21 Misconceptions About Animals

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momnoi/iStock via Getty Images Plus

From the wide-held belief that dogs see in black and white to the common misunderstanding that opossums hang from their tails, there are a lot of false facts out there about animals. We're getting to the bottom of some common misconceptions in this article, adapted from an episode of The List Show on YouTube.

1. Misconception: Owls can spin their heads 360 degrees.

An owl sitting in a tree.
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According to the International Owl Center, it’s physically impossible for an owl looking straight ahead to turn its head 360 degrees and look forward again. Owls are limited to turning their heads 270 degrees in one direction. And because they can turn 270 degrees to the right and left, they have a 540-degree range of motion, which makes the 140-degree human range of motion—a mere 70 degrees in either direction—seem pretty puny.

2. Misconception: Giant pandas dislike sex.

A panda eating bamboo.
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It's a bit of a misconception that giant pandas dislike sex. The truth is that in their natural habitats, pandas don’t have a problem with mating. In fact, a pair might even have sex more than 40 times in just a few hours. The main issue is breeding in captivity. Female pandas aren’t getting as many choices as they’d like, and breeders tend to select mates for them based on genetic qualities rather than actual interest. Additionally, female pandas have a small window to get pregnant: Once a year, they’re fertile for between 36 and 40 hours. Scientists have tried a number of things to assist captive pandas get it on, even resorting to panda porn.

3. Misconception: Penguins are monogamous and mate for life.

Two penguins with their baby.
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Penguins aren’t monogamous, despite popular belief. In fact, 85 percent of Emperor Penguins switch partners each breeding season while around 71 percent of king penguins do the same. And according to a study of 19 Gentoo penguins, they act monogamous, but the DNA of their offspring reveals that they cheat on their partners along with one-third of female Humboldt penguins.

4. Misconception: Lobsters are monogamous.

A lobster under a rock.
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Lobsters aren't monogamous, despite what the great Phoebe Buffay from Friends once suggested.

A female lobster spends a couple weeks with a given partner, but abandons him after that (and maybe even earlier if he can’t fertilize all her eggs). And fun fact: Lobsters pee out of their faces, which is part of their mating ritual. The female pees into the male’s shelter in order to seduce him.

5. Misconception: Anteaters eat ants through their nose.

An anteater walking around.
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It’s a myth that an anteater will consume ants through its nose. Instead, anteaters use their claws to rip open anthills and then use their long tongues to eat the insects. Without teeth, they just swallow up to 20,000 ants whole each day.

6. Misconception: Tyrannosaurus rex had bad vision.

A T-rex running around, they probably had better vision then we thought.
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There are a couple of Tyrannosaurus rex misconceptions that Jurassic Park had a hand in perpetuating, like that they couldn’t see very well. In fact, one researcher at the University of Oregon determined that the T. rex may have had better depth perception than present day hawks and eagles. They also had a great sense of smell, so it wouldn’t have been hard for one to notice a person standing nearby.

7. Misconception: The T. rex could run fast.

A skeleton of a T-Rex.
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Paleontologists once believed that the T. rex was surprisingly fast and that they could possibly run up to 33 miles per hour. But, based on their structures, it’s now thought that moving faster than 12 miles per hour would have caused bone damage. However, this wasn’t very limiting because the T. rex was mostly hunting down dinosaurs that were slower than them.

8. Misconception: Vultures stalk living animals.

A vulture sitting in a tree, they tend to no where animals go to die.
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It’s not true that vultures stalk living animals that they know are about to die. In reality, they just have excellent senses, which helps them find food—which, in their case, is typically already-dead creatures. Turkey vultures have even been known to hang around leaked gas pipelines that contain chemicals that smell like decaying organic matter. Plus, vultures just know where animals tend to die, like places with limited rainfall, and they go there to find dead things.

9. Misconception: Camels store water in their humps.

A curious camel looking in the camera.
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It’s a misconception that camels store water in their humps. The humps actually contain fat, which camels can use for energy. The humps contain the equivalent of three weeks’ worth of food. The feature is also used for body temperature regulation.

However, it is true that camels can spend long periods of time between drinks of water. That water gets stored and processed in their bloodstream, kidneys, and intestines.

