What Is One Hour Martinizing?

Voyou Desoeuvre, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0
Voyou Desoeuvre, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

"One Hour Martinizing" might sound like a quaint or obscure term these days, but 70 years ago, the new process completely changed the laundry industry.

Prior to 1949, dry cleaners collected their customers' garments at an urban storefront and then sent them out to a plant—usually located on the outskirts of town—to be laundered. At that time, the chemicals used in dry cleaning were dangerous and highly combustible, and fires and explosions at said plants were not unusual. For safety's sake, these cleaning centers were kept out of highly populated areas.

Then a chemist from Buffalo, New York, named Henry Martin came along. While studying perchloroethylene (also called PERC, or tetrachloroethylene)—a substance first synthesized in 1821 by Michael Faraday—Martin discovered that the nonflammable, colorless chemical could also be used for cleaning. He quickly developed a method for cleaning clothes using the solvent and presented it to dry cleaners in Manhattan. He named the process Martinizing, and thanks to the unprecedented safety it provided, cleaners could now do their dirty work on-premise. Since clothes no longer needed to be sent away, the extremely quick turn-around time—one hour, if necessary!—became a marketable upgrade.

Martin trademarked the name and began a series of One Hour Martinizing franchises (later called Martinizing Dry Cleaning). By 1975, there were some 5000 franchises advertising that they could make your clothes "Fresh as a Flower in Just One Hour!" Some of the vintage signs are still around, and the company still exists. The process of Martinizing, though, is what has made dry cleaning fast, affordable, and most of all, safe.

Why Does Santa Claus Give Coal to Bad Kids?

iStock/bonchan
iStock/bonchan

The tradition of giving misbehaving children lumps of fossil fuel predates the Santa we know, and is also associated with St. Nicholas, Sinterklaas, and Italy’s La Befana. Though there doesn't seem to be one specific legend or history about any of these figures that gives a concrete reason for doling out coal specifically, the common thread between all of them seems to be convenience.

Santa and La Befana both get into people’s homes via the fireplace chimney and leave gifts in stockings hung from the mantel. Sinterklaas’s controversial assistant, Black Pete, also comes down the chimney and places gifts in shoes left out near the fireplace. St. Nick used to come in the window, and then switched to the chimney when they became common in Europe. Like Sinterklaas, his presents are traditionally slipped into shoes sitting by the fire.

So, let’s step into the speculation zone: All of these characters are tied to the fireplace. When filling the stockings or the shoes, the holiday gift givers sometimes run into a kid who doesn’t deserve a present. So to send a message and encourage better behavior next year, they leave something less desirable than the usual toys, money, or candy—and the fireplace would seem to make an easy and obvious source of non-presents. All the individual would need to do is reach down into the fireplace and grab a lump of coal. (While many people think of fireplaces burning wood logs, coal-fired ones were very common during the 19th and early 20th centuries, which is when the American Santa mythos was being established.)

That said, with the exception of Santa, none of these characters limits himself to coal when it comes to bad kids. They’ve also been said to leave bundles of twigs, bags of salt, garlic, and onions, which suggests that they’re less reluctant than Santa to haul their bad kid gifts around all night in addition to the good presents.

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Why Are Poinsettias Associated with Christmas?

iStock
iStock

Certain Christmas traditions never seem to go out of style. Along with wreaths, gingerbread cookies, and reruns of A Christmas Story sits the poinsettia, a red-tinged leafy arrangement that’s become synonymous with the holiday. Upwards of 100 million of them are sold in the six weeks before December 25.

Why do people associate the potted plant with seasonal cheer? Chalk it up to some brilliant marketing.

In 1900, a German immigrant named Albert Ecke was planning to move his family to Fiji. Along the way, they became enamored of the beautiful sights found in Los Angeles—specifically, the wild-growing poinsettia, which was named after Joel Roberts Poinsett, the U.S.-Mexican ambassador who first brought it to the States in 1828. Ecke saw the appeal of the plant’s bright red leaves that blossomed in winter (it’s not actually a flower, despite the common assumption) and began marketing it from roadside stands to local growers as "the Christmas plant."

The response was so strong that poinsettias became the Ecke family business, with their crop making up more than 90 percent of all poinsettias sold throughout most of the 20th century: Ecke, his son Paul, and Paul’s son, Paul Jr., offered a unique single-stem arrangement that stood up to shipping, which their competitors couldn’t duplicate. When Paul III took over the business in the 1960s, he began sending arrangements to television networks for use during their holiday specials. In a priceless bit of advertising, stars like Ronald Reagan, Dinah Shore, and Bob Hope were sharing screen time with the plant, leading millions of Americans to associate it with the holiday.

While the Ecke single-stem secret was eventually cracked by other florists—it involved grafting two stems to make one—and their market share dwindled, their innovative marketing ensured that the poinsettia would forever be linked to Christmas.

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