25 Things You Didn't Know About the World's Oceans

A Hawksbill sea turtle swimming in the ocean.
A Hawksbill sea turtle swimming in the ocean.
Mark Kolbe/Getty Images

In 2008, the United Nations recognized World Oceans Day on June 8 as a time to celebrate the immense bodies of water that cover roughly 70 percent of the Earth’s surface. The goal of the day is to promote conservation efforts and engage activists in preserving these five crucial areas—the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and Southern (Antarctic) Oceans—and their inhabitants.

If you don’t know much about the deep blue sea—like why it's not actually blue, for example—check out 25 facts we’ve culled about the world’s largest and most fascinating real estate.

1. The sun gives the ocean its blue tint.

One of the most indelible features of the ocean is the deep blue waters that continually churn, roll, and come in waves. The color is the result of the sun’s red and orange wavelengths being absorbed by the surface and its blue wavelengths penetrating deeper, giving way to a blue tint. And because those wavelengths can travel farther down, the ocean will tend to appear more blue the lower you go. Why isn't water in a glass blue when you're sitting outdoors? There aren't enough molecules to absorb the light.

2. The oceans keep the internet online.

If you could catch sight of the miles of cable criss-crossing the world’s oceans, it would look like a giant, submerged web. Communications companies maintain international connections by feeding cables down to (hopefully) flat surfaces on the ocean floor. Some require shark-proof layers to prevent predators from biting into your Netflix stream (although the danger of sharks has been vastly overhyped—human activity is a far bigger threat).

3. The deepest part of the ocean is really, really deep.

The Mariana Trench is considered to be the deepest part of the world’s oceans—and the deepest point on Earth. Inside the Trench is a valley known as Challenger Deep that extends roughly 7 miles (36,070 feet) below the surface. For comparison, the entirety of Mount Everest—at 29,029 feet—could easily be accommodated there. Until recently, crewed explorations hadn’t gone any farther than 35,797 feet below the surface, a record set by two oceanographers in 1960. In 2012, filmmaker James Cameron explored roughly the same depths in a solo mission. In 2019, Victor Vescovo made history by becoming the first person to reach the deepest part of the ocean.

4. Sounds can travel to the deepest explored areas of the ocean.

Researchers once lowered an underwater microphone called a hydrophone to almost the bottom of the Mariana Trench to see what sounds—if any—it might pick up. Fortunately, the immense pressure at those depths—about 8 tons per square inch—didn’t implode the equipment, allowing the scientists to discover sound from earthquakes, passing baleen whales, and other ambient noise was audible.

5. There are lakes and rivers beneath the surface of the ocean.

Some surfaces in the ocean feature sights that don’t seem to make any logical sense—rivers and lakes, some of them miles long, can stretch across the ground even though they’re submerged. How can a body of water exist in a body of water? Water from under the sea floor seeps up and dissolves salt layers, forming depressions. Because the water in the depression is denser than the water all around it, it settles into the depression and forms a distinct pool.

6. There are 20 million tons of untouchable gold in the ocean.

If you’re hoping to find a fortune in gold prospecting, don’t expect the ocean to cooperate. You may be able to plunder a shipwreck, but you won’t be able to collect much of the 20 million tons of gold estimated to exist in the water. That’s because it’s so diluted it’s measured in parts per trillion. One liter of seawater might net you a 13-billionth of a gram.

7. We know more about the ocean than you might expect.

You might see mentions that we’ve "mapped" more of Mars than we have the Earth’s oceans, but that’s not quite true. Oceanographers have been able to visualize almost 100 percent of the ocean floors, albeit in a resolution that makes it difficult to spot a lot of detail. In that sense, images of Mars and other planets have been able to offer more information because they’re not covered in water that can block radar. Although we haven't explored the vast majority of the oceans first-hand, technology has enabled us to have a rough idea of their layouts.

8. Earth’s biggest waterfall is in the Atlantic Ocean.

The Denmark Strait, a waterfall below the Atlantic Ocean, is the equivalent of 2000 of the world’s most notable waterfalls, with cascading liquid pouring 11,500 feet down. The Strait’s cold water on the eastern side is more dense than the warm fluid coming from the west. When the two waters mix, the colder supply sinks, creating a waterfall.

