Why Meteorological and Astronomical Seasons Don’t Line Up

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iStock

For many Americans, summer essentially starts after Memorial Day weekend. The school year's wrapping up, offices seem emptier, and jorts re-emerge from the depths of our closets. Yet the calendar says differently.

Technically, summer doesn’t start until after the summer solstice, usually around June 21, when most of us are already well into backyard barbecue season. But meteorologists define summer as the season running between June 1 and August 30. Why the disconnect?

There’s a difference between meteorological summer—shorts weather—and astronomical summer, which is based on where the Sun is positioned in relation to the Earth, as Weather Underground explains.

Over the course of the year, the tilt of the Earth means that one hemisphere is closer to the Sun than its counterpart for several months at a time, marking the summer season. When the Northern Hemisphere is closer, from late June to late September, the northern part of the world experiences summer, while the Southern Hemisphere—which is tilted farther away from the Sun—experiences winter. During summer months, the Sun takes a longer path across the sky, resulting in longer daylight hours. The equinoxes mark the days where the ratio of day-to-night stands at exactly 12 hours each, because the Sun is lined up with the equator.

Because the Earth doesn’t take exactly 365 days to travel around the Sun each year, the days that equinoxes and solstices fall on vary slightly year-to-year. Still, they typically take place around March 21 (spring equinox), June 21 (summer solstice), September 22 (autumnal equinox), and December 22 (winter solstice).

That variability makes it difficult to pin the seasons to calendar dates, so we have meteorological seasons. These are the times we normally think of as summer, fall, winter, and spring—the three-month chunks of time that correspond to the changes in the weather. Meteorological summer runs from June 1 to August 31, corresponding to how most people envision the season, running from about Memorial Day to about Labor Day. Fall goes from September 1 to November 30, winter from December 1 to February 28, and spring from March 1 to May 31.

The firm dates of meteorological seasons allow weather forecasters to better observe and predict weather patterns year-to-year, since they’re based on the annual temperature cycle, rather than the exact timing of the Earth’s orbit. Even if daylight hours aren’t yet at their peak in early June, temperatures are still more akin to summer than spring, so it makes sense to call it summer from a weather perspective. When it comes to compiling statistics on temperature and weather patterns for agricultural planning and business, working around the static calendar is a lot easier than trying to deal with the variability of the Sun’s position in the sky.

So yes, even though summer doesn’t technically start until June 21 at 12:24 a.m. Eastern Time, you and your jorts were onto something after all.

[h/t Weather Underground]

This $49 Video Game Design Course Will Teach You Everything From Coding to Digital Art Skills

EvgeniyShkolenko/iStock via Getty Images
EvgeniyShkolenko/iStock via Getty Images

If you spend the bulk of your free time playing video games and want to elevate your hobby into a career, you can take advantage of the School of Game Design’s lifetime membership, which is currently on sale for just $49. You can jump into your education as a beginner, or at any other skill level, to learn what you need to know about game development, design, coding, and artistry skills.

Gaming is a competitive industry, and understanding just programming or just artistry isn’t enough to land a job. The School of Game Design’s lifetime membership is set up to educate you in both fields so your resume and work can stand out.

The lifetime membership that’s currently discounted is intended to allow you to learn at your own pace so you don’t burn out, which would be pretty difficult to do because the lessons have you building advanced games in just your first few hours of learning. The remote classes will train you with step-by-step, hands-on projects that more than 50,000 other students around the world can vouch for.

Once you’ve nailed the basics, the lifetime membership provides unlimited access to thousands of dollars' worth of royalty-free game art and textures to use in your 2D or 3D designs. Support from instructors and professionals with over 16 years of game industry experience will guide you from start to finish, where you’ll be equipped to land a job doing something you truly love.

Earn money doing what you love with an education from the School of Game Design’s lifetime membership, currently discounted at $49.

 

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Snow Kidding: A Polar Vortex Could Hit the Eastern U.S. This Month

You may not want to put your ice scraper away just yet.
You may not want to put your ice scraper away just yet.
Tamara Dragovic/iStock via Getty Images

If you’re in the eastern U.S. and planning some gardening sessions, you might want to double-check the forecast. According to the Washington Post, a polar vortex like the one that hit the U.S. in 2019 is lurking and prepared to unleash chilly air in the eastern half of the country. Some areas can even expect snow—in Pennsylvania, maybe as much as an inch.

Powder is expected in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic areas, with cool temperatures spreading from the Upper Midwest to New England, which might see a topcoat of snow beginning this weekend. Georgia might get some frost. The cold front could experience 20-degree reductions in temperatures, with Minneapolis dropping into the upper 40s and Chicago seeing 45°F.

Areas like Providence, Rhode Island; Hartford, Connecticut; and Boston—normally in the 60s this time of year—might not climb out of the 40s over the weekend. New York City, which has been enjoying temperatures in the 70s, won’t get out of the 50s.

Blame the peculiar weather on the polar vortex, which may be best described as an arctic hurricane that transports freezing air south when warm weather pushes it out of northern Canada, Alaska, or Greenland. In other words: There’s no rush on installing that air conditioner just yet.

[h/t Washington Post]