
  1. Liam
  1. Jacob
  1. Mason
  1. William
  1. Ava
  1. Ethan
  1. Michael
  1. Alexander
  1. James
  1. Elijah
  1. Daniel
  1. Benjamin
  1. Aiden
  1. Jayden
  1. Mia
  1. Logan
  1. Matthew
  1. Abigail
  1. Emily
  1. David
  1. Joseph
  1. Lucas
  1. Jackson
  1. Anthony
  1. Joshua
  1. Samuel
  1. Andrew
  1. Gabriel
  1. Christopher
  1. John
  1. Madison
  1. Charlotte
  1. Dylan
  1. Carter
  1. Isaac
  1. Elizabeth
  1. Ryan
  1. Luke
  1. Oliver
  1. Nathan
  1. Henry
  1. Owen
  1. Amelia
  1. Caleb
  1. Wyatt
  1. Chloe
  1. Christian
  1. Ella
  1. Sebastian
  1. Evelyn
  1. Jack
  1. Avery
  1. Sofia
  1. Harper
  1. Jonathan
  1. Landon
  1. Julian
  1. Isaiah
  1. Hunter
  1. Levi
  1. Grace
  1. Addison
  1. Aaron
  1. Victoria
  1. Eli
  1. Charles
  1. Natalie
  1. Thomas
  1. Connor
  1. Lily
  1. Brayden
  1. Nicholas
  1. Jaxon
  1. Jeremiah
  1. Aubrey
  1. Cameron
  1. Evan
  1. Adrian
  1. Jordan
  1. Lillian
  1. Gavin
  1. Zoey
  1. Hannah
  1. Grayson
  1. Angel
  1. Robert
  1. Layla
  1. Tyler
  1. Josiah
  1. Brooklyn
  1. Austin
  1. Samantha
  1. Zoe
  1. Colton
  1. Brandon

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