10. Misconception: Touching toads gives you warts.

A toad hanging out in the grass.
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It’s just an old wives’ tale that touching a toad will give you warts. And while these creatures look like they're covered in warts, those bumps are actually glands that help keep predators away by emitting toxins. Human warts happen when a person comes into contact with one of the hundred human papilloma virus subtypes.

11. Misconception: Hens don't have teeth.

A hen looking in the camera.
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You may have heard the idiom “rare as hen’s teeth,” but according to a study published in 2006, hens can grow teeth. Around 70-80 million years ago, birds had chompers. They went away, but the genes are still there—so scientists can make adjustments and reintroduce the teeth, which are even found in similar places to where mammals have them.

12. Misconception: All turkeys gobble.

Two turkeys walking in the woods.
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Not all turkeys gobble. It’s almost exclusively the males, or toms, that get their gobble on. They'll gobble to attract a hen, and have been known to do it from trees to be heard far and wide. But hens make noise too, just usually not gobbles. They can yelp, cackle, and whistle.

13. Misconception: Turkeys can't fly.

A group of turkeys in a field.
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Another turkey myth is that they can’t fly. They’re pretty much built to stay on the ground, but wild turkeys can take to the air. They usually don’t go further than 100 yards, but they can travel at 55mph. Domestic turkeys can't, though, because they’re bred with larger breasts.

14. Misconception: Only male dogs hump.

A group of puppies.
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It’s not true that only male dogs hump. Female dogs might hump other animals, humans, or random objects. Dogs do this for a multitude of reasons, including to show dominance, because of excitement or stress, or even just because they want attention. Experts say that spaying a female dog may lessen the behavior.

15. Misconception: Dogs are colorblind.

A dog with his or her head out the window.
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A second dog misconception is that they see in black and white. This has been a belief since the 1920s, but dogs can see yellow and blue, which makes them colorblind in the same way that some humans are colorblind. Their eyes have two types of color receptors, or cones, as opposed to the three that the average person does.

16. Misconception: Cats hate water and can't swim.

A cat going for a swim in a pool.
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The assumption that cats can't swim is usually based on the fact that domesticated house felines don’t like being in water. Experts believe that this aversion is probably because they’re used to staying away from natural elements and because they prefer to have all of their feet on the ground. But, pretty much every mammal, including cats, knows how to swim based on instinct. Apes seem to be the one exception to that rule.

17. Misconception: Touching a butterfly's wing causes it to lose its ability to fly.

A butterfly on a leaf.
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If you gently touch a butterfly’s wing, it won’t die or lose the ability to fly. Their wings have scales and when you touch them, some scales might shed off, but that happens naturally as well. In fact, their sheddable scales may be what can help them escape from spiderwebs.

18. Misconception: Wolves howl at the moon.

A wolf howling in the woods.
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It’s a myth that wolves howl at the moon. They do tend to howl at night, but that’s because that’s when they’re active. And they look up while doing it because it helps the sound travel. Other wolves can hear them from about six to seven miles away and that’s why they howl: to communicate. There’s even a specific sound a wolf will use when it has lost its pack.

19. Misconception: Wolf packs have an alpha leader.

A wolf pack traveling together.
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It's also a misconception that every pack has an alpha wolf. This myth is probably based on how the animals act in captivity. When wolves are put together, there’s more competition. But in the wild, on the other hand, wolves tend to stick with their families. So the elder family members naturally have higher status, but that isn’t too different from any animal family where the parent is the powerful member.

20. Misconception: Giraffes only sleep for 30 minutes.

A giraffe looking into the camera.
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It’s a popular internet misconception that giraffes only get 30 minutes of sleep every day. According to one study of seven captive giraffes, they spend about four-and-a-half-hours asleep, which isn’t unusual for animals that spend most of their active hours in the daylight. That study also found that giraffes typically laid down to sleep for less than 11 minutes at a time.

21. Misconception: Opossums hang from their tails.

An opossum hanging out in a tree.
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Virginia opossums don’t hang by their tails. In fact, once they’re fully grown, they can’t hang for more than a couple seconds because they’re too heavy to use their tails for support. In general, their tails are used for balance by holding onto tree branches during climbs. This isn’t necessarily true for other species of opossums, though—at least one wraps its tail around a branch and hangs upside-down to mate.

