Why Do Some Vaccines Hurt More Than Others?

Whether you experience pain with a vaccine shot may depend on what type you're getting.
Whether you experience pain with a vaccine shot may depend on what type you're getting.
Gustavo Fring, Pexels // Public Domain

Whether you’re planning a trip abroad, have poked yourself with a dirty thorn, or want to prepare for flu season, sitting down for a vaccine shot is not usually a big deal. Barring any fear or apprehension about needles, it’s one quick alcohol swab, a jab into your deltoid, and a bandage.

Some people, however, report that some vaccine shots feel more like a harpoon, with pain upon injection and residual soreness. Does the level of discomfort have anything to do with the vaccine being administered, the patient, or the health care provider?

According to Nancy Messonnier, director of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, injection pain is a normal consequence of a shot designed to provoke an immune system response. Dr. Messonnier told The Wall Street Journal that inflammation around the injection site is an indication the vaccine is working.

When a vaccine is injected, antigens are introduced into the body. These proteins allow white blood cells to battle against viruses. When they’re jabbed into your arm, your body mounts a defense at the injection site, leading to inflammation.

Some vaccines tend to hurt a little more than others, like ones targeting hepatitis A and B and DTaP (for diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis). It’s not totally clear why, but it’s possible that additives designed to strengthen the immune system, like aluminum salts or monophosphoryl lipid A, are the culprit. “These are safe ingredients added to the vaccine specifically to create a stronger immune response,” Messonnier told the paper, adding that some people might be more sensitive to them than others.

These additives aren’t the only reason vaccines can sting. The pH level of the solution (which can be acidic), the volume, and the temperature can also affect whether there’s discomfort.

If you or your child are needle-averse, you can try distraction techniques like music, request a numbing cream, or take an over-the-counter pain reliever to combat any post-injection soreness.

Incidentally, the shot probably won’t hurt any more or less if it’s delivered into your buttocks, as was the practice at one time. While some vaccines work well in fatty tissue, like MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella, which gets directed to the fat near your triceps), many do not. And because flu vaccines are often administered in public places like pharmacies, it’s probably best that they stick to your upper extremities.

[h/t The Wall Street Journal]

Amazon's Under-the-Radar Coupon Page Features Deals on Home Goods, Electronics, and Groceries

Stock Catalog, Flickr // CC BY 2.0
Stock Catalog, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

Now that Prime Day is over, and with Black Friday and Cyber Monday still a few weeks away, online deals may seem harder to come by. And while it can be a hassle to scour the internet for promo codes, buy-one-get-one deals, and flash sales, Amazon actually has an extensive coupon page you might not know about that features deals to look through every day.

As pointed out by People, the coupon page breaks deals down by categories, like electronics, home & kitchen, and groceries (the coupons even work with SNAP benefits). Since most of the deals revolve around the essentials, it's easy to stock up on items like Cottonelle toilet paper, Tide Pods, Cascade dishwasher detergent, and a 50 pack of surgical masks whenever you're running low.

But the low prices don't just stop at necessities. If you’re looking for the best deal on headphones, all you have to do is go to the electronics coupon page and it will bring up a deal on these COWIN E7 PRO noise-canceling headphones, which are now $80, thanks to a $10 coupon you could have missed.

Alternatively, if you are looking for deals on specific brands, you can search for their coupons from the page. So if you've had your eye on the Homall S-Racer gaming chair, you’ll find there's currently a coupon that saves you 5 percent, thanks to a simple search.

To discover all the deals you have been missing out on, head over to the Amazon Coupons page.

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The Reason Supreme Court Justices Wear Black Robes

Judge Thomas Patrick Thornton (left) is sworn in as a federal judge by Judge Arthur F. Lederle (right) on February 15, 1949.
Judge Thomas Patrick Thornton (left) is sworn in as a federal judge by Judge Arthur F. Lederle (right) on February 15, 1949.

Professional attire can go a long way in communicating the level of respect you have for your occupation and the people around you. Lawyers don’t show up for court in shorts and politicians don’t often address crowds in sleeveless T-shirts.

So it stands to reason that the highest court in the country should have a dress code that reflects the gravity of their business, which is why most judges, including judges on the Supreme Court, are almost always bedecked in black robes. Why black?

As Reader's Digest reports, judges donning black robes is a tradition that goes back to judicial proceedings in European countries for centuries prior to the initial sitting of the U.S. Supreme Court in 1790. Despite that, there’s no record of whether the Justices went for a black ensemble. That wasn’t officially recorded until 1792—but the robes weren’t a totally solid color. From 1792 to 1800, the robes were black with red and white accents on the sleeves and in the front.

It is likely that Chief Justice John Marshall, who joined as the fourth chief justice of the Supreme Court in 1801, led the shift to a black robe—most likely because a robe without distinctive markings reinforces the idea that justice is blind. The all-black tradition soon spread to other federal judges.

But according to former Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor, there is no written or official policy about the robes, and the Justices are free to source them however they like—typically from the same companies who outfit college graduates and choir singers. It’s certainly possible to break with tradition and arrive on the bench without one, as Justice Hugo Black did in 1969; Chief Justice William Rehnquist once added gold stripes to one of his sleeves. But for the most part, judges opt for basic black—a message that they’re ready to serve the law.

[h/t Reader’s Digest]