9. We know very little about most of the ocean’s marine life.

The frilled shark usually lurks within deeper parts of the ocean.Getty Images

Size and water pressure conspire to limit our exploration of the oceans, so much so that it’s estimated we’ve identified only one-third of the potential marine life lurking beneath the surface. It’s possible most of those are smaller organisms, but it’s likely that some whales and other mammal species have yet to be discovered. We’re making progress, though: An average of 2000 new species are described each year.

10. Ferdinand Magellan named the Pacific Ocean.

When Magellan crossed the Atlantic beginning in 1519, he eventually found his way to another body of water—what he dubbed the Pacific, or peaceful, ocean due to the calm surface. He didn’t know it at the time, but the Pacific would eventually be recognized as the largest ocean on the planet at 59 million square miles.

11. Earth’s most remote place is in the South Pacific.

Known as Point Nemo, the area is roughly 1000 equidistant miles away from the coasts of three neighboring islands. It’s so remote that astronauts are often closer to any theoretical occupants than anyone on dry land.

12. Most volcanic eruptions happen beneath the surface of the ocean.

Up to 80 percent of volcanic eruptions go unnoticed by land-dwellers. That’s because they’re erupting underwater. More than 1 million volcanoes—some extinct and some very active—spew molten hot lava beneath the surface of the ocean. Despite the heat, creatures can still be found near their superheated vents. Researchers believe these areas harbor several undiscovered species that are invulnerable to the harsh environment, which includes water temperatures up to 750°F.

13. There may be billions of dollars’ worth of treasure deep within the oceans.

It’s impossible to offer an accurate estimate of how many shipwrecks and accompanying treasures are lurking in the ocean, but a few people have made an honest effort of it. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) thinks a million sunken ships lurk in the dark; others peg the total value of the unrecovered treasures at $60 billion. So why don’t we hear more stories of watery grave-robbing? Because governments or private parties are likely to make a legal claim to those funds, making an expensive expedition for treasure a gamble at best.

14. The ocean keeps us breathing.

Forget all the beauty and wonder of the world’s oceans: At the bare minimum, they’re responsible for supplying us with oxygen. Oceans produce 70 percent of the oxygen supply in the atmosphere, thanks to marine plants releasing it as a byproduct of photosynthesis. One phytoplankton, Prochlorococcus, is estimated to be solely responsible for one in every five breaths a human will take.

15. “Dead zones” in the ocean can be barren of any life.

One reason pollution is such an issue for oceans: It can rob them of the oxygen needed to support life. When run-off from waste disposal gets into the water, it can feed an overabundance of algae, which then dies and sinks. As it decomposes, the algae consumes the available oxygen in the water. That creates hypoxic areas, or hot spots with a lack of oxygen. If fish and other marine life don’t find a new space to dwell in, they’re toast.

16. The fish in the ocean are eating a lot of plastic.

With over 7 million tons of plastic winding up in the ocean each year, it’s inevitable that a lot of it winds up as part of an unwelcome addition to a fish’s diet. For fish in the northern Pacific, researchers at the University of California, San Diego once estimated they swallow between 12,000 and 24,000 tons every year.

17. Keeping tropical pet fish may be harming the ocean.

A clownfish at home in the Maldives.Marco Prosch/Getty Images

Those aquariums in pet stores and dental offices may remind you of marine life, but they could also be having a negative impact on the environment. When tropical fish are caught, fishing crews use sodium cyanide to make them float out of the reef for easy scooping. While the hope is that it just stuns them, the residue of the chemical can bleach coral reefs and kill scores of other fish.

18. Tsunami waves can reach 100 feet tall ...

When waves reach shallow water near land, energy that would normally be dispersed goes up, elongating the wave. A 1958 earthquake and landslide in Alaska generated a tsunami 100 feet high and destroyed all vegetation up to 1720 feet, the largest in recorded history.