10 Products for a Better Night's Sleep

Amazon/Comfort Spaces
Amazon/Comfort Spaces

Getting a full eight hours of sleep can be tough these days. If you’re having trouble catching enough Zzzs, consider giving these highly rated and recommended products a try.

1. Everlasting Comfort Pure Memory Foam Knee Pillow; $25

Everlasting Comfort Knee Pillow
Everlasting Comfort/Amazon

For side sleepers, keeping the spine, hips, and legs aligned is key to a good night’s rest—and a pain-free morning after. Everlasting Comfort’s memory foam knee pillow is ergonomically designed to fit between the knees or thighs to ensure proper alignment. One simple but game-changing feature is the removable strap, which you can fasten around one leg; this keeps the pillow in place even as you roll at night, meaning you don’t have to wake up to adjust it (or pick it up from your floor). Reviewers call the pillow “life-changing” and “the best knee pillow I’ve found.” Plus, it comes with two pairs of ear plugs.

Buy it: Amazon

2. Letsfit White Noise Machine; $21

Letsfit White Noise Machine
Letsfit/Amazon

White noise machines: They’re not just for babies! This Letsfit model—which is rated 4.7 out of five with nearly 3500 reviews—has 14 potential sleep soundtracks, including three white noise tracks, to better block out everything from sirens to birds that chirp enthusiastically at dawn (although there’s also a birds track, if that’s your thing). It also has a timer function and a night light.

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3. ECLIPSE Blackout Curtains; $16

Eclipse Black Out Curtains
Eclipse/Amazon

According to the National Sleep Foundation, too much light in a room when you’re trying to snooze is a recipe for sleep disaster. These understated polyester curtains from ECLIPSE block 99 percent of light and reduce noise—plus, they’ll help you save on energy costs. "Our neighbor leaves their backyard light on all night with what I can only guess is the same kind of bulb they use on a train headlight. It shines across their yard, through ours, straight at our bedroom window," one Amazon reviewer who purchased the curtains in black wrote. "These drapes block the light completely."

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4. JALL Wake Up Light Sunrise Alarm Clock; $38

JALL Wake Up Light Sunrise Alarm Clock
JALL/Amazon

Being jarred awake by a blaring alarm clock can set the wrong mood for the rest of your day. Wake up in a more pleasant way with this clock, which gradually lights up between 10 percent and 100 percent in the 30 minutes before your alarm. You can choose between seven different colors and several natural sounds as well as a regular alarm beep, but why would you ever use that? “Since getting this clock my sleep has been much better,” one reviewer reported. “I wake up not feeling tired but refreshed.”

Buy it: Amazon

5. Philips SmartSleep Wake-Up Light; $200

Philips SmartSleep Wake-Up Light
Philips/Amazon

If you’re looking for an alarm clock with even more features, Philips’s SmartSleep Wake-Up Light is smartphone-enabled and equipped with an AmbiTrack sensor, which tracks things like bedroom temperature, humidity, and light levels, then gives recommendations for how you can get a better night’s rest.

Buy it: Amazon

6. Slumber Cloud Stratus Sheet Set; $159

Stratus sheets from Slumber Cloud.
Slumber Cloud

Being too hot or too cold can kill a good night’s sleep. The Good Housekeeping Institute rated these sheets—which are made with Outlast fibers engineered by NASA—as 2020’s best temperature-regulating sheets.

Buy it: SlumberCloud

7. Comfort Space Coolmax Sheet Set; $29-$40

Comfort Spaces Coolmax Sheets
Comfort Spaces/Amazon

If $159 sheets are out of your price range, the GHI recommends these sheets from Comfort Spaces, which are made with moisture-wicking Coolmax microfiber. Depending on the size you need, they range in price from $29 to $40.

Buy it: Amazon

8. Coop Home Goods Eden Memory Foam Pillow; $80

Coop Eden Pillow
Coop Home Goods/Amazon

This pillow—which has a 4.5-star rating on Amazon—is filled with memory foam scraps and microfiber, and comes with an extra half-pound of fill so you can add, or subtract, the amount in the pillow for ultimate comfort. As a bonus, the pillows are hypoallergenic, mite-resistant, and washable.

