What Are Those Squiggles of Tar You See on Roads?

Harry Wedzinga/iStock via Getty Images
Harry Wedzinga/iStock via Getty Images

Driving through towns can provoke a series of questions. Why is this person going so slowly? Does anyone own that dog? What are those brightly colored balls doing on those power lines? And why do roads appear to be covered in squiggles of tar?

The arterial lines are a common sight on paved roadways, spreading indiscriminately through the lanes. They’re part of the seemingly endless cycle of keeping roads in operable shape.

The tar (actually a polymer mix) is applied to asphalt that has developed cracks due to normal wear and tear from traffic. Sometimes this is due to the volume of vehicles passing over roads. Other times, seasonal weather changes can cause the pavement to contract. Different kinds of cracking can occur, from fatigue cracking—which typically requires a comprehensive resurfacing—to reflection cracking that happens as a result of the concrete and asphalt layers shifting. Edge cracking is the wear you see along the margins of the road.

The filler is typically the most effective and quickest method of resolving the cracks before they become a road hazard—costing about $2500 per mile, compared to $60,000 per mile for a brand-new surface.

While halting a massive crack in its tracks is fine for cars, motorcycles are another story. Because the squiggles create a slightly raised bump, two-wheeled vehicles need to be careful about running over them. Bikers have a derisive term for the patch jobs: tar snake.

In addition to changing the surface, the mix can become slick in bad weather, leading motorcyclists to lose control of their bikes. They can also allow for foreign objects to “sink” into their pliable material, creating further hazards. It’s advisable for bike enthusiasts to slow down when they see the lines coming up in their path.

The tar squiggles are different from the black rubber tubes you often see on roadways, which are used by officials to measure traffic.

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What Happened to the Physical Copy of Martin Luther King's 'I Have a Dream' Speech?

AFP, Getty Images
AFP, Getty Images

On August 28, 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. stood on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial and gave a speech for the ages, delivering the oratorical masterpiece "I Have a Dream" to nearly 250,000 people.

When he was done, King stepped away from the podium, folded his speech, and found himself standing in front of George Raveling, a former Villanova basketball player who, along with his friend Warren Wilson, had been asked to provide extra security around Dr. King while he was speaking. "We were both tall, gangly guys," Raveling told TIME in 2003. "We didn't know what we were doing but we certainly made for a good appearance."

Moved by the speech, Raveling saw the folded papers in King’s hands and asked if he could have them. King gave the young volunteer the speech without hesitation, and that was that.

“At no time do I remember thinking, ‘Wow, we got this historic document,’” Raveling told Sports Illustrated in 2015. Not realizing he was holding what would become an important piece of history in his hands, Raveling went home and stuck the three sheets of paper into a Harry Truman biography for safekeeping. They sat there for nearly two decades while Raveling developed an impressive career coaching NCAA men’s basketball.

In 1984, he had recently taken over as the head coach at the University of Iowa and was chatting with Bob Denney of the Cedar Rapids Gazette when Denney brought up the March on Washington. That's when Raveling dropped the bomb: “You know, I’ve got a copy of that speech," he said, and dug it out of the Truman book. After writing an article about Raveling's connection, the reporter had the speech professionally framed for the coach.

Though he displayed the framed speech in his house for a few years, Raveling began to realize the value of the piece and moved it to a bank vault in Los Angeles. Though he has received offers for King’s speech—one collector wanted to purchase the speech for $3 million in 2014—Raveling has turned them all down. He has been in talks with various museums and universities and hopes to put the speech on display in the future, but for now, he cherishes having it in his possession.

“That to me is something I’ll always be able to look back and say I was there,” Raveling said in the original Cedar Rapids Gazette article. “And not only out there in that arena of people, but to be within touching distance of him. That’s like when you’re 80 or 90 years old you can look back and say ‘I was in touching distance of Abraham Lincoln when he made the Gettysburg Address.’"

“I have no idea why I even asked him for the speech,” Raveling, now CEO of Coaching for Success, has said. “But I’m sure glad that I did.”

In What Field Was Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. a Doctor?

Express Newspapers/Getty Images
Express Newspapers/Getty Images

Martin Luther King Jr. earned a doctorate in systematic theology from Boston University in 1955. He’d previously earned a Bachelor of Arts from Morehouse College and a Bachelor of Divinity from Crozer Theological Seminary. His dissertation, “A Comparison of the Conception of God in the Thinking of Paul Tillich and Henry Nelson Wieman,” examined the two religious philosophers’ views of God in comparison to each other, and to King’s own concept of a "knowable and personal" God.

In 1989, some three decades after King had earned his doctorate, archivists working with The Martin Luther King Papers Project discovered that King’s dissertation suffered from what they called a “problematic use of sources.” King, they learned, had taken a large amount of material verbatim from other scholars and sources and used it in his work without full or proper attribution, and sometimes no attribution at all.

In 1991, a Boston University investigatory committee concluded that King had indeed plagiarized parts of his dissertation, but found that it was “impractical to reach, on the available evidence, any conclusions about Dr. King's reasons for failing to attribute some, but not all, of his sources.” That is, it could have been anything from malicious intent to simple forgetfulness—no one can determine for sure today. They did not recommend a posthumous revocation of his degree, but instead suggested that a letter be attached to the dissertation in the university library noting the passages lacked quotations and citations.

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