19. … but the biggest waves are under the surface of the ocean.

Called internal waves, these water walls have been found 3 miles below the surface. The waves are part of water layers with different densities and can reach heights of 800 feet before collapsing. Scientists believe these massive forces can help move heat and nutrients to other areas.

20. Humans are trying to make the ocean drinkable.

As most everyone knows, drinking salt water is perilous at best and deadly at worst. In a process called desalination, that salt is removed, leaving fresh water. But building facilities and the energy required to process water this way has traditionally been more expensive than using water from potable sources.

21. The bristlemouth is the most abundant vertebrate in the world.

Not familiar with this creature? If you saw one, you’d know. The bristlemouth is a fish a little smaller than the average human finger that has a mouth full of fangs and can glow in the dark. It’s also the most common vertebrate in the world. For comparison? Chickens could number as many as 24 billion on land, while bristlemouths are said to add up to the hundreds of trillions.

22. Giant kelp grows very quickly.

Little fish surround some giant kelp.Tom Thai, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

Giant kelp, or Macrocystis pyrifera, is a type of seaweed that experiences an astonishing growth spurt. To reach its usual height of 100 feet, the species can grow up to 2 feet in a single day.

23. Rubber ducks have helped shape our understanding of the ocean.

In 1992, a shipment of bath toys was headed from China to the U.S. when the cargo ship dropped a container. More than 28,000 rubber ducks—or duckies, depending on your preference—and other play-animals were dumped into the North Pacific Ocean. Oceanographers tracked where the ducks wound up to better understand the water currents, with some landing ashore in Europe and Hawaii. The duck sightings didn’t ease up until the mid-2000s.

24. Antarctic fish have natural antifreeze.

Curious how aquatic life can survive the temperatures at the poles? Antifreeze proteins in the fish prevent ice crystals from growing, preventing their blood from being overcome by the chill and allowing it to continue flowing.

25. Seashells don’t actually sound like the ocean.

Seashells have long been perceived as the iPods of the sea, tiny little devices that can mimic the static, hissing noise of the water. What they’re actually doing is acting as a resonator, or a cavity that allows sound to vibrate. By holding the shell up to your ear, you’re hearing the ambient noise around you amplified. All that whooshing air typically sounds a lot like the movement of cascading waves. If you can't make it to the beach, it might be the next best thing.

Take Advantage of Amazon's Early Black Friday Deals on Tech, Kitchen Appliances, and More

Amazon
Amazon

This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

Even though Black Friday is still a few days away, Amazon is offering early deals on kitchen appliances, tech, video games, and plenty more. We will keep updating this page as sales come in, but for now, here are the best Amazon Black Friday sales to check out.

Kitchen

Instant Pot/Amazon

- Instant Pot Duo Plus 9-in-115 Quart Electric Pressure Cooker; $90 (save $40) 

- Le Creuset Enameled Cast Iron Signature Sauteuse 3.5 Quarts; $180 (save $120)

- KitchenAid KSMSFTA Sifter with Scale Attachment; $95 (save $75) 

- Keurig K-Mini Coffee Maker; $60 (save $20)

- Cuisinart Bread Maker; $88 (save $97)

- Anova Culinary Sous Vide Precision Cooker; $139 (save $60)

- Aicook Juicer Machine; $35 (save $15)

- JoyJolt Double Wall Insulated Espresso Mugs - Set of Two; $14 (save $10) 

- Longzon Silicone Stretch Lids - Set of 14; $13 (save $14)

HadinEEon Milk Frother; $37 (save $33)

Home Appliances

Roomba/Amazon

- iRobot Roomba 675 Robot Vacuum with Wi-Fi Connectivity; $179 (save $101)

- Fairywill Electric Toothbrush with Four Brush Heads; $19 (save $9)

- ASAKUKI 500ml Premium Essential Oil Diffuser; $22 (save $4)

- Facebook Portal Smart Video Calling 10 inch Touch Screen Display with Alexa; $129 (save $50)

- Bissell air320 Smart Air Purifier with HEPA and Carbon Filters; $280 (save $50)

