Crows Form, Nurse, and Share Grudges Against People

Walter Siegmund via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY 2.5
Walter Siegmund via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY 2.5

Consider this a friendly reminder not to antagonize crows: According to a 2011 study in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, American crows remember the faces of people who wrong them, and enlist other birds to attack the offenders.

When it comes to intelligence, birds get no respect. For a long time, scientists assumed birds were stupid because their brains had significant differences from ours. But recent studies on bird brains and abilities are putting those fallacies in their place. Researchers have found sophisticated behavior in birds from finches and pigeons to Antarctic gulls. But there’s one group of birds that consistently amazes: crows and ravens.

Within the last 10 years we’ve learned that crows can make, store, and care for tools. They can count and exercise self-restraint. They can use bait to catch fish. They can certainly play. And, the authors of the Royal Proceedings study say, they can nurse some serious grudges.

Researchers at the University of Washington’s School of Forest Resources bought two masks that looked like human faces. A caveman-looking mask was designated the “dangerous” mask, while a Dick Cheney mask was “neutral.” They then visited wild crows at five sites around Seattle. At each site, the person wearing the caveman mask would approach the crows, trapped a few, banded their legs, and set them free—an experience the birds did not enjoy. As soon as the researcher let them go, the birds began yelling at their captor with a harsh, aggressive cry called “scolding.”

The sounds of conflict attracted more birds, which joined in scolding and attacking the researcher, even though they’d never met. “The mob of two to 15 birds hounds us, sometimes diving from the sky to within a few meters or less. This pursuit lasts about 100 meters (328 feet) as we walk away,” crow expert John Marzluff told Discovery News.

The Dick Cheney mask did not elicit a response.

Marzluff and his colleagues then traveled to other crow territories. The sight of the caveman mask caused an immediate ruckus among these crows—even though none of them had ever been caught or banded. Crows up to a mile away from the original site had heard about this no-good caveman guy, and they knew he was trouble when he walked in.

The grudge didn’t wear off, either. Marzluff said return trips in the caveman mask provoked the same hostile response, even five years later. He told Discovery News, "Individual crows that are adults can live 15-40 years in the wild (most die when young, but those that make it to adulthood can live a long time) and they probably remember important associations they have formed for much of their lives."

These associations aren't all negative. An 8-year-old girl, also in Seattle, made news last year when her family revealed that local crows had pretty much made her their queen.

This Course Will Teach You How to Play Guitar Like a Pro for $29

BartekSzewczyk/iStock via Getty Images
BartekSzewczyk/iStock via Getty Images

Be honest: You’ve watched a YouTube video or two in an attempt to learn how to play a song on the guitar. Whether it was through tabs or simply copying whatever you saw on the screen, the fun always ends when friends start throwing out requests for songs you have no idea how to play. So how about you actually learn how to play guitar for real this time?

It’s now possible to learn guitar from home with the Ultimate Beginner to Expert Guitar Lessons Bundle, which is currently on sale for $29. Grab that Gibson, Fender, or whatever you have handy, and learn to strum rhythms from scratch.

The strumming course will teach you how to count beats and rests to turn your hands and fingers into the perfect accompaniment for your own voice or other musicians. Then, you can take things a step further and learn advanced jamming and soloing to riff anytime, anywhere. This course will teach you to improvise across various chords and progressions so you can jump into any jam with something original. You’ll also have the chance to dive deep into the major guitar genres of bluegrass, blues, and jazz. Lessons in jam etiquette, genre history, and how to read music will separate you from a novice player.

This bundle also includes courses in ear training so you can properly identify any relative note, interval, or pitch. That way, you can play along with any song when it comes on, or even understand how to modify it into the key you’d prefer. And when the time comes to perform, be prepared with skilled hammer-ons, pull-offs, slides, bends, trills, vibrato, and fret-tapping. Not only will you learn the basic foundations of guitar, you’ll ultimately be able to develop your own style with the help of these lessons.

The Ultimate Beginner to Expert Guitar Lessons Bundle is discounted for a limited time. Act on this $29 offer now to work on those fingertip calluses and play like a pro.

 

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A Prehistoric Great White Shark Nursery Has Been Discovered in Chile

Great white sharks used prehistoric nurseries to protect their young.
Great white sharks used prehistoric nurseries to protect their young.
solarseven/iStock via Getty Images

Great white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) may be one of the most formidable and frightening apex predators on the planet today, but life for them isn’t as easy as horror movies would suggest. Due to a slow growth rate and the fact that they produce few offspring, the species is listed as vulnerable to extinction.

There is a way these sharks ensure survival, and that is by creating nurseries—a designated place where great white shark babies (called pups) are protected from other predators. Now, researchers at the University of Vienna and colleagues have discovered these nurseries occurred in prehistoric times.

In a study published in the journal Scientific Reports, Jamie A. Villafaña from the university’s Institute of Palaeontology describes a fossilized nursery found in Coquimbo, Chile. Researchers were examining a collection of fossilized great white shark teeth between 5 and 2 million years old along the Pacific coast of Chile and Peru when they noticed a disproportionate number of young shark teeth in Coquimbo. There was also a total lack of sexually mature animals' teeth, which suggests the site was used primarily by pups and juveniles as a nursery.

Though modern great whites are known to guard their young in designated areas, the researchers say this is the first example of a paleo-nursery. Because the climate was much warmer when the paleo-nursery was in use, the researchers think these protective environments can deepen our understanding of how great white sharks can survive global warming trends.