Buy it: Amazon

9. Baloo Weighted Blanket; $149-$169

Baloo Weighted Blanket
Baloo/Amazon

Though the science is still out on weighted blankets, some people swear by them. Wirecutter named this Baloo blanket the best, not in small part because, unlike many weighted blankets, it’s machine-washable and -dryable. It’s currently available in 12-pound ($149) twin size and 20-pound ($169) queen size. It’s rated 4.7 out of five stars on Amazon, with one reviewer reporting that “when it's spread out over you it just feels like a comfy, snuggly hug for your whole body … I've found it super relaxing for falling asleep the last few nights, and it looks nice on the end of the bed, too.” 

Buy it: Amazon 

10. Philips Smartsleep Snoring Relief Band; $200

Philips SmartSleep Snoring Relief Band
Philips/Amazon

Few things can disturb your slumber—and that of the ones you love—like loudly sawing logs. Philips’s Smartsleep Snoring Relief Band is designed for people who snore when they’re sleeping on their backs, and according to the company, 86 percent of people who used the band reported reduced snoring after a month. The device wraps around the torso and is equipped with a sensor that delivers vibrations if it detects you moving to sleep on your back; those vibrations stop when you roll onto your side. The next day, you can see how many hours you spent in bed, how many of those hours you spent on your back, and your response rate to the vibrations. The sensor has an algorithm that notes your response rate and tweaks the intensity of vibrations based on that. “This device works exactly as advertised,” one Amazon reviewer wrote. “I’d say it’s perfect.”

Buy it: Amazon

This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

10 Facts About Argentine Ants

A pile of genetically-related Argentine ants
A pile of genetically-related Argentine ants
Marc Matteo, Flickr // CC BY-NC 2.0

A supercolony of invasive Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) stretches for 560 miles beneath California, from San Diego to San Francisco. The billions of Argentine ants are unlike other ants in many ways—and they are virtually indestructible. Along with their supercolonies in Europe, Japan, and Australia, L. humile’s global domination is rivaled only by that of human beings. Here’s what you should know about these prolific pests.

1. Argentine ant colonies are ruled by hundreds of queens.

Most ant colonies revolve around a single queen. Growing much larger than the worker drones, she is programmed to mate as quickly as possible, then to leave her nest of origin and establish a new one. In some species, a single queen can lay millions of eggs in a lifetime, producing an army of worker drones and future queens who will go off to build their own nests. But unlike most ants, Argentines are polygynous: Each nest contains multiple queens. In some, they can form up to 30 percent of the population.

2. Argentine ants move their nests frequently.

Nest types vary from ant species to ant species, but those who live in soil commonly dig tunnels and chambers deep into the earth that will protect the colony throughout the life of the queen. L. humile, though, is transient and ever shifting. Argentine ants frequently pack up their eggs and move the entire colony, queen and all, to a new nest, even when there is no apparent threat. Biologist Deborah Gordon told Ars Technica that the ants typically have 20 to 30 shallow nests at any one time, which can be built up in a matter of just weeks.

3. Argentine ants traveled the U.S. before settling down in California.

Argentine ants arrived in the United States from Northern Argentina in the late 19th century, when the first recorded Argentine ant was found in Louisiana in 1891. Researchers believe that the ants hitched a ride to North America in Argentinian shipments of coffee or sugar off-loaded at the Port of New Orleans. From there, they traveled—most likely by train—across the South and into California. Enticed by the Mediterranean climate, one similar to that of its original home in South America, the ants set up shop. By 1907, they’d displaced local native ants and begun their first steps towards total soil domination along 560 miles of California coastline.

4. California’s Argentine ants are more laid-back than their South American cousins.

In side-by-side comparisons of Argentine ants from their South American homeland and California, researchers have found that those from the West Coast are far more mellow than those from Argentina. In studies, it was typical for two ants from different nests to fight when placed in the same vial in Argentina, but in California, ants from different nests rarely fought, even when they were collected from locations several hundred miles apart.

A DNA study of ants from both locations in 2000 revealed a stark difference. In the ants from Argentina, microsatellites—short, uniquely patterned DNA sequences passed down from generation to generation—had more than twice as much variation as the microsatellites of the Californian ants. When two individuals from different nests in California were placed together, they recognized one another as family. The ants from Argentina didn’t, making them more likely to display territorial aggression.