Oscillating Quiet Cooling Fan Tower; $59 (save $31) 

TaoTronics PTC 1500W Fast Quiet Heating Ceramic Tower; $55 (save $10)

Vitamix 068051 FoodCycler 2 Liter Capacity; $300 (save $100)

AmazonBasics 8-Sheet Home Office Shredder; $33 (save $7)

Ring Video Doorbell; $70 (save $30) 

Video games

Sony

- Marvel's Spider-Man: Game of The Year Edition for PlayStation 4; $20 (save $20)

- Marvel's Avengers; $27 (save $33)

- Minecraft Dungeons Hero Edition for Nintendo Switch; $20 (save $10)

- The Last of Us Part II for PlayStation 4; $30 (save $30)

- LEGO Harry Potter: Collection; $15 (save $15)

- Ghost of Tsushima; $40 (save $20)

BioShock: The Collection; $20 (save $30)

The Sims 4; $20 (save $20)

God of War for PlayStation 4; $10 (save $10)

Days Gone for PlayStation 4; $20 (save $6)

Luigi's Mansion 3 for Nintendo Switch; $40 (save $20)

Computers and tablets

Microsoft/Amazon

- Apple MacBook Air 13 inches with 256 GB; $899 (save $100)

- New Apple MacBook Pro 16 inches with 512 GB; $2149 (save $250) 

- Samsung Chromebook 4 Chrome OS 11.6 inches with 32 GB; $210 (save $20) 

- Microsoft Surface Laptop 3 with 13.5 inch Touch-Screen; $1200 (save $400)

- Lenovo ThinkPad T490 Laptop; $889 (save $111)

- Amazon Fire HD 10 Tablet (64GB); $120 (save $70)

- Amazon Fire HD 10 Kids Edition Tablet (32 GB); $130 (save $70)

- Samsung Galaxy Tab A 8 inches with 32 GB; $100 (save $50)

Apple iPad Mini (64 GB); $379 (save $20)

- Apple iMac 27 inches with 256 GB; $1649 (save $150)

- Vankyo MatrixPad S2 Tablet; $120 (save $10)

Tech, gadgets, and TVs

Apple/Amazon

- Apple Watch Series 3 with GPS; $179 (save $20) 

- SAMSUNG 75-inch Class Crystal 4K Smart TV; $998 (save $200)

- Apple AirPods Pro; $169 (save $50)

- Nixplay 2K Smart Digital Picture Frame 9.7 Inch Silver; $238 (save $92)

- All-New Amazon Echo Dot with Clock and Alexa (4th Gen); $39 (save $21)

- MACTREM LED Ring Light 6" with Tripod Stand; $16 (save $3)

- Anker Soundcore Upgraded Bluetooth Speaker; $22 (save $8)

- Amazon Fire TV Stick with Alexa Voice Remote; $28 (save $12)

Canon EOS M50 Mirrorless Camera with EF-M 15-45mm Lens; $549 (save $100)

DR. J Professional HI-04 Mini Projector; $93 (save $37)

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10 Reusable Gifts for Your Eco-Friendliest Friend

Disposable tea bags can't compete with this pla-tea-pus and his friends.
Disposable tea bags can't compete with this pla-tea-pus and his friends.
DecorChic/Amazon

This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

By this point, your eco-friendly pal probably has a reusable water bottle that accompanies them everywhere and some sturdy grocery totes that keep their plastic-bag count below par. Here are 10 other sustainable gift ideas that’ll help them in their conservation efforts.

1. Reusable Produce Bags; $13

No more staticky plastic bags.Naturally Sensible/Amazon

The complimentary plastic produce bags in grocery stores aren’t great, but neither is having all your spherical fruits and vegetables roll pell-mell down the checkout conveyor belt. Enter the perfect alternative: mesh bags that are nylon, lightweight, and even machine-washable.