The difference is rooted in the genetic bottleneck the ants encountered on their arrival to the Golden State over a century ago. According to biologist Neil D. Tsutsui, who conducted the DNA study, the ants in California today are all descendants of that founding colony. “It would be as if all of the people in the United States were descended from the Pilgrims who came here in 1620,” he told the Stanford Report in 2004. Instead of competing with one another, generation after generation has worked together to take out native ants and build an immense California colony.

5. Argentine ants protect other insects in exchange for sweet, sweet honeydew.

Argentine ants
Two Argentine ants share a tiny blob of honeydew.
Davefoc, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 4.0

Argentine ants love to feed on sweet nectar, but flowers and suburban kitchens aren’t the only source of such desirable foodstuffs. Insects that feed on plant sap, like mealybugs, scales, and aphids, naturally excrete sugar-rich liquid “honeydew” from their butts. To secure a steady flow of the sticky-sweet substance, Argentine ants will fight off the predators of their insect chefs, including soldier beetles and midges. They’ll even relocate their honeydew producers to better food sources or microclimates to get the most they can out of their anal secretions.

6. The California Argetine ant supercolony is one-sixth the size of Southern Europe’s.

The California supercolony, which scientists have named the “Californian large,” is only the second-biggest conglomeration of Argentine ants in the world. The biggest colony is found along Southern Europe’s Mediterranean coast, where it stretches 3700 miles from northern Italy to the Atlantic coast of Spain. The ants, introduced around 80 years ago, now number in the billions. Smaller supercolonies also exist in Japan and Australia.

7. Argentine ants are second only to humans in their scale of world domination.

In 2009, researchers discovered that Argentine ants from three of the world’s largest supercolonies (Southern Europe, California, and Japan) are so closely related that they actually form a single mega-colony. The study, led by Eriki Sunamura from the University of Tokyo, found that when placed together, ants from the three supercolonies refused to fight. Instead, they rubbed antennae in greeting the way L. humile does when interacting with genetically-related individuals.

The researchers believe that the Argentine ant mega-colony isn’t just the largest insect colony ever identified; it rivals that of human colonization around the globe. Presenting their findings in the journal Insect Sociaux, they wrote, “the enormous extent of this population is paralleled only by human society.”

8. A mass execution of Argentine ant queens takes place every spring.

Each spring, just before mating season begins, worker ants go on a killing rampage and assassinate 90 percent of their queens. Entomologists aren’t sure exactly why the large-scale execution occurs, but one hypothesis, published in the Journal of Evolutionary Biology in 2001, suggests that it is a “spiteful behavior” to kill the queens that are less related, on average, to the workers.

In their study, researchers from the University of Lausanne hypothesized that Argentine ants are regularly separated from direct family members through free exchange among the nests. Before mating season begins each year, those that are genetically related band together to kill more distantly related queens. Doing so decreases the nest’s genetic diversity and allows it to be rebuilt with a queen who is directly related to the greatest majority of workers.

The study’s results were inconclusive and the question remained unanswered, yet researchers learned something unexpected in the process. Instead of finding genetic diversity among worker ants, those belonging to each nest were actually a homogenous population. Only the queens were genetic outliers with relatively few familial relationships in each nest.

9. Climate change is making Argentine ants more of a nuisance to humans.

Argentine ants thrive in a Mediterranean climate where winters are cool and wet and summers are warm and dry. When conditions are ideal, they largely keep to themselves, but when conditions are drought-like or extremely wet, the ants move indoors in search of more hospitable climes. Experts at survival, Argentine ants can find food or water that’s been left unguarded in just minutes.

With the climate crisis, conditions in California are becoming more extreme. Hot days, no longer relegated just to the summer months, are becoming more numerous and prolonged. Droughts are becoming more frequent. While these changes are unlikely to harm much of the California supercolony, they are likely to drive the residents of urban nests more frequently into people's homes, making the ants a major nuisance for residents from San Diego to San Francisco.

10. Argentine ants are almost impossible to eradicate.

Individual Argentine ants are easy enough to kill, but an Argentine ant colony is a different story. The California colony has no natural predators and, thanks to their high levels of cooperation and massive numbers, L. humile has effectively destroyed possible competitors and disrupted the ecological balance of native species in the process. Insecticides, which are unable to penetrate into the underground nests, aren’t particularly effective. And because the ants can pick up and move their entire nest so quickly, neither are household control measures such as ant bait. After just over a century in California, Argentine ants are now virtually invincible.