Buy it: Amazon

2. Animal Tea Infusers; $16

Nothing like afternoon tea with your tiny animal friends.DecorChic/Amazon

Saying goodbye to disposable tea bags calls for a quality tea diffuser, and there’s really no reason why it shouldn’t be shaped like an adorable animal. This “ParTEA Pack” includes a hippo, platypus, otter, cat, and owl, which can all hang over the edge of a glass or mug. (In other words, you won’t have to fish them out with your fingers or dirty a spoon when your loose leaf is done steeping.)

Buy it: Amazon

3. Rocketbook Smart Notebook; $25

Typing your notes on a tablet or laptop might save trees, but it doesn’t quite capture the feeling of writing on paper with a regular pen. The Rocketbook, on the other hand, does. After you’re finished filling a page with sketches, musings, or whatever else, you scan it into the Rocketbook app with your smartphone, wipe it clean with the microfiber cloth, and start again. This one also comes with a compatible pen, but any PILOT FriXion pens will do.

Buy it: Amazon

4. Food Huggers; $13

"I'm a hugger!"Food Huggers/Amazon

It’s hard to compete with the convenience of plastic wrap or tin foil when it comes to covering the exposed end of a piece of produce or an open tin can—and keeping those leftovers in food storage containers can take up valuable space in the fridge. This set of five silicone Food Huggers stretch to fit over a wide range of circular goods, from a lidless jar to half a lemon.

Buy it: Amazon

5. Swiffer Mop Pads; $15

For floors that'll shine like the top of the Chrysler Building.Turbo Microfiber/Amazon

Swiffers may be much less unwieldy than regular mops, but the disposable pads present a problem to anyone who likes to keep their trash output to a minimum. These machine-washable pads fasten to the bottom of any Swiffer WetJet, and the thick microfiber will trap dirt and dust instead of pushing it into corners. Each pad lasts for at least 100 uses, so you’d be saving your eco-friendly friend quite a bit of money, too.

Buy it: Amazon

6. SodaStream for Sparkling Water; $69

A fondness for fizzy over flat water doesn’t have to mean buying it bottled. Not only does the SodaStream let you make seltzer at home, but it’s also small enough that it won’t take up too much precious counter space. SodaStream also sells flavor drops to give your home-brewed beverage even more flair—this pack from Amazon ($25) includes mango, orange, raspberry, lemon, and lime.

Buy it: Amazon

7. Washable Lint Roller; $13

Roller dirty.iLifeTech/Amazon

There’s a good chance that anyone with a pet (or just an intense dislike for lint) has lint-rolled their way through countless sticky sheets. iLifeTech’s reusable roller boasts “the power of glue,” which doesn’t wear off even after you’ve washed it. Each one also comes with a 3-inch travel-sized version, so you can stay fuzz-free on the go.

Buy it: Amazon

8. Countertop Compost Bin; $23

Like a tiny Tin Man for your table.Epica/Amazon

Even if you keep a compost pile in your own backyard, it doesn’t make sense to dash outside every time you need to dump a food scrap. A countertop compost bin can come in handy, especially if it kills odors and blends in with your decor. This 1.3-gallon pail does both. It’s made of stainless steel—which matches just about everything—and contains an activated-charcoal filter that prevents rancid peels and juices from stinking up your kitchen.

Buy it: Amazon

9. Fabric-Softening Dryer Balls; $17

Also great for learning how to juggle without breaking anything.Smart Sheep

Nobody likes starchy, scratchy clothes, but some people might like blowing through bottles of fabric softener and boxes of dryer sheets even less. Smart Sheep is here to offer a solution: wool dryer balls. Not only do they last for more than 1000 loads, they also dry your laundry faster. And since they don’t contain any chemicals, fragrances, or synthetic materials, they’re a doubly great option for people with allergies and/or sensitive skin.

Buy it: Amazon

10. Rechargeable Batteries; $40

Say goodbye to loose batteries in your junk drawer.eneloop/Amazon

While plenty of devices are rechargeable themselves, others still require batteries to buzz, whir, and change the TV channel—so it’s good to have some rechargeable batteries on hand. In addition to AA batteries, AAA batteries, and a charger, this case from Panasonic comes with tiny canisters that function as C and D batteries when you slip the smaller batteries into them.

Buy it: Amazon

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